Last reviewed: 25 Oct 2020
Last updated: 18 Sep 2018



History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhoea

Other diagnostic factors

  • prodrome of headache, myalgias, chills, fever
  • vomiting

Risk factors

  • HIV infection
  • exposure to poultry, cattle, sheep, or other farm animals
  • eating raw or undercooked meat (especially chicken)
  • recent foreign travel
  • recent travel to developing countries
  • drinking well or surface water
  • drinking unpasteurised milk
  • male sex
  • age <1 year
  • close contact with infected person
  • use of proton pump inhibitors or H2 antagonists, especially in older patients

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • stool microscopy
  • stool culture
  • white blood cell count
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • serum Campylobacter serology
  • intestinal biopsy
  • faecal microscopy
  • stool Gram stain
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm


Professor of Medicine

Rosalind Franklin University Medical School

North Chicago

Illinois Adjunct

Professor of Pediatric Gastroenterology

University of Miami

Miller Medical School



Associate Director for Research

Internal Medicine Residency Advocate

Lutheran General Hospital

Park Ridge



EDE declares that he is a consultant for Pediatric Pharmaceuticals. .

Dr Eli D. Ehrenpreis would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Gregory Juckett, Dr Kristin Furfari and Professor Sarah O'Brien, the previous contributors to this topic. GJ declares that he has no competing interests. KF declares that she has no competing interests. SOB is the author of some of the references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Assistant Professor

Section of Digestive Diseases

Department of Medicine

West Virginia University




JTK declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology

University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Windeyer Institute of Medical Sciences




SMJ declares that he has no competing interests.

Senior Associate

Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health

Bloomberg School of Public Health

Johns Hopkins University




MB declares that he has no competing interests.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer