Principais artigos

Park W, Vaezi MF. Etiology and pathogenesis of achalasia: the current understanding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jun;100(6):1404-14. Resumo

Eckardt VF. Clinical presentations and complications of achalasia. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2001 Apr;11(2):281-92. Resumo

Kahrilas PJ, Bredenoord AJ, Fox M, et al. Expert consensus document: Advances in the management of oesophageal motility disorders in the era of high-resolution manometry: a focus on achalasia syndromes. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Nov;14(11):677-88.Texto completo  Resumo

Kahrilas PJ, Katzka D, Richter JE. Clinical practice update: the use of per-oral endoscopic myotomy in achalasia: expert review and best practice advice from the AGA Institute. Gastroenterology. 2017 Nov;153(5):1205-11. Resumo

Artigos de referência

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20. Ates F, Vaezi MF. The pathogenesis and management of achalasia: current status and future directions. Gut Liver. 2015 Jul;9(4):449-63.Texto completo  Resumo

21. Park W, Vaezi MF. Etiology and pathogenesis of achalasia: the current understanding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jun;100(6):1404-14. Resumo

22. Blam ME, Delfyett W, Levine MS, et al. Achalasia: a disease of varied and subtle symptoms that do not correlate with radiographic findings. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Aug;97(8):1916-23. Resumo

23. Eckardt VF. Clinical presentations and complications of achalasia. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2001 Apr;11(2):281-92. Resumo

24. Eckardt VF, Stauf B, Bernhard G. Chest pain in achalasia: patient characteristics and clinical course. Gastroenterology. 1999 Jun;116(6):1300-4. Resumo

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26. Expert Panel on Gastrointestinal Imaging; Levy AD, Carucci LR, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria®. Dysphagia. J Am Coll Radiol. 2019 May;16(5s):S104-15.Texto completo  Resumo

27. Spechler SJ, Castell DO. Classification of esophageal motility abnormalities. Gut. 2001 Jul;49(1):145-51. Resumo

28. Zaninotto G, Bennett C, Boeckxstaens G, et al. The 2018 ISDE achalasia guidelines. Dis Esophagus. 2018 Sep 1;31(9).Texto completo  Resumo

29. Fox M. Multiple rapid swallowing in idiopathic achalasia: from conventional to high resolution manometry. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007 Sep;19(9):780-1 Resumo

30. Kahrilas PJ, Bredenoord AJ, Fox M, et al. Expert consensus document: Advances in the management of oesophageal motility disorders in the era of high-resolution manometry: a focus on achalasia syndromes. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Nov;14(11):677-88.Texto completo  Resumo

31. Mariani G, Boni G, Barreca M, et al. Radionuclide gastroesophageal motor studies. J Nucl Med. 2004 Jun;45(6):1004-28. Resumo

32. Kostic SV, Rice TW, Baker ME, et al. Timed barium esophagogram: a simple physiologic assessment for achalasia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000 Nov;120(5):935-43.Texto completo  Resumo

33. Andersson M, Kostic S, Ruth M, et al. Characteristics of timed barium esophagogram in newly diagnosed idiopathic achalasia: clinical and manometric correlates. Acta Radiol. 2007 Feb;48(1):2-9. Resumo

34. Pandolfino JE, Kwiatek MA, Nealis T, et al. Achalasia: a new clinically relevant classification by high-resolution manometry. Gastroenterology. 2008 Nov;135(5):1526-33.Texto completo  Resumo

35. Fox M, Hebbard G, Janiak P, et al. High-resolution manometry predicts the success of oesophageal bolus transport and identifies clinically important abnormalities not detected by conventional manometry. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2004 Oct;16(5):533-42. Resumo

36. Gockel I, Eckardt VF, Schmitt T, et al. Pseudoachalasia: a case series and analysis of the literature. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr;40(4):378-85. Resumo

37. Vaezi MF, Pandolfino JE, Vela MF. ACG clinical guideline: diagnosis and management of achalasia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Aug;108(8):1238-49Texto completo  Resumo

38. Vela MF, Richter JE, Wachsberger D, et al. Complexities of managing achalasia at a tertiary referral center: use of pneumatic dilatation, Heller myotomy, and botulinum toxin injection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jun;99(6):1029-36. Resumo

39. Spechler SJ. American Gastroenterological Association medical position statement on treatment of patients with dysphagia caused by benign disorders of the distal esophagus. Gastroenterology. 1999 Jul;117(1):229-33.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Borhan-Manesh F, Kaviani MJ, Taghavi AR. The efficacy of balloon dilation in achalasia is the result of stretching of the lower esophageal sphincter, not muscular disruption. Dis Esophagus. 2016 Apr;29(3):262-6. Resumo

41. van Hoeij FB, Prins LI, Smout AJPM, et al. Efficacy and safety of pneumatic dilation in achalasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2019 Jul;31(7):e13548.Texto completo  Resumo

42. Borotto E, Gaudric M, Danel B, et al. Risk factors of oesophageal perforation during pneumatic dilatation for achalasia. Gut. 1996 Jul;39(1):9-12.Texto completo  Resumo

43. Katzka DA, Castell DO. Review article: an analysis of the efficacy, perforation rates and methods used in pneumatic dilation for achalasia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Oct;34(8):832-9. Resumo

44. Vanuytsel T, Lerut T, Coosemans W, et al. Conservative management of esophageal perforations during pneumatic dilation for idiopathic esophageal achalasia. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Feb;10(2):142-9. Resumo

45. Eckardt VF, Gockel I, Bernhard G. Pneumatic dilation for achalasia: late results of a prospective follow up investigation. Gut. 2004 May;53(5):629-33.Texto completo  Resumo

46. Cheng P, Shi H, Zhang Y, et al. Clinical effect of endoscopic pneumatic dilation for achalasia. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Jul;94(28):e1193.Texto completo  Resumo

47. Legros L, Ropert A, Brochard C, et al. Long-term results of pneumatic dilatation for relapsing symptoms of achalasia after Heller myotomy. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Sep;26(9):1248-55.Texto completo  Resumo

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52. Rohof WO, Salvador R, Annese V, et al. Outcomes of treatment for achalasia depend on manometric subtype. Gastroenterology. 2013 Apr;144(4):718-25Texto completo  Resumo

53. Andolfi C, Fisichella PM. Meta-analysis of clinical outcome after treatment for achalasia based on manometric subtypes. Br J Surg. 2019 Mar;106(4):332-341. Resumo

54. Csendes A, Braghetto I, Burdiles P, et al. Very late results of esophagomyotomy for patients with achalasia: clinical, endoscopic, histologic, manometric, and acid reflux studies in 67 patients for a mean follow-up of 190 months. Ann Surg. 2006 Feb;243(2):196-203. Resumo

55. Lake JM, Wong RK. Review article: the management of achalasia - a comparison of different treatment modalities. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep 15;24(6):909-18. Resumo

56. Ali A, Pellegrini CA. Laparoscopic myotomy: technique and efficacy in treating achalasia. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2001 Apr;11(2):347-58, Resumo

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58. Kahrilas PJ, Katzka D, Richter JE. Clinical practice update: the use of per-oral endoscopic myotomy in achalasia: expert review and best practice advice from the AGA Institute. Gastroenterology. 2017 Nov;153(5):1205-11. Resumo

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63. Annese V, Bassotti G, Coccia G, et al; GISMAD Achalasia Study Group. A multicentre randomised study of intrasphincteric botulinum toxin in patients with esophageal achalasia. Gut. 2000 May;46(5):597-600.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Vaezi MF, Richter JE, Wilcox CM, et al. Botulinum toxin versus pneumatic dilatation in the treatment of achalasia: a randomised trial. Gut. 1999 Feb;44(2):231-9.Texto completo  Resumo

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69. Duranceau A, Liberman M, Martin J, et al. End-stage achalasia. Dis Esophagus. 2012 May;25(4):319-30. Resumo

70. Wehrmann T, Kokabpick H, Jacobi V, et al. Long-term results of endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin in elderly achalasic patients with tortuous megaesophagus or epiphrenic diverticulum. Endoscopy. 1999 Jun;31(5):352-8. Resumo

71. Annese V, Bassotti G, Coccia G, et al; the GISMAD Achalasia Study Group. Comparison of two different formulations of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Oct;13(10):1347-50. Resumo

72. Mikaeli J, Bishehsari F, Montazeri G, et al. Injection of botulinum toxin before pneumatic dilatation in achalasia treatment: a randomized-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep 15;24(6):983-9. Resumo

73. von Renteln D, Inoue H, Minami H, et al. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia: a prospective single center study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Mar;107(3):411-7. Resumo

74. Werner YB, Costamagna G, Swanström LL, et al. Clinical response to peroral endoscopic myotomy in patients with idiopathic achalasia at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Gut. 2016 Jun;65(6):899-906. Resumo

75. Kahrilas PJ, Pandolfino JE. Treatments for achalasia in 2017: how to choose among them. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2017 Jul;33(4):270-276. Resumo

76. Frankhuisen R, van Herwaarden MA, Heijkoop R, et al. Persisting symptoms and decreased health-related quality-of-life in a cross-sectional study of treated achalasia patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Sep 15;26(6):899-904. Resumo

77. Brucher BL, Stein HJ, Bartels H, et al. Achalasia and esophageal cancer: incidence, prevalence, and prognosis. World J Surg. 2001 Jun;25(6):745-9. Resumo

78. Tustumi F, Bernardo WM, da Rocha JRM, et al. Esophageal achalasia: a risk factor for carcinoma. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Dis Esophagus. 2017 Oct 1;30(10):1-8. Resumo

79. Dunaway PM, Wong RK. Risk and surveillance intervals for squamous cell carcinoma in achalasia. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2001 Apr;11(2):425-34, Resumo

80. Zendehdel K, Nyrén O, Edberg A, et al. Risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in achalasia patients, a retrospective cohort study in Sweden. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jan;106(1):57-61. Resumo

81. Ravi K, Geno DM, Katzka DA. Esophageal cancer screening in achalasia: is there a consensus? Dis Esophagus. 2015 Apr;28(3):299-304. Resumo

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