Last reviewed: 26 Sep 2021
Last updated: 09 Sep 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • rhinorrhoea/congestion
  • tachypnoea
  • immune deficit
  • increased work of breathing
  • cough
  • wheeze
  • poor feeding
  • cyanosis
  • rales
  • apnoea

Risk factors

  • exposure to RSV
  • haemodynamically significant congenital heart disease
  • history of prematurity
  • immune deficit
  • chronic lung disease
  • high-risk infants with no recent immunoprophylaxis against RSV
  • infants aged <6 months
  • winter season
  • older adult age
  • smoke exposure
  • family history of asthma
  • Down's syndrome

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • chest x-ray
  • direct fluorescent antibody staining of respiratory specimen (e.g., nasopharyngeal aspirate)
  • reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of respiratory specimen (e.g., nasopharyngeal aspirate)
  • viral culture of respiratory specimen (e.g., nasopharyngeal aspirate)

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Giovanni Piedimonte, MD, FAAP, FCCP

Vice President for Research

Professor of Pediatrics, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Tulane University School of Medicine

New Orleans

LA

Disclosures

GP declares that he has no competing interests.

Margot Anderson, MD

Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics

Section of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Medicine

Tulane University School of Medicine

Tulane University

New Orleans

LA

Disclosures

MA declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Giovanni Piedimonte and Dr Margot Anderson would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Frank Esper and Dr Melvin L. Wright, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

FE is on an advisory board for Procter and Gamble. MLW declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Leonard R. Krilov, MD

Chief

Pediatric Infectious Disease

Vice Chairman

Department of Pediatrics

Children's Medical Center

Winthrop University Medical Center

Mineola

Professor of Pediatrics

School of Medicine

Stony Brook University Medical Center

Stony Brook

NY

Disclosures

LRK has participated as an investigator in multiple clinical research trials supported by grants from MedImmune. LRK has also served as a consultant to MedImmune on medical advisory boards and is a member of their speakers' bureau.

Robert Welliver, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Women and Children's Hospital

Buffalo

NY

Disclosures

RW declares that he has no competing interests.

Jennifer Handforth, MB ChB, MRCPCH, DTM&H

Consultant Paediatrician

Croydon University Hospital

Croydon

UK

Disclosures

JH declares that she has no competing interests.

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