Common condition provoked by transportation or visual motion.
Characterised by nausea/vomiting, possibly accompanied by other symptoms such as dizziness or headache.
Controlled breathing is helpful during episodes.
Drug therapy includes antimuscarinics or antihistamines, both of which may have significant adverse effects (notably drowsiness) and impede habituation.
Habituation (desensitisation) and cognitive behavioural therapy may be useful for people who must undergo repeated provocative motion (e.g., for their occupations).
Motion sickness is characterised by stomach discomfort, nausea, and vomiting, accompanied by autonomic features such as pallor and sweating. Vomiting often provides temporary or permanent relief of these symptoms. Once a certain level of nausea is attained, vomiting is almost inevitable, even if the patient is removed from the motion environment.
The rate at which motion sickness develops varies with the intensity of motion. Nausea leading to vomiting may develop within a few minutes if the provocative motion stimulus is intense, whereas with moderately provocative motion the onset of nausea is delayed, and vomiting may not necessarily occur. If motion is sustained, as on a long sea voyage, most subjects develop some habituation and become less susceptible to motion sickness. Similarly, frequent short exposures to provocative motion lead to a protective habituation, although the ability to adapt is marked by substantial individual differences. With infrequent exposures the protective value of habituating experiences is lost, and the subject returns to baseline levels of susceptibility.
History and exam
- childhood age
- female sex
- Chinese ancestry
- FHx of motion sickness
- hx of migraine
- visual disorder
- alcohol use
- spatial disorientation and space-motion discomfort syndromes
- hormonal factors
- unpleasant odours/sight or smell of vomit
- conflicting sensory inputs (e.g., reading in car, tilting trains)
- psychological factors
- spatially loaded concurrent tasks
- neurological disorder
Professor (Section Head Gastroenterology)
Wake Forest University
Health Sciences Center
KLK is an author of several references cited in this topic.
Dr Kenneth L. Koch would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael Andrew Gresty, a previous contributor to this monograph. MAG is an author of several references cited in this monograph.
Visiting Consultant to the Royal Air Force Centre for Aviation Medicine
Royal Air Force Henlow
AJB declares that he has no competing interests.
Lecturer in Human Cardiorespiratory and Aerospace Physiology
Division of Applied Biomedical Research
Department of Physiology
King's College London
DAG declares that he has no competing interests.
Department of Neurology
MVB declares that he has no competing interests.
Otolaryngology and Neurology
Harvard Medical School
RL declares that he has no competing interests.
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