Last reviewed: 25 Dec 2021
Last updated: 27 May 2021



History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • light-headedness/dizziness
  • postural/orthostatic hypotension
  • dysphagia
  • odynophagia
  • pain
  • melaena
  • haematochezia
  • shock
  • signs of anaemia

Risk factors

  • condition predisposing to retching, vomiting, and/or straining
  • chronic cough
  • hiatal hernia
  • retching during endoscopy or other instrumentation
  • significant alcohol use
  • previous instrumentation
  • age 30 to 50 years
  • male sex
  • aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ingestion
  • hiccups
  • blunt abdominal trauma
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • full blood count (FBC)
  • urea
  • liver function test
  • prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR)
  • partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
  • chest x-ray (CXR)
  • oesophagogastroduodenoscopy
  • cross-matching/blood grouping

Investigations to consider

  • creatinine kinase
  • creatinine kinase-MB
  • troponin
  • ECG
  • angiography

Treatment algorithm



Douglas G. Alder, MD, FACG, AGAF, FASGE

Professor of Medicine

Division of Gastroenterology

Department of Internal Medicine

Huntsman Cancer Institute

University of Utah

Salt Lake City



DGA is a consultant for BSC, Merit, Cook, and Olympus.


Dr Douglas Adler would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Shilpa Reddy and Dr Juan Carlos Munoz, the previous contributors to this topic. SR and JCM declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Joseph Sung, MD

Professor of Medicine

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics


Institute of Digestive Disease

The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Hong Kong


JS declares that he has no competing interests.

Imtiyaz Mohammed, MD

Consultant Gastroenterologist

Sandwell General Hospital


West Bromwich



IM declares that he has no competing interests.

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