Last reviewed: 2 Jul 2021
Last updated: 17 Mar 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • residence in, or travel to, the Middle East (or country where there is an active outbreak) in previous 14 days
  • age >14 years
  • fever
  • cough
  • dyspnoea

Other diagnostic factors

  • haemoptysis
  • diarrhoea
  • abdominal pain
  • nausea/vomiting
  • chills/rigors
  • myalgia
  • arthralgia
  • malaise
  • headache
  • sore throat
  • rhinorrhoea
  • tachypnoea
  • tachycardia
  • cyanosis
  • chest pain
  • crackles/rales on auscultation

Risk factors

  • residence in, or travel to, the Middle East (or country where there is an active outbreak) in previous 14 days
  • close contact with infected individuals
  • exposure to infected dromedary camels
  • age ‚Č•50 years
  • diabetes mellitus
  • chronic renal impairment
  • heart disease
  • obesity
  • tobacco smoking

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • FBC
  • comprehensive metabolic panel
  • pulse oximetry
  • blood cultures
  • real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
  • RT-PCR sequencing assay
  • chest x-ray

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Sarah Shalhoub, MD

Infectious Diseases Consultant

King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital

Jeddah

Saudi Arabia

Disclosures

SS is the author of several references cited in this monograph.

Ali S. Omrani, MBBCh, MSc, FRCP, FRCPath

Adult Infectious Diseases Consultant

King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center

Riyadh

Saudi Arabia

Disclosures

ASO is the author of several references cited in this monograph.

Peer reviewers

Ioannis P. Kioumis, MD, PhD

Associate Professor of Pulmonary Medicine and Infectious Diseases

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Respiratory Medicine Clinic

General Hospital G. Papanikolaou

Thessaloniki

Greece

Disclosures

IPK declares that he has no competing interests.

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD, FACP

Chief

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health

University of Virginia

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

WAP declares that he has no competing interests.

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