急性外伤性脑损伤评估

参考文献

关键文献

Carney N, Totten AM, O'Reilly C, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury, fourth edition. Neurosurgery. 2017 Jan 1;80(1):6-15.全文  摘要

Maas AI, Stocchetti N, Bullock R. Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Aug;7(8):728-41. 摘要

Badjatia N, Carney N, Crocco TJ, et al; Brain Trauma Foundation; BTF Center for Guidelines Management. Guidelines for prehospital management of traumatic brain injury 2nd edition. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2008;12(suppl 1):S1-52.全文  摘要

Pandor A, Goodacre S, Harnan S, et al. Diagnostic management strategies for adults and children with minor head injury: a systematic review and an economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2011 Aug;15(27):1-202.全文  摘要

Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on the diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury among children. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Nov 1;172(11):e182853.全文  摘要

参考文献

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. Surveillance report of traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths - United States, 2014. 2019 [internet publication].全文

2. Scorza KA, Cole W. Current concepts in concussion: Initial evaluation and management. Am Fam Physician. 2019 Apr 1;99(7):426-434.全文  摘要

3. McCrea HJ, Perrine K, Niogi S, et al. Concussion in sports. Sports Health. 2013 Mar;5(2):160-4.全文  摘要

4. Tenovuo O, Diaz-Arrastia R, Goldstein LE, et al. Assessing the severity of traumatic brain injury-Time for a change? J Clin Med. 2021 Jan 4;10(1):.全文  摘要

5. Carney N, Totten AM, O'Reilly C, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury, fourth edition. Neurosurgery. 2017 Jan 1;80(1):6-15.全文  摘要

6. Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen K, et al. The Canadian CT head rule for patients with minor head injury. Lancet. 2001;357(9266):1391-6. 摘要

7. Smits M, Dippel DW, Steyerberg EW, et al. Predicting intracranial traumatic findings on computed tomography in patients with minor head injury: the CHIP prediction rule. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Mar 20;146(6):397-405. 摘要

8. Ibañez J, Arikan F, Pedraza S, et al. Reliability of clinical guidelines in the detection of patients at risk following mild head injury: results of a prospective study. J Neurosurg. 2004 May;100(5):825-34. 摘要

9. Türedi S, Hasanbasoglu A, Gunduz A, et al. Clinical decision instruments for CT scan in minor head trauma. J Emerg Med. 2008 Apr;34(3):253-9. 摘要

10. Pearson WS, Ovalle F Jr, Faul M, et al. A review of traumatic brain injury trauma center visits meeting physiologic criteria from the american college of surgeons committee on trauma/centers for disease control and prevention field triage guidelines. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2012 Jul-Sep;16(3):323-8. 摘要

11. Mena JH, Sanchez AI, Rubiano AM, et al. Effect of the modified Glasgow Coma Scale score criteria for mild traumatic brain injury on mortality prediction: comparing classic and modified Glasgow Coma Scale score model scores of 13. J Trauma. 2011 Nov;71(5):1185-92; discussion 1193. 摘要

12. New South Wales Ministry of Health. Closed head injury in adults - initial management. Feb 2012 [internet publication].全文

13. Malec JF, Brown AW, Leibson CL, et al. The Mayo classification system for traumatic brain injury severity. J Neurotrauma. 2007 Sep;24(9):1417-24. 摘要

14. Ling G, Bandak F, Armonda R, et al. Explosive blast neurotrauma. J Neurotrauma. 2009 Jun;26(6):815-25. 摘要

15. Maas AI, Stocchetti N, Bullock R. Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Aug;7(8):728-41. 摘要

16. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Head injury: assessment and early management. Sep 2019 [internet publication].全文

17. Maas AIR, Menon DK, Adelson PD, et al; InTBIR Participants and Investigators. Traumatic brain injury: integrated approaches to improve prevention, clinical care, and research. Lancet Neurol. 2017 Dec;16(12):987-1048. 摘要

18. Kay A, Teasdale G. Head injury in the United Kingdom. World J Surg. 2001 Sep;25(9):1210-20.全文  摘要

19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: Emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002-2006 (Blue Book). Mar 2010 [internet publication].全文

20. Lumba-Brown A, Teramoto M, Bloom OJ, et al. Concussion guidelines step 2: Evidence for subtype classification. Neurosurgery. 2020 Jan 1;86(1):2-13.全文  摘要

21. World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. 1992 [internet publication].全文

22. DePadilla L, Miller GF, Jones SE, et al. Self-reported concussions from playing a sport or being physically active among high school students - United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jun 22;67(24):682-5.全文  摘要

23. Zemek R, Barrowman N, Freedman SB, et al. Clinical risk score for persistent postconcussion symptoms among children with acute concussion in the ED. JAMA. 2016 Mar 8;315(10):1014-25. 摘要

24. de Koning ME, Scheenen ME, van der Horn HJ, et al. Non-hospitalized patients with mild traumatic brain injury: the forgotten minority. J Neurotrauma. 2017 Jan 1;34(1):257-61. 摘要

25. Steyerberg EW, Mushkudiani N, Perel P, et al. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: development and international validation of prognostic scores based on admission characteristics. PLoS Med. 2008 Aug 5;5(8):e165.全文  摘要

26. Roberts I, Yates D, Sandercock P, et al; CRASH trial collaborators. Effect of intravenous corticosteroids on death within 14 days in 10008 adults with clinically significant head injury (MRC CRASH trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Oct 9-15;364(9442):1321-8. 摘要

27. Kramer DR, Winer JL, Pease BA, et al. Cerebral vasospasm in traumatic brain injury. Neurol Res Int. 2013;2013:415813.全文  摘要

28. Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al; Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Author Group. Surgical management of acute subdural hematomas. Neurosurgery. 2006 Mar;58(3 suppl):S16-24. 摘要

29. Iaccarino C, Schiavi P, Picetti E, et al. Patients with brain contusions: predictors of outcome and relationship between radiological and clinical evolution. J Neurosurg. 2014 Apr;120(4):908-18. 摘要

30. van Eijck MM, Schoonman GG, van der Naalt J, et al. Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic brain injury is a prognostic factor for functional outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Inj. 2018;32(4):395-402. 摘要

31. Skandsen T, Kvistad KA, Solheim O, et al. Prevalence and impact of diffuse axonal injury in patients with moderate and severe head injury: a cohort study of early magnetic resonance imaging findings and 1-year outcome. J Neurosurg. 2010 Sep;113(3):556-63. 摘要

32. Cripps MW, Ereso AQ, Sadjadi J, et al. The number of gunshot wounds does not predict injury severity and mortality. Am Surg. 2009 Jan;75(1):44-8. 摘要

33. DuBose JJ, Barmparas G, Inaba K, et al. Isolated severe traumatic brain injuries sustained during combat operations: demographics, mortality outcomes, and lessons to be learned from contrasts to civilian counterparts. J Trauma. 2011 Jan;70(1):11-8. 摘要

34. MRC CRASH Trial Collaborators; Perel P, Arango M, Clayton T, et al. Predicting outcome after traumatic brain injury: practical prognostic models based on large cohort of international patients. BMJ. 2008 Feb 23;336(7641):425-9.全文  摘要

35. Halstead ME, Walter KD, Moffatt K, et al. Sport-related concussion in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2018 Dec;142(6):e20183074.全文  摘要

36. Servadei F, Murray GD, Teasdale GM, et al. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: demographic and clinical study of 750 patients from the European brain injury consortium survey of head injuries. Neurosurgery. 2002 Feb;50(2):261-9. 摘要

37. Taber KH, Warden DL, Hurley RA. Blast-related traumatic brain injury: what is known? J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006 Spring;18(2):141-5. 摘要

38. Committee on Trauma, American College of Surgeons. ATLS: Advanced trauma life support program for doctors. 10th ed. Chicago, IL: American College of Surgeons; 2018.

39. Sarrafzadeh AS, Peltonen EE, Kaisers U, et al. Secondary insults in severe head injury - do multiply injured patients do worse? Crit Care Med. 2001 Jun;29(6):1116-23. 摘要

40. Holly LT, Kelly DF, Counelis GJ, et al. Cervical spine trauma associated with moderate and severe head injury: incidence, risk factors, and injury characteristics. J Neurosurg. 2002 Apr;96(3 suppl):285-91. 摘要

41. Lott C, Araujo R, Cassar MR, et al. The European Trauma Course (ETC) and the team approach: past, present and future. Resuscitation. 2009 Oct;80(10):1192-6. 摘要

42. Warner KJ, Cuschieri J, Copass MK, et al. The impact of prehospital ventilation on outcome after severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2007 Jun;62(6):1330-8. 摘要

43. Badjatia N, Carney N, Crocco TJ, et al; Brain Trauma Foundation; BTF Center for Guidelines Management. Guidelines for prehospital management of traumatic brain injury 2nd edition. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2008;12(suppl 1):S1-52.全文  摘要

44. American College of Surgeons: ACS TQIP best practices in the management of traumatic brain injury. Jan 2015 [internet publication].全文

45. Davis DP. Early ventilation in traumatic brain injury. Resuscitation. 2008 Mar;76(3):333-40. 摘要

46. Davis DP, Dunford JV, Ochs M, et al. The use of quantitative end-tidal capnometry to avoid inadvertent severe hyperventilation in patients with head injury after paramedic rapid sequence intubation. J Trauma. 2004 Apr;56(4):808-14. 摘要

47. Marmarou A, Saad A, Aygok G, et al. Contribution of raised ICP and hypotension to CPP reduction in severe brain injury: correlation to outcome. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2005;95:277-80. 摘要

48. Manley G, Knudson MM, Morabito D, et al. Hypotension, hypoxia, and head injury: frequency, duration, and consequences. Arch Surg. 2001 Oct;136(10):1118-23.全文  摘要

49. Chesnut RM, Marshall LF, Klauber MR, et al. The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury. J Trauma. 1993 Feb;34(2):216-22. 摘要

50. Kokoska ER, Smith GS, Pittman T, et al. Early hypotension worsens neurological outcome in pediatric patients with moderately severe head trauma. J Pediatr Surg. 1998 Feb;33(2):333-8. 摘要

51. Berry C, Ley EJ, Bukur M, et al. Redefining hypotension in traumatic brain injury. Injury. 2012 Nov;43(11):1833-7. 摘要

52. Johnson MA, Borgman MA, Cannon JW, et al. Severely Elevated Blood Pressure and Early Mortality in Children with Traumatic Brain Injuries: The Neglected End of the Spectrum. West J Emerg Med. 2018 May;19(3):452-459.全文  摘要

53. Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer S, et al. SAFE Study Investigators; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group; Australian Red Cross Blood Service; George Institute for International Health. Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 30;357(9):874-84.全文  摘要

54. Spahn DR, Bouillon B, Cerny V, et al. The European guideline on management of major bleeding and coagulopathy following trauma: fifth edition. Crit Care. 2019 Mar 27;23(1):98.全文  摘要

55. Singh B, Murad MH, Prokop LJ, et al. Meta-analysis of Glasgow coma scale and simplified motor score in predicting traumatic brain injury outcomes. Brain Inj. 2013;27(3):293-300.全文  摘要

56. Kupas DF, Melnychuk EM, Young AJ. Glasgow Coma Scale motor component ("patient does not follow commands") performs similarly to total Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting severe injury in trauma patients. Ann Emerg Med. 2016 Dec;68(6):744-50.全文  摘要

57. Nyam TE, Ao KH, Hung SY, et al. FOUR score predicts early outcome in patients after traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care. 2017 Apr;26(2):225-31. 摘要

58. Kasprowicz M, Burzynska M, Melcer T, et al. A comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Score(GCS) in predictive modelling in traumatic brain injury. Br J Neurosurg. 2016;30(2):211-20. 摘要

59. Meyer S, Gibb T, Jurkovich GJ. Evaluation and significance of the pupillary light reflex in trauma patients. Ann Emerg Med. 1993 Jun;22(6):1052-7. 摘要

60. CRASH-2 collaborators., Roberts I, Shakur H, et al. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Mar 26;377(9771):1096-101, 1101.e1-2.全文  摘要

61. CRASH-3 trial collaborators. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, disability, vascular occlusive events and other morbidities in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (CRASH-3): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2019 Nov 9;394(10210):1713-23.全文  摘要

62. Rowell SE, Meier EN, McKnight B, et al. Effect of out-of-hospital tranexamic acid vs placebo on 6-Month functional neurologic outcomes in patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. JAMA. 2020 Sep 8;324(10):961-974.全文  摘要

63. Bossers SM, Loer SA, Bloemers FW, et al. Association between prehospital tranexamic acid administration and outcomes of severe traumatic brain injury. JAMA Neurol. 2021 Mar 1;78(3):338-345.全文  摘要

64. Haddad SH, Arabi YM. Critical care management of severe traumatic brain injury in adults. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012 Feb 3;20:12.全文  摘要

65. Alarcon JD, Rubiano AM, Okonkwo DO, et al. Elevation of the head during intensive care management in people with severe traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database of Sys Rev. 2017 Dec 28;12(12):CD009986.全文  摘要

66. Chen H, Song Z, Dennis JA. Hypertonic saline versus other intracranial pressure-lowering agents for people with acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jan 17;(1):CD010904.全文  摘要

67. Mellion SA, Bennett KS, Ellsworth GL, et al. High-dose barbiturates for refractory intracranial hypertension in children with severe traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Mar;14(3):239-47. 摘要

68. Brain Trauma Foundation., American Association of Neurological Surgeons., Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24 Suppl 1:S1-106.全文  摘要

69. Shen L, Wang Z, Su Z, et al. Effects of Intracranial Pressure Monitoring on Mortality in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11(12):e0168901.全文  摘要

70. Sahuquillo J, Dennis JA. Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of high intracranial pressure in closed traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 31;12:CD003983.全文  摘要

71. Clifton GL, Valadka A, Zygun D, et al. Very early hypothermia induction in patients with severe brain injury (the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia II): a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Feb;10(2):131-9. 摘要

72. Cooper DJ, Nichol AD, Bailey M, et al; POLAR Trial Investigators and the ANZICS Clinical Trials Group. Effect of early sustained prophylactic hypothermia on neurologic outcomes among patients with severe traumatic brain injury: the POLAR randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2018 Dec 4;320(21):2211-20.全文  摘要

73. Dowlatshahi D, Butcher KS, Asdaghi N, et al. Poor prognosis in warfarin-associated intracranial hemorrhage despite anticoagulation reversal. Stroke. 2012 Jul;43(7):1812-7.全文  摘要

74. Sun Y, Wang J, Wu X, et al. Validating the incidence of coagulopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with traumatic brain injury - analysis of 242 cases. Br J Neurosurg. 2011 Jun;25(3):363-8. 摘要

75. Cuker A, Burnett A, Triller D, et al. Reversal of direct oral anticoagulants: Guidance from the Anticoagulation Forum. Am J Hematol. 2019 Jun;94(6):697-709.全文  摘要

76. Jagoda AS, Bazarian JJ, Bruns JJ Jr, et al. Clinical policy: neuroimaging and decisionmaking in adult mild traumatic brain injury in the acute setting. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Dec;52(6):714-48.全文  摘要

77. Vos PE, Alekseenko Y, Battistin L, et al. Mild traumatic brain injury. Eur J Neurol. 2012 Feb;19(2):191-8.全文  摘要

78. Fuller GW, Evans R, Preston L, et al. Should adults with mild head injury who are receiving direct oral anticoagulants undergo computed tomography scanning? A Systematic Review. Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Jan;73(1):66-75.全文  摘要

79. Murray GD, Butcher I, McHugh GS, et al. Multivariable prognostic analysis in traumatic brain injury: results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma. 2007 Feb;24(2):329-37. 摘要

80. Laroche M, Kutcher ME, Huang MC, et al. Coagulopathy after traumatic brain injury. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jun;70(6):1334-45. 摘要

81. Brown CV, Sowery L, Curry E, et al. Recombinant factor VIIa to correct coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury presenting to outlying facilities before transfer to the regional trauma center. Am Surg. 2012 Jan;78(1):57-60. 摘要

82. Easter JS, Haukoos JS, Claud J, et al. Traumatic intracranial injury in intoxicated patients with minor head trauma. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Aug;20(8):753-60.全文  摘要

83. Maguire SA, Watts PO, Shaw AD, et al. Retinal haemorrhages and related findings in abusive and non-abusive head trauma: a systematic review. Eye (Lond). 2013 Jan;27(1):28-36.全文  摘要

84. Hoffmann M, Lefering R, Rueger JM, et al. Pupil evaluation in addition to Glasgow Coma Scale components in prediction of traumatic brain injury and mortality. Br J Surg. 2012 Jan;99(suppl 1):122-30. 摘要

85. Compagnone C, d'Avella D, Servadei F, et al. Patients with moderate head injury: a prospective multicenter study of 315 patients. Neurosurgery. 2009 Apr;64(4):690-6; discussion 696-7. 摘要

86. Stuke L, Diaz-Arrastia R, Gentilello LM, et al. Effect of alcohol on Glasgow Coma Scale in head-injured patients. Ann Surg. 2007 Apr;245(4):651-5.全文  摘要

87. Lange RT, Iverson GL, Brubacher JR, et al. Effect of blood alcohol level on Glasgow Coma Scale scores following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2010;24(7-8):919-27. 摘要

88. Gill MR, Reiley DG, Green SM. Interrater reliability of Glasgow Coma Scale scores in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2004 Feb;43(2):215-23. 摘要

89. Tesseris J, Pantazidis N, Routsi C, et al. A comparative study of the Reaction Level Scale (RLS 85) with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Edinburgh-2 Coma Scale (Modified) (E2CS(M)). Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1991;110(1-2):65-76. 摘要

90. Elliott M. Interrater reliability of the Glasgow Coma Scale. J Neurosci Nurs. 1996 Aug;28(4):213-4. 摘要

91. Lindsay KW, Teasdale GM, Knill-Jones RP. Observer variability in assessing the clinical features of subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 1983 Jan;58(1):57-62. 摘要

92. Menegazzi J, Davis EA, Sucov AN, et al. Reliability of the Glasgow Coma Scale when used by emergency physicians and paramedics. J Trauma. 1993 Jan;34(1):46-8. 摘要

93. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: head trauma. 2020 [internet publication].全文

94. Shetty VS, Reis MN, Aulino JM, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Head Trauma. J Am Coll Radiol. 2016 Jun;13(6):668-79.全文  摘要

95. Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al; Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury Author Group. Surgical management of traumatic parenchymal lesions. Neurosurgery. 2006 Mar;58(3 suppl):S25-46; discussion Si-iv. 摘要

96. Expert Panel on Pediatric Imaging., Ryan ME, Pruthi S, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Head Trauma-Child. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 May;17(5s):S125-S137.全文  摘要

97. Lindberg DM, Stence NV, Grubenhoff JA, et al. Feasibility and Accuracy of Fast MRI Versus CT for Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children. Pediatrics. 2019 Oct;144(4):.全文  摘要

98. Geeraerts T, Velly L, Abdennour L, et al. Management of severe traumatic brain injury (first 24hours). Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2018 Apr;37(2):171-186.全文  摘要

99. Roldán M, Abay TY, Kyriacou PA. Non-invasive techniques for multimodal monitoring in traumatic brain injury: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurotrauma. 2020 Dec 1;37(23):2445-2453.全文  摘要

100. Ruff RM, Iverson GL, Barth JT, et al; NAN Policy and Planning Committee. Recommendations for diagnosing a mild traumatic brain injury: a National Academy of Neuropsychology education paper. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2009 Feb;24(1):3-10. 摘要

101. Aoki Y, Inokuchi R, Gunshin M, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging studies of mild traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012 Sep;83(9):870-6.全文  摘要

102. Kraus MF, Susmaras T, Caughlin BP, et al. White matter integrity and cognition in chronic traumatic brain injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Brain. 2007 Oct;130(Pt 10):2508-19.全文  摘要

103. Pandor A, Goodacre S, Harnan S, et al. Diagnostic management strategies for adults and children with minor head injury: a systematic review and an economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2011 Aug;15(27):1-202.全文  摘要

104. Stiell IG, Clement CM, Rowe BH, et al. Comparison of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria in patients with minor head injury. JAMA. 2005 Sep 28;294(12):1511-8.全文  摘要

105. Stein SC, Fabbri A, Servadei F, et al. A critical comparison of clinical decision instruments for computed tomographic scanning in mild closed traumatic brain injury in adolescents and adults. Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Feb;53(2):180-8. 摘要

106. Smits M, Dippel DW, de Haan GG, et al. External validation of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for CT scanning in patients with minor head injury. JAMA. 2005 Sep 28;294(12):1519-25.全文  摘要

107. Papa L, Stiell IG, Clement CM, et al. Performance of the Canadian CT Head Rule and the New Orleans Criteria for predicting any traumatic intracranial injury on computed tomography in a United States Level I trauma center. Acad Emerg Med. 2012 Jan;19(1):2-10.全文  摘要

108. Haydel MJ, Preston CA, Mills TJ, et al. Indications for computed tomography in patients with minor head injury. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 13;343(2):100-5.全文  摘要

109. Lumba-Brown A, Yeates KO, Sarmiento K, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on the diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury among children. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Nov 1;172(11):e182853.全文  摘要

110. Kuppermann N, Holmes JF, Dayan PS, et al. Identification of children at very low risk of clinically-important brain injuries after head trauma: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2009 Oct 3;374(9696):1160-70. 摘要

111. Osmond MH, Klassen TP, Wells GA, et al. CATCH: a clinical decision rule for the use of computed tomography in children with minor head injury. CMAJ. 2010 Mar 9;182(4):341-8.全文  摘要

112. Dunning J, Daly JP, Lomas JP, et al. Derivation of the children's head injury algorithm for the prediction of important clinical events decision rule for head injury in children. Arch Dis Child. 2006 Nov;91(11):885-91.全文  摘要

113. Babl FE, Borland ML, Phillips N, et al. Accuracy of PECARN, CATCH, and CHALICE head injury decision rules in children: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2017 Jun 17;389(10087):2393-402. 摘要

114. Almenawer SA, Bogza I, Yarascavitch B, et al. The value of scheduled repeat cranial computed tomography after mild head injury: single-center series and meta-analysis. Neurosurgery. 2013 Jan;72(1):56-62; discussion 63-4. 摘要

115. Graham R, Rivara F, Ford M. Sports-Related Concussions in Youth: Improving the Science, Changing the Culture. National Academies Press; 2014.全文

116. Blostein P, Jones SJ. Identification and evaluation of patients with mild traumatic brain injury: results of a national survey of level I trauma centers. J Trauma. 2003 Sep;55(3):450-3. 摘要

117. Servadei F, Teasdale G, Merry G. Defining acute mild head injury in adults: a proposal based on prognostic factors, diagnosis, and management. J Neurotrauma. 2001 Jul;18(7):657-64. 摘要

118. Ropper AH, Gorson KC. Clinical practice: concussion. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 11;356(2):166-72. 摘要

119. Provenzale J. CT and MR imaging of acute cranial trauma. Emerg Radiol. 2007 Apr;14(1):1-12. 摘要

120. Graham DI, Gennarelli TA. Trauma. In: Graham DI, Lantos PL, eds. Greenfield's neuropathology. 6th ed. London: Edward Arnold; 1997:197-248.

121. Sommargren CE. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Am J Crit Care. 2002 Jan;11(1):48-56. 摘要

122. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Report to Congress on mild traumatic brain injury in the United States: steps to prevent a serious public health problem. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003.全文

123. Carroll LJ, Cassidy JD, Holm L, et al. Methodological issues and research recommendations for mild traumatic brain injury: the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Rehabil Med. 2004 Feb;(43 suppl):113-25. 摘要

内容使用需遵循免责声明