Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect, although still relatively rare. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: facts about congenital heart defects external link opens in a new window Screening for congenital heart disease includes ultrasonography in the second trimester of pregnancy and postnatal clinical examination; however, detection rates are low. Early recognition of congenital heart disease is important because clinical presentation and deterioration may be sudden and some treatable defects may even cause death before diagnosis. The surgical and medical treatment of CHD has markedly improved over the last 50 years. Corrective surgery for intra-cardiac defects first began at the Mayo Clinic and the University of Minnesota in the 1950s. It was the introduction of machines that perfused the vital organs while a surgeon carefully repaired a non-beating heart that revolutionised the field of corrective surgery. Survival well into adulthood is now expected for most babies born with CHD.
For updates on diagnosis and management of coexisting conditions during the pandemic, see our topic 'Management of coexisting conditions in the context of COVID-19'.
- Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
- Atrial septal defect (ASD)
- Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD)
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
- Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC)
- Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
- Pulmonary valve atresia with a VSD
- Pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum
- d-Transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA)
- Truncus arteriosus
- Ebstein's anomaly
- Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC)
- Tricuspid valve atresia
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS)
- Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction
- Aortic coarctation
- Pulmonary valve stenosis
Sachin Khambadkone, MD, DCH, DNB
Consultant in Paediatric and Adolescent Cardiology
Honorary Senior Lecturer
Paediatric and Adolescent Cardiology
Great Ormond Street Hospital and Institute of Child Health
SK declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Sachin Khambadkone would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Nathaniel W. Taggart and Dr Frank Cetta, the previous contributors to this topic. NWT and FC declare that they have no competing interests.
Tain-Yen Hsia, MD
Attending Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgeon
Medical University of South Carolina Children's Hospital
TYH declares that he has no competing interests.
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