最近审阅: 26 十月 2020
最近更新: 09 七月 2018

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 甲状腺、甲状旁腺或喉部手术史
  • 慢性酒精中毒
  • 营养不良、吸收不良、腹泻
  • 肌肉颤搐、痉挛、痛性痉挛
  • 感觉异常、麻木、麻刺感
  • 记忆力差、思维缓慢
  • 低钙击面征
  • 惊厥
  • 心脏搏动不规则、心动过速
  • 低钙束臂征

其他诊断因素

  • 焦虑
  • 毛发干枯、脆甲症
  • 白内障
  • 黏膜皮肤念珠菌病病史
  • 地中海贫血患者长期输血史
  • 呼吸困难
  • 喉痉挛

危险因素

  • 甲状腺手术
  • 甲状旁腺手术
  • 低镁血症
  • 中度和慢性母体高钙血症(新生儿低钙血症)
  • 常染色体显性遗传(例如,CASR、GATA3 突变)
  • 遗传性血色病
  • 地中海贫血治疗中输注了超负荷的铁
  • 转移性癌

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 血清钙
  • 血清白蛋白
  • 心电图 (ECG)
  • 血浆全段 PTH
  • 血清镁
  • 血清 25 -羟基维生素 D
  • 血清磷
  • 血清肌酐
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 24-小时尿钙、肌酐
  • 24-小时镁、肌酐
  • 肝功能检查
  • 动脉血气 (ABG) 分析
  • 血清游离 T4、促甲状腺素
  • 晨起皮质醇和促肾上腺皮质激素 (ACTH) 刺激试验
  • 全血细胞计数
  • 血清铁、转铁蛋白、铁蛋白
  • 血清铜
  • 眼科检查
  • 听力学
  • 肾脏影像学检查
  • 基因测序
更多 需考虑的检查

新兴检查

  • 21-羟化酶或 1 型干扰素自身抗体
更多 新兴检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Professor of Medicine

University of California San Francisco

Endocrine Research Unit

San Francisco VA Medical Center

San Francisco

CA

利益声明

DS worked as a consultant for SHIRE Pharmaceuticals. She has received honorarium from Neopharma, and served as an expert witness for a patient-based malpractice case. For the past 5 years, DS was a speaker for the annual patients and caregivers conference on hypoparathyroidism for the US-based Hypoparathyroidism Association, and is an unpaid member of their medical advisory board. DS has given many CME lectures on hypoparathyroidism and all kinds of calcium and bone and mineral disorders.

Professor of Surgery

Section of Endocrine Surgery

University of California San Francisco

San Francisco

CA

利益声明

QYD declares that he has no competing interests.

Professors Dolores Shoback and Quan-Yang Duh would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor Ronald Merrell, a previous contributor to this topic. RM declares that he has no competing interests.

同行评议者展开全部内容

Adjunct Clinical Professor

Department of Family Medicine

University of North Carolina

Chapel Hill

NC

利益声明

WM declares that he has no competing interests.

内容使用需遵循免责声明