Transverse myelitis

Last reviewed: 27 Aug 2022
Last updated: 22 Sep 2020

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • age 10-19 or 30-39 years
  • motor weakness
  • paraesthesias or sensory loss
  • bladder symptoms: urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence, or retention
  • bowel symptoms: incontinence or constipation
  • L'hermitte sign
  • McArdle's sign
  • paroxysmal tonic spasms
  • upper motor neuron signs: hyper-reflexia, positive Babinski's sign, limb spasticity
  • sensory loss/sensory level
  • dyspnoea/respiratory distress
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • back pain
  • trunk/limb pain
  • areflexia/hyporeflexia
  • hiccups
  • nausea/vomiting
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • preceding infectious illness
  • recent vaccination
  • female sex
  • history of recent physical trauma
  • spinal injection
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • MRI spinal cord
  • MRI brain
  • serum aquaporin-4 auto-antibodies and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein auto-antibodies
  • cerebrospinal fluid cell count, cell differential, protein level, IgG index, oligoclonal bands
  • cerebrospinal fluid Gram stain, cultures (bacterial, tubercular, fungal), and India ink smear
  • cerebrospinal fluid, polymerase chain reaction for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and West Nile virus
  • cerebrospinal fluid Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test
  • serum anti-nuclear antibody, double-stranded DNA
  • extractable nuclear antigen (including SSA and SSB)
  • serum and cerebrospinal fluid paraneoplastic auto-antibodies
  • other neural auto-antibodies
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • serum and cerebrospinal fluid angiotensin-converting enzyme
  • chest x-ray
  • CT body (chest, abdomen, and pelvis)
  • whole-body PET scan
  • cerebrospinal fluid cytology and flow cytometry
  • serology for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and West Nile virus
  • urinalysis
  • HIV antibodies
  • visual-evoked potential
  • optical coherence tomography
  • therapeutic trial with corticosteroid
  • spinal cord biopsy
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

acute neurological deficits

ONGOING

idiopathic TM

at risk for multiple sclerosis (typical demyelinating lesions on MRI)

aquaporin-4 auto-antibody seropositive

myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG auto-antibody seropositive

Contributors

Authors

Cristina Valencia-Sanchez, MD, PhD

Department of Neurology

Mayo Clinic

Scottsdale

AZ

Disclosures

CVS declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Cristina Valencia-Sanchez would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Dean Wingerchuk, the previous contributor to this topic. DMW has received compensation from MedImmune for service on a clinical trial adjudication committee, from Caladrius for consulting services, and research support paid to Mayo Clinic from Alexion and TerumoBCT. DMW is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewers

Alireza Minagar, MD

Assistant Professor of Neurology

LSU Health Sciences Center

Shreveport

LA

Disclosures

AM declares that he has no competing interests.

Cory Toth, BSc, MD, FRCP(C)

Assistant Professor of Neurosciences

Hotchkiss Brain Institute

University of Calgary

Alberta

Canada

Disclosures

CT declares that he has no competing interests.

Abhijit Chaudhuri, DM, MD, PhD, FACP, FRCP

Consultant Neurologist

Clinical Director of Neurosciences

Department of Neurology

Queen's Hospital

Romford

UK

Disclosures

AC declares that he has no competing interests.

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