Last reviewed: 8 Apr 2021
Last updated: 15 Nov 2019



  • Epidemiology
  • Classification
  • Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
  • Atrial septal defect (ASD)
  • Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)
  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
  • Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
  • Pulmonary valve atresia with a VSD
  • Pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum
  • d-Transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA)
  • Truncus arteriosus
  • Ebstein's anomaly
  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC)
  • Tricuspid valve atresia
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS)
  • Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction
  • Aortic coarctation
  • Pulmonary valve stenosis


Consultant in Paediatric and Adolescent Cardiology

Interventional Cardiologist

Honorary Senior Lecturer

Paediatric and Adolescent Cardiology

Great Ormond Street Hospital and Institute of Child Health




SK declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Sachin Khambadkone would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Nathaniel W. Taggart and Dr Frank Cetta, the previous contributors to this topic. NWT and FC declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Attending Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgeon

Medical University of South Carolina Children's Hospital




TYH declares that he has no competing interests.

  • Congenital heart disease images

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