最近审阅: 27 十月 2020
最近更新: 27 三月 2019

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 劳力性呼吸困难

其他诊断因素

  • 端坐呼吸
  • 阵发性夜间呼吸困难
  • 腹胀
  • 啰音
  • 颈静脉怒张
  • 肝颈静脉回流征
  • 充血性肝肿大
  • 下肢水肿
  • 心尖搏动向外侧移位
  • 奔马律

危险因素

  • 高血压
  • 女性
  • 年龄>70 岁
  • 肥胖
  • 冠状动脉疾病/缺血
  • 糖尿病
  • 慢性肾病
  • 心肌和心包疾病
  • 阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 血清电解质
  • 肾功能检查
  • 肝酶
  • B型脑钠肽(BNP)/氨基端B型脑钠肽前体(NT-pro-BNP)
  • 全血细胞计数 (FBC)
  • 12 导联心电图
  • 胸部 X 线检查 (CXR)
  • 多普勒超声心动图
  • 组织多普勒成像(TDI)
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 心脏磁共振 (CMR) 成像
  • CT 血管造影术
  • 放射性核素心室造影术(MUGA扫描)
  • 负荷试验
  • 心脏导管检查和冠状动脉造影术
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Consultant Cardiologist

Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

利益声明

GCW has been reimbursed by Pfizer, Astra Zenica, Bayer, Medtronic, St Jude, and Sanofi for attending conferences. He has attended Advisory Boards for Medtronic, St Jude, Novartis, Shire, Sanofi and Servier, and has a joint working venture with Novartis for a community pharmacist post.

Cardiology Specialist Registrar

Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

利益声明

JW declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Gerald Carr-White and Dr Jessica Webb would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Gerard Aurigemma, Dr Lokesh Tejwani, Dr Marc E. Del Rosario, and Dr Kul Aggarwal, previous contributors to this topic. GA, LT, MEDR, and KA declare that they have no competing interests.

同行评议者展开全部内容

Professor of Medicine

Cardiovascular Division

Washington University School of Medicine

St. Louis

MO

利益声明

EG has lectured for Novartis, Forest, Merck, and Pfizer.

Consultant Cardiologist

Darlington Memorial Hospital

Darlington

UK

利益声明

Not disclosed.

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