Acute onset of severe joint pain.
Swelling, effusion, warmth, erythema, and/or tenderness of the involved joint(s).
Arthrocentesis with synovial fluid analysis shows strongly negative birefringent needle-shaped crystals under polarised light.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, or corticosteroids are used to treat acute disease.
Allopurinol, febuxostat, probenecid, lesinurad, or sulfinpyrazone may be used as uric acid-lowering drugs when long-term prevention of crystal deposition is indicated.
Complications include joint destruction, kidney disease, and urolithiasis.
Gout is a syndrome characterised by: hyperuricaemia and deposition of urate crystals causing attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis; tophi around the joints and possible joint destruction; renal glomerular, tubular and interstitial disease; and uric acid urolithiasis. The disease most commonly affects the first toe (podagra), foot, ankle, knee, fingers, wrist, and elbow; however, it can affect any joint.
History and exam
- older age
- male sex
- menopausal status
- consumption of meat, seafood, alcohol
- use of diuretics
- use of ciclosporin (cyclosporine) or tacrolimus
- use of pyrazinamide
- use of aspirin
- genetic susceptibility
- high cell turnover state
- adiposity and insulin resistance
- renal insufficiency
- diabetes mellitus
Harvard Medical School
Director of the Musculoskeletal Medicine Unit
Department of Orthopedics & Division of Rheumatology
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
FB declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Medicine
VA Medical Center
HRS has been a consultant for a number of pharmaceutical companies that produce drugs that can be used for the treatment of gout. Some companies have supplied HRS with funding. HRS is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
Associate Director of Teaching and Honorary Senior Lecturer in Rheumatology
Academic Rheumatology Group
Faculty of Medicine
University of Sheffield
AA declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Primary Care Research
Warwick Medical School
MU declares that he has no competing interests.
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