Trichinellosis

Last reviewed: 29 Oct 2022
Last updated: 27 Jul 2022

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • consumption of raw or under-cooked meat
  • sick contacts
  • myalgia and myositis
  • fever
  • peri-orbital/facial oedema
  • conjunctivitis and sub-conjunctival haemorrhages
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • subungual and retinal splinter haemorrhages
  • other ocular features
  • gastrointestinal signs and symptoms
  • hepatomegaly
  • oliguria
  • maculopapular rash
  • other cutaneous features
  • dysphagia
  • dysphonia
  • dyspnoea
  • headache
  • paralysis-like state
  • other neurological features
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • consumption of raw or under-cooked pork
  • consumption of raw or under-cooked horse or other domestic animal meat
  • consumption of raw or under-cooked wild game meat
  • consumption of raw or under-cooked reptile meat
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • FBC with differential
  • creatine kinase and other muscle enzymes
  • serum potassium
  • serum albumin
  • serum IgE
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • antibody serology
  • muscle biopsy
  • electromyography
  • urinalysis
  • serum creatinine and creatinine clearance
  • serum transaminases
  • MRI or CT brain
  • EEG
  • cerebrospinal fluid analysis
  • ECG
  • serum troponin
  • Two-dimensional echocardiography
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

non-pregnant adults

pregnant

children

Contributors

Authors

Miguel G. Madariaga, MD, MSc, FACP
Miguel G. Madariaga

Infectious Diseases Consultant

Naples Community Hospital

Naples

FL

Disclosures

MGM declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Fabrizio Bruschi, MD

Professor of Parasitology

Department of Experimental Pathology BMIE

Faculty of Medicine and Surgery

University of Pisa

Pisa

Italy

Disclosures

FB is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Jean Dupouy-Camet, MD, PhD

Chef du Service de Parasitologie-Mycologie

Hôpital Cochin

Paris

France

Disclosures

JDC is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. JDC declares that he has no competing interests.

Christopher D. Huston, MD

Associate Professor

Division of Infectious Diseases

Department of Medicine

University of Vermont College of Medicine

Burlington

VT

Disclosures

CDH declares that he has no competing interests.

  • Trichinellosis images
  • Differentials

    • Bacterial gastroenteritis
    • Respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infections
    • Glomerulonephritis
    More Differentials
  • Guidelines

    • International Commission on Trichinellosis: recommendations on the use of serological tests for the detection of 
    • FAO/WHO/OIE guidelines for the surveillance, management, prevention and control of trichinellosis
    More Guidelines
  • Patient leaflets

    Diarrhoea in adults

    Diarrhoea in children

    More Patient leaflets
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