糖尿病酮症酸中毒

参考文献

关键文献

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, et al. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul;32(7):1335-43.全文  摘要

Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. June 2021 [internet publication].全文

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. Aug 2022 [internet publication].全文

参考文献

1. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, et al. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul;32(7):1335-43.全文  摘要

2. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. June 2021 [internet publication].全文

3. British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes. BSPED interim guideline for the management of children and young people under the age of 18 years with diabetic ketoacidosis. April 2020 [internet publication].全文

4. Misra S, Oliver NS. Diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. BMJ. 2015 Oct 28;351:h5660. 摘要

5. Balasubramanyam A, Nalini R, Hampe CS, et al. Syndromes of ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. Endocr Rev. 2008;29:292-302.全文  摘要

6. Umpierrez GE, Woo W, Hagopian WA, et al. Immunogenetic analysis suggests different pathogenesis for obese and lean African-Americans with diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 1999 Sep;22(9):1517-23. 摘要

7. Mauvais-Jarvis F, Sobngwi E, Porcher R, et al. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes in patients of sub-Saharan African origin: clinical pathophysiology and natural history of beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2004;53:645-653.全文  摘要

8. Umpierrez GE, Smiley D, Kitabchi AE. Narrative review: ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:350-357. 摘要

9. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Fisher JN, et al. Thirty years of personal experience in hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1541-1552. 摘要

10. Zhong VW, Juhaeri J, Mayer-Davis EJ. Trends in hospital admission for diabetic ketoacidosis in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England, 1998-2013: A retrospective cohort study. Diabetes Care. 2018 Sep;41(9):1870-7. 摘要

11. Henriksen OM, Roder ME, Prahl JB, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis in Denmark. Incidence and mortality estimated from public health registries. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Apr;76(1):51-6. 摘要

12. Rodacki M, Pereira JR, Nabuco de Oliveira AM. Ethnicity and young age influence the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis at the onset of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;78(2):259-62. 摘要

13. Benoit SR, Zhang Y, Geiss LS, et al. Trends in diabetic ketoacidosis hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality - United States, 2000-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 30;67(12):362-365.全文  摘要

14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report, 2017. February 2018 [internet publication].全文

15. Gosmanov AR, Gosmanova EO, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS). In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., eds. Endotext. South Dartmouth, MA: MDText.com, Inc.; 2018.全文

16. Umpierrez G, Korytkowski M. Diabetic emergencies - ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state and hypoglycaemia. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2016 Apr;12(4):222-32. 摘要

17. Karslioglu French E, Donihi AC, Korytkowski MT. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome: review of acute decompensated diabetes in adult patients. BMJ. 2019 May 29;365:l1114.全文  摘要

18. Wachtel TJ, Silliman RA, Lamberton P. Prognostic factors in the diabetic hyperosmolar state. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1987 Aug;35(8):737-41. 摘要

19. Peters AL, Buschur EO, Buse JB, et al. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a potential complication of treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. Diabetes Care. 2015 Sep;38(9):1687-93. 摘要

20. Kum-Nji JS, Gosmanov AR, Steinberg H, et al. Hyperglycemic, high anion-gap metabolic acidosis in patients receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors for diabetes management. J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Mar;31(3):611-4. 摘要

21. Kalra S. Sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a review of their basic and clinical pharmacology. Diabetes Ther. 2014 Dec;5(2):355-66.全文  摘要

22. Hampp C, Swain RS, Horgan C, et al. Use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in patients with type 1 diabetes and rates of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan;43(1):90-7. 摘要

23. Razavi Nematollahi L, Kitabchi AE, Stentz FB, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemic stress in healthy subjects. Metabolism. 2009;58:443-448. 摘要

24. Stentz FB, Umpierrez GE, Cuervo R, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines, markers of cardiovascular risks, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation in patients with hyperglycemic crises. Diabetes. 2004;53:2079-2086.全文  摘要

25. Maldonado M, Hampe CS, Gaur LK, et al. Ketosis-prone diabetes: dissection of a heterogeneous syndrome using an immunogenetic and beta-cell functional classification, prospective analysis, and clinical outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:5090-5098. 摘要

26. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, et al. Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 Jan;24(1):131-53.全文  摘要

27. Price HC, Ismail K, Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) for Inpatient Care. Royal College of Psychiatrists Liaison Faculty & Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS): guidelines for the management of diabetes in adults and children with psychiatric disorders in inpatient settings. Diabet Med. 2018 Aug;35(8):997-1004. 摘要

28. Lindner LME, Rathmann W, Rosenbauer J. Inequalities in glycaemic control, hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis according to socio-economic status and area-level deprivation in Type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Diabet Med. 2018 Jan;35(1):12-32. 摘要

29. Hamblin PS, Topliss DJ, Chosich N, et al. Deaths associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. 1973-1988. Med J Aust. 1989 Oct 16;151:439-44. 摘要

30. Nair S, Yadav D, Pitchumoni CS. Association of diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pancreatitis: observations in 100 consecutive episodes of DKA. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Oct;95(10):2795-800. 摘要

31. Kopff B, Mucha S, Wolffenbuttel BH, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient with acromegaly. Med Sci Monit. 2001 Jan-Feb;7(1):142-7. 摘要

32. Cooppan R, Kozak GP. Hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. An analysis of 70 patients. Arch Intern Med. 1980 Mar;140(3):370-3. 摘要

33. Alavi IA, Sharma BK, Pillay VK. Steroid-induced diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Med Sci. 1971 Jul;262(1):15-23. 摘要

34. Wachtel TJ, Tetu-Mouradjian LM, Goldman DL, et al. Hyperosmolarity and acidosis in diabetes mellitus: a three-year experience in Rhode Island. J Gen Intern Med. 1991 Nov-Dec;6(6):495-502. 摘要

35. Newcomer JW. Second generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(suppl 1):1-93. 摘要

36. Nyenwe EA, Loganathan RS, Blum S, et al. Active use of cocaine: an independent risk factor for recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis in a city hospital. Endocr Pract. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):22-9. 摘要

37. Vuk A, Baretic M, Osvatic MM, et al. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis associated with antipsychotic medication: literature review. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Oct;37(5):584-9. 摘要

38. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA revises labels of SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes to include warnings about too much acid in the blood and serious urinary tract infections. December 2015 [internet publication].全文

39. Miyoshi Y, Ogawa O, Oyama Y. Nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death-1 antibody, induces fulminant type 1 diabetes. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2016 Jun;239(2):155-8.全文  摘要

40. Clotman K, Janssens K, Specenier P, et al. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor induced type 1 diabetes mellitus: mini-review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Sep 1;103(9):3144-54. 摘要

41. Joharatnam-Hogan N, Chambers P, Dhatariya K, et al. A guideline for the outpatient management of glycaemic control in people with cancer. Diabet Med. 2021 Jul 9 [Epub ahead of print].全文  摘要

42. Kirwan JP, Aminian A, Kashyap SR, Bet al. Bariatric surgery in obese patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jun;39(6):941-8.全文  摘要

43. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. Aug 2022 [internet publication].全文

44. Henry RR, Dandona P, Pettus J, et al. Dapagliflozin in patients with type 1 diabetes: A post hoc analysis of the effect of insulin dose adjustments on 24-hour continuously monitored mean glucose and fasting β-hydroxybutyrate levels in a phase IIa pilot study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Jun;19(6):814-821. 摘要

45. Goldenberg RM, Berard LD, Cheng AY, et al. SGLT2 inhibitor-associated diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical review and recommendations for prevention and diagnosis. Clin Ther. 2016 Dec;38(12):2654-64.e1. 摘要

46. Kitabchi AE. Editorial. Hyperglycemic crises: improving prevention and management. Am Fam Physician. 2005 May 1;71(9):1659-60.全文  摘要

47. Evans K. Diabetic ketoacidosis: update on management. Clin Med (Lond). 2019 Sep;19(5):396-8.全文  摘要

48. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in children and young people: diagnosis and management. Jun 2022 [internet publication].全文  摘要

49. Umpierrez G, Freire AX. Abdominal pain in patients with hyperglycemic crises. J Crit Care. 2002 Mar;17(1):63-7. 摘要

50. Whited L, Graham DD. Abnormal respirations. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2019.全文

51. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. Diabetes at the front door: a guideline for dealing with glucose related emergencies at the time of acute hospital admission. September 2021 [internet publication].全文

52. Trachtenbarg DE. Diabetic ketoacidosis. Am Fam Physician. 2005 May 1;71(9):1705-14. 摘要

53. Gosmanov AR, Gosmanova EO, Dillard-Cannon E. Management of adult diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014 Jun 30;7:255-64. 摘要

54. Pryce R. Diabetic ketoacidosis caused by exposure of insulin pump to heat and sunlight. BMJ. 2009 Jan 5;338:a2218. 摘要

55. Umpierrez GE, Kitabchi AE. Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors and management strategies. Treat Endocrinol. 2003;2(2):95-108. 摘要

56. Cağdaş DN, Paç FA, Cakal E. Glucocorticoid-induced diabetic ketoacidosis in acute rheumatic fever. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Dec;13(4):298-300. 摘要

57. Vuk A, Kuzman MR, Baretic M, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis associated with antipsychotic drugs: case reports and a review of literature. Psychiatr Danub. 2017 Jun;29(2):121-35. 摘要

58. Kotwal A, Haddox C, Block M, et al. Immune checkpoint inhibitors: an emerging cause of insulin-dependent diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2019 Feb 13;7(1):e000591.全文  摘要

59. Kinney GL, Akturk HK, Taylor DD, et al. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk for diabetic ketoacidosis in adults with type 1 diabetes: findings from the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan;43(1):247-9. 摘要

60. Kitabchi AE, Wall BM. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis. Am Fam Physician. 1999 Aug;60(2):455-64. 摘要

61. Meaden CW, Kushner BJ, Barnes S. A rare and lethal complication: cerebral edema in the adult patient with diabetic ketoacidosis. Case Rep Emerg Med. 2018 Mar 21;2018:5043752.全文  摘要

62. Westerberg DP. Diabetic ketoacidosis: evaluation and treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2013 Mar 1;87(5):337-46. 摘要

63. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication].全文

64. Modi A, Agrawal A, Morgan F. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a review. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2017;13(3):315-21. 摘要

65. Hansen BA, Bruserud Ø. Hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients. J Intensive Care. 2018 Mar 27;6:21.全文  摘要

66. Nyenwe EA, Razavi LN, Kitabchi AE, et al. Acidosis: the prime determinant of depressed sensorium in diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug;33(8):1837-9.全文  摘要

67. Goldberger ZD. Severe hypothermia with Osborn waves in diabetic ketoacidosis. Respir Care. 2008 Apr;53(4):500-2. 摘要

68. Mohan M, Baagar KAM, Lindow S. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Jan 24;19(1):55–62.

69. Agarwal A, Yadav A, Gutch M, et al. Prognostic factors in patients hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2016 Sep;31(3):424-32. 摘要

70. Wachtel TJ, Silliman RA, Lamberton P. Predisposing factors for the diabetic hyperosmolar state. Arch Intern Med. 1987 Mar;147(3):499-501. 摘要

71. Polonsky WH, Anderson BJ, Lohrer PA, et al. Insulin omission in women with IDDM. Diabetes Care. 1994 Oct;17(10):1178-85. 摘要

72. Jamshed N, Banavaliker B, Aggarwal P. Catamenial diabetic ketoacidosis - a diagnostic dilemma in ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Feb;31(2):464.e1-3. 摘要

73. Ovalle F, Vaughan TB 3rd, Sohn JE, et al. Catamenial diabetic ketoacidosis and catamenial hyperglycemia: case report and review of the literature. Am J Med Sci. 2008 Apr;335(4):298-303. 摘要

74. Khafaji HA, Suwaidi JM. Atypical presentation of acute and chronic coronary artery disease in diabetics. World J Cardiol. 2014 Aug 26;6(8):802-13.全文  摘要

75. Junghans C, Sekhri N, Zaman MJ, et al. Atypical chest pain in diabetic patients with suspected stable angina: impact on diagnosis and coronary outcomes. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2015 Jul 1;1(1):37-43.全文  摘要

76. Kamalakannan D, Baskar V, Barton DM, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Postgrad Med J. 2003 Aug;79(934):454-7.全文  摘要

77. Sarkar M, Madabhavi I, Niranjan N, et al. Auscultation of the respiratory system. Ann Thorac Med. 2015 Jul-Sep;10(3):158-68.全文  摘要

78. Konstantinov NK, Rohrscheib M, Agaba EI, et al. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis. World J Diabetes. 2015 Jul 25;6(8):1009-23.全文  摘要

79. Lim WS, Baudouin SV, George RC, et al. BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009. Thorax. 2009 Oct;64(suppl 3):iii1-55.全文  摘要

80. Mandell LA, Niederman MS. Aspiration pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 14;380(7):651-63. 摘要

81. Platz E, Jhund PS, Campbell RT, et al. Assessment and prevalence of pulmonary oedema in contemporary acute heart failure trials: a systematic review. Eur J Heart Fail. 2015 Sep;17(9):906-16.全文  摘要

82. Cartwright SL, Knudson MP. Evaluation of acute abdominal pain in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Apr 1;77(7):971-8. 摘要

83. Jackson PG, Raiji MT. Evaluation and management of intestinal obstruction. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Jan 15;83(2):159-65. 摘要

84. Rayman G, Vas PR, Baker N, et al. The Ipswich Touch Test: a simple and novel method to identify inpatients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jul;34(7):1517-8.全文  摘要

85. Elmas ÖN, Akıncı A, Bilir P. Tuberculous meningitis associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2011;3(4):222-4.全文  摘要

86. Newton CA, Raskin P. Diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and biochemical differences. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Sep 27;164(17):1925-31.全文  摘要

87. Valette X, du Cheyron D. Images in clinical medicine. Cullen's and Grey Turner's signs in acute pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 10;373(24):e28. 摘要

88. Rawla P, Vellipuram AR, Bandaru SS, et al. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2017 Sep 4;2017:17-0081.全文  摘要

89. Kelly AM. Can VBG analysis replace ABG analysis in emergency care? Emerg Med J. 2016 Feb;33(2):152-4. 摘要

90. Byrne AL, Bennett M, Chatterji R, et al. Peripheral venous and arterial blood gas analysis in adults: are they comparable? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. 2014 Feb;19(2):168-75.全文  摘要

91. Bloom BM, Grundlingh J, Bestwick JP, et al. The role of venous blood gas in the emergency department: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Emerg Med. 2014 Apr;21(2):81-8. 摘要

92. Toftegaard M, Rees SE, Andreassen S. Correlation between acid-base parameters measured in arterial blood and venous blood sampled peripherally, from vena cavae superior, and from the pulmonary artery. Eur J Emerg Med. 2008 Apr;15(2):86-91. 摘要

93. Rudkin SE, Kahn CA, Oman JA, et al. Prospective correlation of arterial vs venous blood gas measurements in trauma patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Oct;30(8):1371-7. 摘要

94. Simerville JA, Maxted WC, Pahira JJ. Urinalysis: a comprehensive review. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar 15;71(6):1153-62. 摘要

95. Mercer S, Hanks L, Ashraf A. Rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state: a case series. Glob Pediatr Health. 2016 Nov 30;3:2333794X16671391.全文  摘要

96. Sauret JM, Marinides G, Wang GK. Rhabdomyolysis. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Mar 1;65(5):907-12. 摘要

97. Birnbaum Y, Drew BJ. The electrocardiogram in ST elevation acute myocardial infarction: correlation with coronary anatomy and prognosis. Postgrad Med J. 2003 Sep;79(935):490-504.全文  摘要

98. Levis JT. ECG diagnosis: hypokalemia. Perm J. 2012 Spring;16(2):57.全文  摘要

99. Levis JT. ECG diagnosis: hyperkalemia. Perm J. 2013 Winter;17(1):69.全文  摘要

100. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Acute coronary syndromes. November 2020 [internet publication].全文

101. Claure-Del Granado R, Mehta RL. Fluid overload in the ICU: evaluation and management. BMC Nephrol. 2016 Aug 2;17(1):109.全文  摘要

102. Lal A, Parai JL, Milroy CM. Liver pathology in first presentation diabetic ketoacidosis at autopsy. Acad Forensic Pathol. 2016 Jun;6(2):271-80. 摘要

103. Biegus J, Hillege HL, Postmus D, et al. Abnormal liver function tests in acute heart failure: relationship with clinical characteristics and outcome in the PROTECT study. Eur J Heart Fail. 2016 Jul;18(7):830-9.全文  摘要

104. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital. May 2017 [internet publication].全文

105. Hardern RD, Quinn ND. Emergency management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. Emerg Med J. 2003 May;20(3):210-3.全文  摘要

106. Soar J, Böttiger BW, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:115-51.全文  摘要

107. Colquhoun MC, Handley AJ, Evans TR, eds. ABC of resuscitation. 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2004.

108. Chrimes N, Higgs A, Hagberg CA, et al. Preventing unrecognised oesophageal intubation: a consensus guideline from the Project for Universal Management of Airways and international airway societies. Anaesthesia. 2022 Aug 17 [Epub ahead of print].全文  摘要

109. Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, et al. Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 23;(1):CD007798.全文  摘要

110. Kusminsky RE. Complications of central venous catheterization. J Am Coll Surg. 2007 Apr;204(4):681-96. 摘要

111. McGee DC, Gould MK. Preventing complications of central venous catheterization. N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 20;348(12):1123-33.全文  摘要

112. Smith RN, Nolan JP. Central venous catheters. BMJ. 2013 Nov 11;347:f6570. 摘要

113. Reich DL. Monitoring in anesthesia and perioperative care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011.

114. Abbott Northwestern Hospital Internal Medicine Residency. Internal jugular central venous line. 2015 [internet publication].全文

115. Bishop L, Dougherty L, Bodenham A, et al. Guidelines on the insertion and management of central venous access devices in adults. Int J Lab Hematol. 2007 Aug;29(4):261-78. 摘要

116. Practice guidelines for central venous access 2020: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Central Venous Access. Anesthesiology. 2020 Jan;132(1):8-43.全文  摘要

117. Fletcher SJ, Bodenham AR. Safe placement of central venous catheters: where should the tip of the catheter lie? Br J Anaesth. 2000 Aug;85(2):188-91.全文  摘要

118. Gibson F, Bodenham A. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management. Br J Anaesth. 2013 Mar;110(3):333-46.全文  摘要

119. Schuster M, Nave H, Piepenbrock S, et al. The carina as a landmark in central venous catheter placement. Br J Anaesth. 2000 Aug;85(2):192-4.全文  摘要

120. Dhatariya KK. Diabetic ketoacidosis. BMJ. 2007 Jun 23;334(7607):1284-5. 摘要

121. van der Jagt M. Fluid management of the neurological patient: a concise review. Crit Care. 2016 May 31;20(1):126.全文  摘要

122. Gankam Kengne F, Decaux G. Hyponatremia and the brain. Kidney Int Rep. 2017 Sep 1;3(1):24-35.全文  摘要

123. Mahler SA, Conrad SA, Wang H, et al. Resuscitation with balanced electrolyte solution prevents hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Emerg Med. 2011 Jul;29(6):670-4. 摘要

124. Van Zyl DG, Rheeder P, Delport E. Fluid management in diabetic-acidosis--Ringer's lactate versus normal saline: a randomized controlled trial. QJM. 2012 Apr;105(4):337-43.全文  摘要

125. Self WH, Evans CS, Jenkins CA, et al. Clinical effects of balanced crystalloids vs saline in adults with diabetic ketoacidosis: a subgroup analysis of cluster randomized clinical trials. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Nov 2;3(11):e2024596.全文  摘要

126. Gershkovich B, English SW, Doyle MA, et al. Choice of crystalloid fluid in the treatment of hyperglycemic emergencies: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev. 2019 Sep 3;8(1):228.全文  摘要

127. National Patient Safety Agency. ARCHIVED NPSA Alert – Potassium solutions risks to patients from errors occurring during IV administration 2002. July 2002 [internet publication].全文

128. World Health Organization. Control of concentrated electrolyte solutions. Patient safety solutions. May 2007 [internet publication].全文

129. Hsieh HC, Wu SH, Chiu CC, et al. Excessive sodium bicarbonate infusion may result in osmotic demyelination syndrome during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report. Diabetes Ther. 2019 Apr;10(2):765-71.全文  摘要

130. Chua HR, Schneider A, Bellomo R. Bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis - a systematic review. Ann Intensive Care. 2011 Jul 6;1(1):23.全文  摘要

131. Dhatariya KK, Nunney I, Higgins K, et al. National survey of the management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the UK in 2014. Diabet Med. 2016 Feb;33(2):252-60. 摘要

132. Al Hanshi S, Shann F. Insulin infused at 0.05 versus 0.1 units/kg/hr in children admitted to intensive care with diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Mar;12(2):137-40. 摘要

133. Nallasamy K, Jayashree M, Singhi S, et al. Low-dose vs standard-dose insulin in pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Nov;168(11):999-1005.全文  摘要

134. Rameshkumar R, Satheesh P, Jain P, et al. Low-dose (0.05 unit/kg/hour) vs standard-dose (0.1 unit/kg/hour) insulin in the management of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Indian Pediatr. 2021 Jul 15;58(7):617-23.全文  摘要

135. Dixon AN, Jude EB, Banerjee AK, et al. Simultaneous pulmonary and cerebral oedema, and multiple CNS infarctions as complications of diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report. Diabet Med. 2006 May;23(5):571-3. 摘要

136. Gallo de Moraes A, Surani S. Effects of diabetic ketoacidosis in the respiratory system. World J Diabetes. 2019 Jan 15;10(1):16-22.全文  摘要

137. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management. December 2019 [internet publication]全文

138. Hsu CY, Ordoñez JD, Chertow GM, et al. The risk of acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008 Apr 2;74(1):101-7全文  摘要

139. Varma R, Karim M. Lesson of the month 1: diabetic ketoacidosis in established renal failure. Clin Med (Lond). 2016 Aug;16(4):392-3全文  摘要

140. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. June 2021 [internet publication]全文

141. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital. Clinical guideline CG174. May 2017 [internet publication]全文

142. Verbrugge FH, Grieten L, Mullens W. Management of the cardiorenal syndrome in decompensated heart failure. Cardiorenal Med. 2014 Dec;4(3-4):176-88全文  摘要

143. Royal College of Physicians. National early warning score (NEWS2). Standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. December 2017 [internet publication]全文

144. Global Initiative for Asthma. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. 2022 [internet publication]全文

145. British Thoracic Society; Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. July 2019 [internet publication].全文

146. O'Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Earis J, et al; British Thoracic Society Emergency Oxygen Guideline Group; BTS Emergency Oxygen Guideline Development Group. BTS guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings. Thorax. 2017 Jun;72(suppl 1):ii1-90 摘要

147. Chu DK, Kim LH, Young PJ, et al. Mortality and morbidity in acutely ill adults treated with liberal versus conservative oxygen therapy (IOTA): systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Apr 26;391(10131):1693-705 摘要

148. Siemieniuk RAC, Chu DK, Kim LH, et al. Oxygen therapy for acutely ill medical patients: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 Oct 24;363:k4169全文  摘要

149. NHS England. Toolkit for general practice in supporting older people living with frailty. March 2017 [internet publication]全文

150. Wallis SJ, Wall J, Biram RW, et al. Association of the clinical frailty scale with hospital outcomes. QJM. 2015 Dec;108(12):943-9全文  摘要

151. Quinn TJ, Mooijaart SP, Gallacher K, et al. Acute care assessment of older adults living with frailty. BMJ. 2019 Jan 31;364:l13 摘要

152. Fritz Z, Slowther AM, Perkins GD. Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision. BMJ. 2017 Feb 28;356:j813全文  摘要

153. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Decision making and mental capacity. October 2018 [internet publication]全文

154. Office of the Public Guardian. Mental Capacity Act: making decisions. October 2014 [internet publiction]全文

155. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA). January 2010 [internet publication]全文

156. Karslioglu French E, Donihi AC, Korytkowski MT. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome: review of acute decompensated diabetes in adult patients. BMJ. 2019 May 29;365:l1114全文  摘要

157. Freeman R, Wieling W, Axelrod FB, et al. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome. Clin Auton Res. 2011 Apr;21(2):69-72 摘要

158. Law JP, Pickup L, Townend JN, et al. Anticoagulant strategies for the patient with chronic kidney disease. Clin Med (Lond). 2020 Mar;20(2):151-5全文  摘要

159. Grau AJ, Urbanek C, Palm F. Common infections and the risk of stroke. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Nov 9;6(12):681-94 摘要

160. Eigenbrodt ML, Rose KM, Couper DJ, et al. Orthostatic hypotension as a risk factor for stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study, 1987-1996. Stroke. 2000 Oct;31(10):2307-13 摘要

161. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 May 4;47(6):e98-e169全文  摘要

162. Pendlebury ST, Klaus SP, Mather M, et al. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE. Age Ageing. 2015 Oct 13;44(6):1000-5全文  摘要

163. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972 Nov;1(4):233-8 摘要

164. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Delirium: diagnosis, prevention and management. March 2019 [internet publication]全文

165. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers. June 2018 [internet publication]全文

166. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk reduction and management of delirium. March 2019 [internet publication]全文

167. Nova Scotia Health Authority. This is not my Mom. 2012 [internet publication]全文

168. Inouye SK, Schlesinger MJ, Lydon TJ. Delirium: a symptom of how hospital care is failing older persons and a window to improve quality of hospital care. Am J Med. 1999 May;106(5):565-73 摘要

169. Bellelli G, Morandi A, Davis DH, et al. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people. Age Ageing. 2014 Mar 2;43(4):496-502全文  摘要

170. MacLullich AM, Shenkin SD, Goodacre S, et al. The 4 'A's test for detecting delirium in acute medical patients: a diagnostic accuracy study. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Aug;23(40):1-194全文  摘要

171. White S, Griffiths R, Baxter M, et al. Guidelines for the peri-operative care of people with dementia: guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2019 Jan 11;74(3):357-72全文  摘要

172. Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 11;3:CD005563全文  摘要

173. Martinez F, Tobar C, Hill N. Preventing delirium: should non-pharmacological, multicomponent interventions be used? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Age Ageing. 2014 Nov 25;44(2):196-204全文  摘要

174. Public Health England. Urinary tract infection: diagnostic tools for primary care. October 2020 [internet publication]全文

175. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Haloperidol (haldol): reminder of risks when used in elderly patients for the acute treatment of delirium. 2021 [internet publication]全文

176. Ma H, Huang Y, Cong Z, et al. The efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of dementia: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(3):915-37 摘要

177. Huybrechts KF, Gerhard T, Crystal S, et al. Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2012 Feb 23;344:e977全文  摘要

178. Van Leeuwen E, Petrovic M, van Driel ML, et al. Withdrawal versus continuation of long-term antipsychotic drug use for behavioural and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 30;3:CD007726全文  摘要

179. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001 Sep;16(9):606-13 摘要

180. Boden JM, Fergusson DM. Alcohol and depression. Addiction. 2011 Mar 7;106(5):906-14全文  摘要

181. Salpeter SR, Ormiston TM, Salpeter EE. Cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists in patients with asthma and COPD: a meta-analysis. Chest. 2004 Jun;125(6):2309-21全文  摘要

182. Au DH, Curtis JR, Every NR, et al. Association between inhaled beta-agonists and the risk of unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Chest. 2002 Mar;121(3):846-51全文  摘要

183. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2022 [internet publication]全文

184. Walters JA, Tan DJ, White CJ, et al. Different durations of corticosteroid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;3:CD006897全文  摘要

185. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management. July 2019 [internet publication]全文

186. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015 May 12;29(5):459-525全文  摘要

187. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem: recognition and management. October 2009 [internet publication]全文

188. Taylor DM, Barnes TRE, Young AH. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 14th edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2021

189. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1112-20 摘要

190. Buckley NA, Dawson AH, Isbister GK. Serotonin syndrome. BMJ. 2014 Feb 19;348:g1626 摘要

191. Dalton SO, Sørensen HT, Johansen C. SSRIs and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: what is known and how should it influence prescribing? CNS Drugs. 2006;20(2):143-51 摘要

192. Dalton SO, Johansen C, Mellemkjaer L, et al. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding: a population-based cohort study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Jan 13;163(1):59-64全文  摘要

193. Cheng YL, Hu HY, Lin XH, et al. Use of SSRI, but not SNRI, increased upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Nov;94(46):e2022全文  摘要

194. Loke YK, Trivedi AN, Singh S. Meta-analysis: gastrointestinal bleeding due to interaction between selective serotonin uptake inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jan 1;27(1):31-40全文  摘要

195. Flowers L. Nicotine replacement therapy. Am J Psychiatry Resid. 2016 Jun;11(6)4-7全文

196. Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):469-94

197. Oliveira P, Ribeiro J, Donato H, Madeira N. Smoking and antidepressants pharmacokinetics: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:17全文  摘要

198. National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training. Smoking cessation and mental health. 2014 [internet publication]全文

199. Roose SP, Rutherford BR. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and operative bleeding risk: a review of the literature. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2016 Dec;36(6):704-9 摘要

200. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Liaison psychiatry. In: Emergency acute medical care in over 16s: service delivery and organisation. March 2018 [internet publication]全文

201. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD). Treat as one. Bridging the gap between mental and physical healthcare in general hospitals. 2017 [internet publication]全文

202. DiMatteo MR, Lepper HS, Croghan TW. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jul 24;160(14):2101-7 摘要

203. Clarke DM, Currie KC. Depression, anxiety and their relationship with chronic diseases: a review of the epidemiology, risk and treatment evidence. Med J Aust. 2009 Apr 6;190(7 suppl):S54-60 摘要

204. Prina AM, Cosco TD, Dening T, et al. The association between depressive symptoms in the community, non-psychiatric hospital admission and hospital outcomes: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2014 Nov 8;78(1):25-33全文  摘要

205. World Health Organization. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders. 2016 [internet publication]全文

206. Hogervorst VM, Buurman BM, De Jonghe A, et al. Emergency department management of older people living with frailty: a guide for emergency practitioners. Emerg Med J. 2021 Sep;38(9):724-9 摘要

207. Rockwood K; British Geriatrics Society. Silver book II: frailty. February 2021 [internet publication]全文

208. Royal College of Physicians. Acute care toolkit 3. Acute care for older people living with frailty. December 2020 [internet publication]全文

209. Conroy SP, Bardsley M, Smith P, et al. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for frail older people in acute hospitals: the HoW-CGA mixed-methods study. Health Services and Delivery Research. 2019 April:7(15)全文

210. Hillman K. Fluid resuscitation in diabetic emergencies - a reappraisal. Intensive Care Med. 1987;13(1):4-8. 摘要

211. Morris LR, Murphy MB, Kitabchi AE. Bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Ann Intern Med. 1986 Dec;105(6):836-40. 摘要

212. Buyukasik Y, Ileri NS, Haznedaroglu IC, et al. Enhanced subclinical coagulation activation during diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 1998 May;21(5):868-70. 摘要

213. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Management of diabetes: a national clinical guideline. November 2017 [internet publication].全文

内容使用需遵循免责声明