阿片类物质使用障碍

参考文献

关键文献

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Federal guidelines for opioid treatment programs. March 2015 [internet publication].全文

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Drug misuse in over 16s: opioid detoxification. July 2007 [internet publication].全文

Gowing L, Ali R, White JM, et al. Buprenorphine for managing opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(2):CD002025.全文  摘要

Woody GE, Poole SA, Subramaniam G, et al. Extended vs. short-term buprenorphine-naloxone for treatment of opioid-addicted youth: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 Nov 5;300(17):2003-11.全文  摘要

Flynn PM, Joe GW, Broome KM, et al. Recovery from opioid addiction in DATOS. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2003 Oct;25(3):177-86. 摘要

参考文献

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). 5th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

2. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Commonly abused drugs charts. July 2017. http://www.drugabuse.gov/ (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

3. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World drug report 2017. May 2017. http://www.unodc.org (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

4. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. European drug report 2017: trends and developments. June 2017. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

5. Kampman K, Jarvis M. American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) national practice guideline for the use of medications in the treatment of addiction involving opioid use. J Addict Med. 2015;9:358-367.全文  摘要

6. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2016 national survey on drug use and health: detailed tables. September 2017. https://www.samhsa.gov (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

7. Johnson K, Gerada C, Greenough A. Substance misuse during pregnancy. Br J Psychiatry. 2003;183:187-189.全文  摘要

8. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Miech RA, et al; Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Monitoring the future: national survey results on drug use, 1975-2016. 2016 overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. 2017. http://www.monitoringthefuture.org (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

9. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Substance abuse among older adults. 2012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

10. Sporer KA. Strategies for preventing heroin overdose. BMJ. 2003;326:442-444.全文  摘要

11. Darke S, Zador D. Fatal heroin 'overdose': a review. Addiction. 1996;91:1765-1772. 摘要

12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Opioid overdose: drug overdose death data. December 2016. http://www.cdc.gov (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

13. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Wide-ranging online data for epidemiologic research (WONDER). June 2017. http://wonder.cdc.gov (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

14. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. NCHS data brief: drug overdose deaths in the United States, 1999-2015. February 2017. https://www.cdc.gov (last accessed 13 September 2017).全文

15. Department of Health. NHS Central Alerting System: evidence of harm from fentanyl-contaminated heroin. 27 April 2017. https://www.cas.dh.gov.uk/ (last accessed 11 September 2017).全文

16. Lyndon A, Audrey S, Wells C, et al. Risk to heroin users of polydrug use of pregabalin or gabapentin. Addiction. 2017;112:1580-1589.全文  摘要

17. Park TW, Saitz R, Ganoczy D, et al. Benzodiazepine prescribing patterns and deaths from drug overdose among US veterans receiving opioid analgesics: case-cohort study. BMJ. 2015;350:h2698.全文  摘要

18. Sun EC, Dixit A, Humphreys K, et al. Association between concurrent use of prescription opioids and benzodiazepines and overdose: retrospective analysis. BMJ. 2017;356:j760.全文  摘要

19. Fry C, Dietze P, Crofts N. Naloxone distribution: remembering hepatitis C transmission as an issue. Addiction. 2001;95:1865-1866. 摘要

20. Fischer B, Hayden B, Rehm J, et al. Injection drug use and the hepatitis C virus: considerations for a targeted treatment approach: the case study of Canada. J. Urban Health. 2004;81:428-447. 摘要

21. Torbenson M, Kannangai R, Astemborski J, et al. High prevalence of occult hepatitis B in Baltimore injection drug users. Hepatology. 2004;39:1951-1957. 摘要

22. Coppola RC, Manconi PE, Piro R, et al. HCV, HIV, HBV, and HDV infections in intravenous drug addicts. Eur J Epidemiol. 1994;10:279-283. 摘要

23. Latkin CA, Mandell W, Vlahov D, et al. The long-term outcome of a personal network-oriented HIV prevention intervention for injection drug users: the SAFE study. Am J Community Psychol. 1996;24:341-364. 摘要

24. Neaigus A, Miller M, Friedman SR, et al. Potential risk factors for the transition to injecting among non-injecting heroin users: a comparison of former injectors and never injectors. Addiction. 2001;96:847-860. 摘要

25. Callaly T, Trauer T, Munro L, et al. Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in a methadone maintenance population. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2001;35:601-605. 摘要

26. Krausz M, Degkwitz P, Kuhne A, et al. Comorbidity of opiate dependence and mental disorders. Addict Behav. 1998;23:767-783. 摘要

27. Milby JB, Sims MK, Khuder S, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity: prevalence in methadone maintenance treatment. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1996;22:95-107. 摘要

28. Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS, et al. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. JAMA. 1990 Nov 21;264(19):2511-8. 摘要

29. Compton WM, Volkow ND. Major increases in opioid analgesic abuse in the United States: concerns and strategies. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;81:103-107. 摘要

30. Chapman CR, Lipschitz DL, Angst MS, et al. Opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic non-cancer pain in the United States: a research guideline for developing an evidence-base. J Pain. 2010;11:807-829. 摘要

31. Noble M, Treadwell JR, Tregear SJ, et al. Long-term opioid management for chronic noncancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD006605. 摘要

32. Kendler KS, Jacobson KC, Prescott CA, et al. Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for use and abuse/dependence of cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, sedatives, stimulants, and opiates in male twins. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:687-695. 摘要

33. Gelernter J, Panhuysen C, Wilcox M, et al. Genomewide linkage scan for opioid dependence and related traits. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;78:759-769.全文  摘要

34. Mendelson J, Flower K, Pletcher MJ, et al. Addiction to prescription opioids: characteristics of the emerging epidemic and treatment with buprenorphine. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;16:435-441. 摘要

35. Kosten TR, George TP. The neurobiology of opioid dependence: implications for treatment. Sci Pract Perspect. 2002;1:13-20.全文  摘要

36. Koob GF, Le Moal M. Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;24:97-129.全文  摘要

37. Edlund MJ, Steffick D, Hudson T, et al. Risk factors for clinically recognized opioid abuse and dependence among veterans using opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Pain. 2007 Jun;129(3):355-62. 摘要

38. Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain - United States, 2016. JAMA. 2016 Apr 19;315(15):1624-45.全文  摘要

39. World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. 1992 [internet publication].全文

40. McLellan AT, Luborsky L, Woody GE, et al. An improved diagnostic evaluation instrument for substance abuse patients. The Addiction Severity Index. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1980 Jan;168(1):26-33. 摘要

41. Hickman M, Lingford-Hughes A, Bailey C, et al. Does alcohol increase the risk of overdose death: the need for a translational approach. Addiction. 2008;103:1060-1062. 摘要

42. Zacny JP, Lichtor SA. Nonmedical use of prescription opioids: motive and ubiquity issues. J Pain. 2008;9:473-486.全文  摘要

43. Starrels JL, Becker WC, Alford DP, et al. Systematic review: treatment agreements and urine drug testing to reduce opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain. Ann Internal Med. 2010;152:712-720. 摘要

44. Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain - United States, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65:1-49.全文  摘要

45. Schempf AH. Illicit drug use and neonatal outcomes: a critical review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007;62:749-757. 摘要

46. Azadi A, Dildy GA 3rd. Universal screening for substance abuse at the time of parturition. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:30-32. 摘要

47. Morse B, Gehshan S, Hutchins E. Screening for substance abuse during pregnancy: improving care, improving health. Arlington, VA: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health; 1997.全文

48. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Opioid use and opioid use disorder in pregnancy. Committee Opinion No 711. Obstet Gynecol 2017 Aug;130(2):e81-94.全文  摘要

49. Edlund MJ, Martin BC, Russo JE, et al. The role of opioid prescription in incident opioid abuse and dependence among individuals with chronic noncancer pain: the role of opioid prescription. Clin J Pain. 2014;30:557-564.全文  摘要

50. Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, et al. The mini-international neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(suppl 20):22-33;quiz 34-57. 摘要

51. Yudko E, Lozhkina O, Fouts A. A comprehensive review of the psychometric properties of the Drug Abuse Screening Test. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007;32:189-198. 摘要

52. Rosenberg SD, Drake RE, Wolford GL, et al. Dartmouth Assessment of Lifestyle Instrument (DALI): a substance use disorder screen for people with severe mental illness. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155:232-238. 摘要

53. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Principles of drug addiction treatment: a research based guide. 3rd ed. January 2018 [internet publication].全文

54. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the psychosocially assisted pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence. Geneva: WHO Press; 2009.全文

55. Brecht ML, Hser YI, Anglin MD. A multimethod assessment of social intervention effects on narcotics use and property crime. Int J Addict. 1990-1991;25(11A):1317-40. 摘要

56. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Federal guidelines for opioid treatment programs. March 2015 [internet publication].全文

57. Saber-Tehrani AS, Bruce RD, Altice FL. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions and adverse consequences between psychotropic medications and pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opioid dependence. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2011 Jan;37(1):1-11. 摘要

58. Mee-Lee D, Shulman GD, Fishman MJ, et al., (eds). The ASAM Criteria: treatment criteria for addictive, substance-related, and co-occurring conditions. 3rd ed. Carson City, NY: The Change Companies; 2013.

59. Galanter M, Kleber HD, eds. The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of substance abuse treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2008.

60. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Drug misuse in over 16s: opioid detoxification. July 2007 [internet publication].全文

61. Gowing L, Farrell M, Ali R, et al. Alpha₂-adrenergic agonists for the management of opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(5):CD002024.全文  摘要

62. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Methadone and buprenorphine for the management of opioid dependence. January 2007 [internet publication].全文

63. Meader N. A comparison of methadone, buprenorphine and alpha(2) adrenergic agonists for opioid detoxification: a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Apr 1;108(1-2):110-4. 摘要

64. Ponizovsky AM, Grinshpoon A, Margolis A, et al. Well-being, psychosocial factors, and side-effects among heroin-dependent inpatients after detoxification using buprenorphine versus clonidine. Addict Behav. 2006 Nov;31(11):2002-13. 摘要

65. Zubieta J, Greenwald MK, Lombardi U, et al. Buprenorphine-induced changes in mu-opioid receptor availability in male heroin-dependent volunteers: a preliminary study. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Sep;23(3):326-34.全文  摘要

66. Gowing L, Ali R, White JM, et al. Buprenorphine for managing opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(2):CD002025.全文  摘要

67. Johnson RE, Fudala PJ, Jaffe JH. Outpatient comparison of buprenorphine and methadone maintenance. I. Effects on opiate use and self-reported adverse effects and withdrawal symptomatology. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990;105:585-6. 摘要

68. Fudala PJ, Johnson RE, Jaffe JH. Outpatient comparison of buprenorphine and methadone maintenance. II. Effects on cocaine usage, retention time in study and missed clinic visits. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990;105:587-8. 摘要

69. Johnson RE, McCagh JC. Buprenorphine and naloxone for heroin dependence. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2000 Dec;2(6):519-26. 摘要

70. Amato L, Davoli M, Minozzi S, et al. Methadone at tapered doses for the management of opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(2):CD003409.全文  摘要

71. Caplehorn JR, Drummer OH. Mortality associated with New South Wales methadone programs in 1994: lives lost and saved. Med J Aust. 1999 Feb 1;170(3):104-9.全文  摘要

72. Kleber HD, Topazian M, Gaspari J, et al. Clonidine and naltrexone in the outpatient treatment of heroin withdrawal. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1987;13(1-2):1-17. 摘要

73. Vining E, Kosten TR, Kleber HD. Clinical utility of rapid clonidine-naltrexone detoxification for opioid abusers. Br J Addict. 1988 May;83(5):567-75. 摘要

74. Huybrechts KF, Hernández-Díaz S, Straub L, et al. Association of Maternal First-Trimester Ondansetron Use With Cardiac Malformations and Oral Clefts in Offspring. JAMA. 2018 Dec 18;320(23):2429-2437.全文  摘要

75. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG)Green-top Guideline No. 69: Management of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy and Hyperemesis Gravidarum. Jun 2016 [internet publication].全文

76. Mhra drug safety update. 2020. Ondansetron: small increased risk of oral clefts following use in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Feb 2020 [Online]全文

77. Amato L, Minozzi S, Davoli M, et al. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments versus pharmacological treatments for opioid detoxification. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(9):CD005031.全文  摘要

78. Broome KM, Joe GW, Simpson DD. HIV risk reduction in outpatient drug abuse treatment: individual and geographic differences. AIDS Educ Prev. 1999 Aug;11(4):293-306. 摘要

79. Longshore D, Hsieh S. Drug abuse treatment and risky sex: evidence for a cumulative treatment effect? Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1998 Aug;24(3):439-51. 摘要

80. Nielsen S, Larance B, Degenhardt L, et al. Opioid agonist treatment for pharmaceutical opioid dependent people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(5):CD011117.全文  摘要

81. Mattick RP, Breen C, Kimber J, et al. Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(2):CD002207.全文  摘要

82. Sordo L, Barrio G, Bravo MJ, et al. Mortality risk during and after opioid substitution treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMJ. 2017 Apr 26;357:j1550.全文  摘要

83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). QuickStats from the National Center for Health Statistics. Age-adjusted death rates per 100,000 population for the three leading causes of injury death - United States, 1979-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 June 26:58(24);675.全文

84. Bruneau J, Ahamad K, Goyer MÈ, et al. Management of opioid use disorders: a national clinical practice guideline. CMAJ. 2018 Mar 5;190(9):E247-57.全文  摘要

85. Fudala PJ, Bridge TP, Herbert S, et al. Office-based treatment of opiate addiction with a sublingual-tablet formulation of buprenorphine and naloxone. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 4;349(10):949-58.全文  摘要

86. Schottenfeld RS, Pakes J, O'Connor P, et al. Thrice-weekly versus daily buprenorphine maintenance. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Jun 15;47(12):1072-9. 摘要

87. Lofwall MR, Walsh SL, Nunes EV, et al. Weekly and monthly subcutaneous buprenorphine depot formulations vs daily sublingual buprenorphine with naloxone for treatment of opioid use disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Jun 1;178(6):764-73. 摘要

88. Breen CL, Harris SJ, Lintzeris N, et al. Cessation of methadone maintenance treatment using buprenorphine: transfer from methadone to buprenorphine and subsequent buprenorphine reductions. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2003 Jul 20;71(1):49-55. 摘要

89. Clark N, Lintzeris N, et al. Transferring from high doses of methadone to buprenorphine: a randomized trial of three different buprenorphine schedules. Presented at College on the Problems of Drug Dependence. Scottsdale, AZ; June 2006.

90. Washton AM, Pottash AC, Gold MS. Naltrexone in addicted business executives and physicians. J Clin Psychiatry. 1984 Sep;45(9 Pt 2):39-41. 摘要

91. Washton AM, Gold MS, Pottash AC. Successful use of naltrexone in addicted physicians and business executives. Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse. 1984 Winter;4(2):89-96. 摘要

92. Roth A, Hogan I, Farren C. Naltrexone plus group therapy for the treatment of opiate-abusing health-care professionals. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1997 Jan-Feb;14(1):19-22. 摘要

93. Brahen LS, Henderson RK, Capone T, et al. Naltrexone treatment in a jail work-release program. J Clin Psychiatry. 1984 Sep;45(9 pt 2):49-52. 摘要

94. Minozzi S, Amato L, Vecchi S, et al. Oral naltrexone maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(4):CD001333.全文  摘要

95. Krupitsky E, Nunes EV, Ling W, et al. Injectable extended-release naltrexone for opioid dependence: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2011 Apr 30;377(9776):1506-13.全文  摘要

96. Syed YY, Keating GM. Extended-release intramuscular naltrexone (VIVITROL®): a review of its use in the prevention of relapse to opioid dependence in detoxified patients. CNS Drugs. 2013 Oct;27(10):851-61. 摘要

97. Lee JD, Friedmann PD, Kinlock TW, et al. Extended-release naltrexone to prevent opioid relapse in criminal justice offenders. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 31;374(13):1232-42.全文  摘要

98. Mitchell MC, Memisoglu A, Silverman BL. Hepatic safety of injectable extended-release naltrexone in patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV infection. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2012 Nov;73(6):991-7. 摘要

99. Tanum L, Solli KK, Latif ZE, et al. Effectiveness of injectable extended-release naltrexone vs daily buprenorphine-naloxone for opioid dependence: a randomized clinical noninferiority trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Dec 1;74(12):1197-205.全文  摘要

100. Lee JD, Nunes EV Jr, Novo P, et al. Comparative effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone versus buprenorphine-naloxone for opioid relapse prevention (X:BOT): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2018 Jan 27;391(10118):309-18.全文  摘要

101. Woody GE, McLellan AT, Luborsky L, et al. Psychotherapy in community methadone programs: a validation study. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Sep;152(9):1302-8. 摘要

102. Marsch LA, Bickel WK, Badger GJ, et al. Comparison of pharmacological treatments for opioid-dependent adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;62(10):1157-64.全文  摘要

103. Woody GE, Poole SA, Subramaniam G, et al. Extended vs. short-term buprenorphine-naloxone for treatment of opioid-addicted youth: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 Nov 5;300(17):2003-11.全文  摘要

104. Feillin DA. Treatment of adolescent opioid dependence: no quick fix. JAMA. 2008 Nov 5;300(17):2057-9. 摘要

105. Hopfer CJ, Khuri E, Crowley TJ, et al. Adolescent heroin use: a review of the descriptive and treatment literature. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2002 Oct;23(3):231-37. 摘要

106. Marsch LA. Treatment of adolescents. In: Strain EC, Stitzer ML, eds. The treatment of opioid dependence. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2005:497-507.

107. Dattel BJ. Substance abuse in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 1990 Apr;14(2):179-87. 摘要

108. World Health Organization. Guidelines for identification and management of substance use and substance use disorders in pregnancy. 2014 [internet publication].全文

109. Brown HL, Britton KA, Mahaffey D, et al. Methadone maintenance in pregnancy: a reappraisal. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Aug;179(2):459-63. 摘要

110. Lejeune C, Simmat-Durand L, Gourarier L, et al. Prospective multicenter observational study of 260 infants borne to 259 opiate-dependent mothers on methadone or high-dose buprenophine substitution. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006 May 20;82(3):250-7. 摘要

111. Schindler SD, Eder H, Ortner R, et al. Neonatal outcome following buprenorphine maintenance during conception and throughout pregnancy. Addiction. 2003 Jan;98(1):103-10. 摘要

112. Hytinantti T, Kahila H, Renlund M, et al. Neonatal outcome of 58 infants exposed to maternal buprenorphine in utero. Acta Pediatr. 2008 Aug;97(8):1040-4. 摘要

113. Kakko J, Heilig M, Sarman I. Buprenorphine and methadone treatment of opiate dependence during pregnancy: comparison of fetal growth and neonatal outcomes in two consecutive case series. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008 Jul 1;96(1-2):69-78. 摘要

114. Reece-Stremtan S, Marinelli KA. ABM clinical protocol #21: guidelines for breastfeeding and substance use or substance use disorder, revised 2015. Breastfeed Med. 2015 Apr;10(3):135-41. 摘要

115. Fareed A, Vayalapalli S, Casarella J, et al. Heroin anticraving medications: a systematic review. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2010 Nov;36(6):332-41. 摘要

116. Amass L, Bickel WK, Higgins ST, et al. A preliminary investigation of outcome following gradual or rapid buprenorphine detoxification. J Addict Dis. 1994;13(3):33-45. 摘要

117. Ling W, Amass L, Shoptaw S, et al. A multi-center randomized trial of buprenorphine-naloxone versus clonidine for opioid detoxification: findings from the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Addiction. 2005 Aug;100(8):1090-100.全文  摘要

118. Novick DM, Kreek MJ, Fanizza AM, et al. Methadone disposition in patients with chronic liver disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 Sep;30(3):353-62. 摘要

119. Kreek MJ, Schecter AJ, Gutjahr CL, et al. Methadone use in patients with chronic renal disease. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1980 Mar;5(3):197-205. 摘要

120. Dashe JS, Jackson GL, Olscher DA, et al. Opioid detoxification in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Nov;92(5):854-8. 摘要

121. McCarthy JJ, Leamon MH, Stenson G, et al. Outcomes of neonates conceived on methadone maintenance therapy. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2008 Sep;35(2):202-6. 摘要

122. Weiss RDP, Potter JS, Provost SE, et al. A multi-site, two-phase, Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS): rationale, design, and methodology. Contemp Clin Trials. 2010 Mar;31(2):189-99.全文  摘要

123. Flynn PM, Joe GW, Broome KM, et al. Recovery from opioid addiction in DATOS. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2003 Oct;25(3):177-86. 摘要

124. McLellan AT, Arndt IO, Metzger DS, et al. The effects of psychosocial services in substance abuse treatment. JAMA. 1993 Apr 21;269(15):1953-9. 摘要

125. Fiellin DA, Pantalon MV, Chawarski MC, et al. Counseling plus buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 27;355(4):365-74.全文  摘要

126. Fareed A, Casarella J, Amar R, et al. Methadone maintenance dosing guideline for opioid dependence, a literature review. J Addict Dis. 2010 Jan;29(1):1-14. 摘要

127. Fareed A, Vayalapalli S, Stout S, et al. Effect of methadone maintenance treatment on heroin craving, a literature review. J Addict Dis. 2011 Jan;30(1):27-38. 摘要

128. Rea F, Bell JR, Young MR, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of low dose naltrexone for the treatment of opioid dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004 Jul 15;75(1):79-88. 摘要

129. Gish EC, Miller JL, Honey BL, et al. Lofexidine, an {alpha}2-receptor agonist for opioid detoxification. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Feb;44(2):343-51. 摘要

130. O'Connor PG, Kosten TR. Rapid and ultrarapid opioid detoxification techniques. JAMA. 1998 Jan 21;279(3):229-34. 摘要

131. Gowing L, Ali R, White JM. Opioid antagonists under heavy sedation or anaesthesia for opioid withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(1):CD002022.全文  摘要

132. Robertson JR, Raab GM, Bruce M, et al. Addressing the efficacy of dihydrocodeine versus methadone as an alternative maintenance treatment for opiate dependence: a randomized controlled trial. Addiction. 2006 Dec;101(12):1752-9. 摘要

133. Oviedo-Joekes E, March JC, Romero M, et al. The Andalusian trial on heroin-assisted treatment: a 2 year follow-up. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2010 Jan;29(1):75-80. 摘要

134. Oviedo-Joekes E, Guh D, Brissette S, et al. Effectiveness of diacetylmorphine versus methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence in women. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Sep 1;111(1-2):50-7. 摘要

135. Karow A, Reimer J, Schäfer I, et al. Quality of life under maintenance treatment with heroin versus methadone in patients with opioid dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Dec 1;112(3):209-15. 摘要

136. Ferri M, Davoli M, Perucci CA. Heroin maintenance for chronic heroin-dependent individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(12):CD003410.全文  摘要

137. Miranda A, Taca A. Neuromodulation with percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation is associated with reduction in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal: a multisite, retrospective assessment. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2018;44(1):56-63.全文  摘要

138. McLellan AT, Luborsky L, Woody GE, et al. Predicting response to alcohol and drug abuse treatments: role of psychiatric severity. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1983 Jun;40(6):620-5. 摘要

139. McLellan AT, Lewis DC, O'Brien CP, et al. Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness: implications for treatment, insurance, and outcomes evaluation. JAMA. 2000 Oct 4;284(13):1689-95. 摘要

140. Osterwalder JJ. Naloxone - for intoxications with intravenous heroin and heroin mixtures - harmless or hazardous? A prospective clinical study. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1996;34(4):409-16. 摘要

141. Berlot G, Gullo A, Romano E, et al. Naloxone in cardiorespiratory arrest. Anaesthesia. 1985 Aug;40(8):819. 摘要

142. Mills CA, Flacke JW, Flacke WE, et al. Narcotic reversal in hypercapnic dogs: comparison of naloxone and nalbuphine. Can J Anaesth. 1990 Mar;37(2):238-44. 摘要

143. Stork CM, Redd JT, Fine K, et al. Propoxyphene-induced wide QRS complex dysrhythmia responsive to sodium bicarbonate - a case report. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1995;33(2):179-83. 摘要

144. Sporer KA. Acute heroin overdose. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Apr 6;130(7):584-90. 摘要

145. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Neonatal drug withdrawal. Pediatrics. 1998 Jun;101(6):1079-88. 摘要

146. Finnegan LP, Connaughton JF Jr, Kron RE, et al. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: assessment and management. Addict Dis. 1975;2(1-2):141-58. 摘要

147. Osborn DA, Jeffery HE, Cole MJ. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(10):CD002053.全文  摘要

148. Osborn DA, Jeffery HE, Cole MJ. Opiate treatment for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(10):CD002059.全文  摘要

149. Johnson K, Gerada C, Greenough A. Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 Jan;88(1):F2-5. 摘要

150. Kraft WK, Gibson E, Dysart K, et al. Sublingual buprenorphine for treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2008 Sep;122(3):e601-7. 摘要

151. Fiore AE, Wasley A, Bell BP. Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006 May 19;55(RR-7):1-23.全文  摘要

152. Mast EE, Weinbaum CM, Fiore AE, et al. A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) part II: immunization of adults. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006 Dec 8;55(RR-16):1-33.全文  摘要

内容使用需遵循免责声明