Convulsões generalizadas em crianças


Principais artigos

Scheffer IE, Berkovic S, Capovilla G, et al. ILAE classification of the epilepsies: Position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):512-21. Resumo

Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):522-30.Texto completo  Resumo

Eriksson KJ, Koivikko MJ. Prevalence, classification, and severity of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes in children. Epilepsia. 1997;38:1275-1282. Resumo

Kossoff EH, Zupec-Kania BA, Amark PE, et al. Optimal clinical management of children receiving the ketogenic diet: recommendations of the International Ketogenic Diet Study Group. Epilepsia. 2009 Feb;50(2):304-17.Texto completo  Resumo

Nordli DR Jr. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005;46(suppl 9):48-56.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Scheffer IE, Berkovic S, Capovilla G, et al. ILAE classification of the epilepsies: Position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):512-21. Resumo

2. Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):522-30.Texto completo  Resumo

3. Eriksson KJ, Koivikko MJ. Prevalence, classification, and severity of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes in children. Epilepsia. 1997;38:1275-1282. Resumo

4. Hauser WA. The prevalence and incidence of convulsive disorders in children. Epilepsia. 1994;35(suppl 2):S1-S6. Resumo

5. Hauser WA, Hesdorffer DC. Epilepsy: frequency, causes, and consequences. New York, NY: Demos; 1990:18-21.

6. Camfield CS, Camfield PR, Gordon K, et al. Incidence of epilepsy in childhood and adolescents: a population-based study in Nova Scotia from 1977 to 1985. Epilepsia. 1996;37:19-23. Resumo

7. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935-1984. Epilepsia. 1993 May-Jun;34(3):453-68. Resumo

8. Berg AT. Risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure. Epilepsia. 2008;49 Suppl 1:13-8. Resumo

9. Ramos Lizana J, Cassinello Garcia E, Carrasco Marina LL, et al. Seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure in childhood: a prospective study. Epilepsia. 2000;41:1005-1013. Resumo

10. Gardiner M. Genetics of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2005;4(suppl 9):15-20.Texto completo  Resumo

11. Weber YG, Lerche H. Genetic mechanisms in idiopathic epilepsies. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008 Sep;50(9):648-54. Resumo

12. Nakayama J, Arinami T. Molecular genetics of febrile seizures. Epilepsy Res. 2006 Aug;70(suppl 1):S190-8. Resumo

13. Kramer MA, Cash SS. Epilepsy as a disorder of cortical network organization. Neuroscientist. 2012 Aug;18(4):360-72.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Destexhe A, McCormick DA, Sejnowski TJ. Thalamic and thalamocortical mechanisms underlying 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges. Prog Brain Res. 1999;121:289-307. Resumo

15. Robinson R, Gardiner M. Genetics of childhood epilepsy. Arch Dis Child. 2000 Feb;82(2):121-5.Texto completo  Resumo

16. Daoud AS, Batieha A, Bashtawi M, et al. Risk factors for childhood epilepsy: a case-control study from Irbid, Jordan. Seizure. 2003 Apr;12(3):171-4. Resumo

17. Caravale B, Allemand F, Libenson MH. Factors predictive of seizures and neurologic outcome in perinatal depression. Pediatr Neurol. 2003 Jul;29(1):18-25. Resumo

18. Appleton RE, Demellweek C. Post-traumatic epilepsy in children requiring inpatient rehabilitation following head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002 May;72(5):669-72.Texto completo  Resumo

19. Giovanardi Rossi P, Posar A, Parmeggiani A. Epilepsy in adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder. Brain Dev. 2000 Mar;22(2):102-6. Resumo

20. Steffenburg S, Steffenburg U, Gillberg C. Autism spectrum disorders in children with active epilepsy and learning disability: comorbidity, pre- and perinatal background, and seizure characteristics. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2003 Nov;45(11):724-30. Resumo

21. Vestergaard M, Pedersen CB, Sidenius P, et al. The long-term risk of epilepsy after febrile seizures in susceptible subgroups. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Apr 15;165(8):911-8.Texto completo  Resumo

22. Wallace SJ. Febrile seizures. In: Wallace SJ, Farrell K, eds. Epilepsy in children, 2nd ed. London, UK: Arnold; 2004:123.

23. Berg AT, Shinnar S, Levy SR, et al. Childhood-onset epilepsy with and without preceding febrile seizures. Neurology. 1999 Nov 10;53(8):1742-8. Resumo

24. Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child. 2004 Aug;89(8):751-6.Texto completo  Resumo

25. Panayiotopoulos CP. A clinical guide to epileptic syndromes and their treatment. 2nd ed. London, UK: Springer; 2007.

26. Lu Y, Waltz S, Stenzel K, et al. Photosensitivity in epileptic syndromes of childhood and adolescence. Epileptic Disord. 2008 Jun;10(2):136-43. Resumo

27. Stephani U. The natural history of myoclonic astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Epilepsia. 2006;47(suppl 2):53-5.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Pressler R, Binnie CD, Cooper R, et al, eds. Neonatal and paediatric clinical neurophysiology. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 2007.

29. Winckler MI, Rotta NT. Clinical and electroencephalographic follow-up after a first unprovoked seizure. Pediatr Neurol. 2004 Mar;30(3):201-6. Resumo

30. Ohtahara S, Yamatogi Y. Ohtahara syndrome: with special reference to its developmental aspects for differentiating from early myoclonic encephalopathy. Epilepsy Res. 2006 Aug;70(suppl 1):S58-67. Resumo

31. Crespel A, Gelisse P, Bureau M, et al. Atlas of electroencephalography volume 2: the epilepsies, EEG and epileptic syndromes. Montrouge, France: John Libbey Eurotext; 2006.

32. Joshi CN, Patrick J. Eyelid myoclonia with absences: routine EEG is sufficient to make a diagnosis. Seizure. 2007 Apr;16(3):254-60. Resumo

33. Koutroumanidis M, Aggelakis K, Panayiotopoulos CP. Idiopathic epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only versus idiopathic epilepsy with phantom absences and generalized tonic-clonic seizures: one or two syndromes? Epilepsia. 2008 Dec;49(12):2050-62. Resumo

34. Cross JH. Pitfalls in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of epilepsy. Paediatr Child Health. 2009;19:199-202.

35. Lai V, Mak HK, Yung AW, et al. Neuroimaging techniques in epilepsy. Hong Kong Med J. 2010 Aug;16(4):292-8.Texto completo  Resumo

36. Bhatia MS. Pseudoseizures. Indian Pediatr. 2004;41:673-679.Texto completo  Resumo

37. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Epilepsies in children, young people and adults. Apr 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

38. Dwivedi R, Ramanujam B, Chandra PS, et al. Surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy in children. N Engl J Med. 2017 Oct 26;377(17):1639-47.Texto completo  Resumo

39. Hirtz D, Berg A, Bettis D, et al. Practice parameter: treatment of the child with a first unprovoked seizure. Neurology. 2003 Jan 28;60(2):166-75.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Guerrini R, Zaccara G, la Marca G, et al. Safety and tolerability of antiepileptic drug treatment in children with epilepsy. Drug Saf. 2012 Jul 1;35(7):519-33. Resumo

41. Verrotti A, Loiacono G, Coppola G, et al. Pharmacotherapy for children and adolescents with epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011 Feb;12(2):175-94. Resumo

42. Rosenow F, Schade-Brittinger C, Burchardi N, et al; LaLiMo Study Group. The LaLiMo Trial: lamotrigine compared with levetiracetam in the initial 26 weeks of monotherapy for focal and generalised epilepsy - an open-label, prospective, randomised controlled multicenter study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2012 Nov;83(11):1093-8. Resumo

43. Nevitt SJ, Sudell M, Weston J, et al. Antiepileptic drug monotherapy for epilepsy: a network meta-analysis of individual participant data. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(6):CD011412.Texto completo  Resumo

44. French JA, Krauss GL, Wechsler RT, et al. Perampanel for tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2015 Sep 15;85(11):950-7.Texto completo  Resumo

45. Robinson R. Vagal nerve stimulation is more effective than trials of further anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in children who have already tried >5 AEDs. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2011;15(suppl 1):89.

46. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Auguste KI. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: a meta-analysis of efficacy and predictors of response. J Neurosurg. 2011 Dec;115(6):1248-55. Resumo

47. Martin-McGill KJ, Jackson CF, Bresnahan R, et al. Ketogenic diets for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 7;11:CD001903.Texto completo  Resumo

48. European Medicines Agency. New measures to avoid valproate exposure in pregnancy endorsed. EMA/145600/2018. March 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

49. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy: updated advice following comprehensive safety review. Jan 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

50. McIntyre J, Robertson S, Norris E, et al. Safety and efficacy of buccal midazolam versus rectal diazepam for emergency treatment of seizures in children: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 Jul 16-22;366(9481):205-10. Resumo

51. Holsti M, Sill BL, Firth SD, et al. Prehospital intranasal midazolam for the treatment of pediatric seizures. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007 Mar;23(3):148-53. Resumo

52. Holsti M, Dudley N, Schunk J, et al. Intranasal midazolam vs rectal diazepam for the home treatment of acute seizures in pediatric patients with epilepsy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 Aug;164(8):747-53. Resumo

53. Engel J Jr; International League Against Epilepsy. A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy: report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2001 Jun;42(6):796-803.Texto completo  Resumo

54. Ozawa H, Kawada Y, Noma S, et al. Oral high-dose phenobarbital therapy for early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Pediatr Neurol. 2002 Mar;26(3):222-4. Resumo

55. Ohno M, Shimotsuji Y, Abe J, et al. Zonisamide treatment of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Pediatr Neurol. 2000 Oct;23(4):341-4. Resumo

56. Kossoff EH, Zupec-Kania BA, Amark PE, et al. Optimal clinical management of children receiving the ketogenic diet: recommendations of the International Ketogenic Diet Study Group. Epilepsia. 2009 Feb;50(2):304-17.Texto completo  Resumo

57. O'Callaghan FJ, Edwards S, Hancock E, et al. OP50 - 3017: The International Collaborative Infantile Spasms Study (ICISS) comparing hormonal therapies (prednisolone or tetracosactide depot) and vigabatrin versus hormonal therapies alone in the treatment of infantile spasms: Early clinical outcome. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2015 May;19(suppl 1):S16–17.

58. Nelson GR. Management of infantile spasms. Transl Pediatr. 2015 Oct;4(4):260-70.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Hancock EC, Osborne JP, Edwards SW. Treatment of infantile spasms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(6):CD001770.Texto completo  Resumo

60. Glaze DG, Hrachovy RA, Frost JD Jr, et al. Prospective study of outcome of infants with infantile spasms treated during controlled studies of ACTH and prednisone. J Pediatr. 1988 Mar;112(3):389-96. Resumo

61. Baram TZ, Mitchell WG, Tournay A, et al. High-dose corticotropin (ACTH) versus prednisone for infantile spasms: a prospective, randomized, blinded study. Pediatrics. 1996 Mar;97(3):375-9. Resumo

62. Lux AL, Edwards SW, Hancock E, et al. The United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study comparing vigabatrin with prednisolone or tetracosactide at 14 days: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Nov 13-19;364(9447):1773-8. Resumo

63. Zou LP, Ding CH, Fang F, et al. Prospective study of first-choice topiramate therapy in newly diagnosed infantile spasms. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2006 Nov-Dec;29(6):343-9. Resumo

64. Korinthenberg R, Schreiner A. Topiramate in children with West syndrome: a retrospective multicenter evaluation of 100 patients. J Child Neurol. 2007 Mar;22(3):302-6. Resumo

65. Suzuki Y, Imai K, Toribe Y, et al. Long-term response to zonisamide in patients with West syndrome. Neurology. 2002 May 28;58(10):1556-9. Resumo

66. Kluger G, Zsoter A, Holthausen H. Long-term use of zonisamide in refractory childhood-onset epilepsy. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2008 Jan;12(1):19-23. Resumo

67. Hartman AL, Vining EP. Clinical aspects of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 2007 Jan;48(1):31-42.Texto completo  Resumo

68. Auvin S, Pandit F, De Bellecize J, et al. Benign myoclonic epilepsy in infants: electroclinical features and long-term follow-up of 34 patients. Epilepsia. 2006 Feb;47(2):387-93.Texto completo  Resumo

69. Oguni H. Symptomatic epilepsies imitating idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2005;46(suppl 9):84-90.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Nordli DR Jr. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2005;46(suppl 9):48-56.Texto completo  Resumo

71. Kassai B, Chiron C, Augier S, et al. Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Epilepsia. 2008 Feb;49(2):343-8. Resumo

72. Chiron C, Marchand MC, Tran A, et al. Stiripentol in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy: a randomised placebo-controlled syndrome-dedicated trial. Lancet. 2000 Nov 11;356(9242):1638-42. Resumo

73. Brigo F, Igwe SC, Bragazzi NL. Antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(5):CD010483.Texto completo  Resumo

74. Nieto-Barrera M, Candau R, Nieto-Jimenez M, et al. Topiramate in the treatment of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Seizure. 2000 Dec;9(8):590-4. Resumo

75. Guerrini R, Dravet C, Genton P, et al. Lamotrigine and seizure aggravation in severe myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1998 May;39(5):508-12. Resumo

76. Crespel A, Genton P, Berramdane M, et al. Lamotrigine associated with exacerbation or de novo myoclonus in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Neurology. 2005 Sep 13;65(5):762-4. Resumo

77. Dalic L, Mullen SA, Roulet Perez E, et al. Lamotrigine can be beneficial in patients with Dravet syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2015 Feb;57(2):200-2.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Caraballo RH, Cersosimo RO, Sakr D, et al. Ketogenic diet in patients with Dravet syndrome. Epilepsia. 2005 Sep;46(9):1539-44.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Kilaru S, Bergqvist AG. Current treatment of myoclonic astatic epilepsy: clinical experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Epilepsia. 2007 Sep;48(9):1703-07.Texto completo  Resumo

80. Oguni H, Tanaka T, Hayashi K, et al. Treatment and long-term prognosis of myoclonic-astatic epilepsy of early childhood. Neuropediatrics. 2002 Jun;33(3):122-32. Resumo

81. Sachdeo RC, Glauser TA, Ritter F, et al. A double-blind, randomized trial of topiramate in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Topiramate YL Study Group. Neurology. 1999 Jun 10;52(9):1882-7. Resumo

82. Motte J, Trevathan E, Arvidsson JF, et al; Lamictal Lennox-Gastaut Study Group. Lamotrigine for generalized seizures associated with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1997 Dec 18;337(25):1807-12.Texto completo  Resumo

83. The Felbamate Study Group in Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. Efficacy of felbamate in childhood epileptic encephalopathy (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome). N Engl J Med. 1993 Jan 7;328(1):29-33.Texto completo  Resumo

84. Dodson WE. Felbamate in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: results of a 12-month open-label study following a randomized clinical trial. Epilepsia. 1993;34(suppl 7):S18-24. Resumo

85. Hancock EC, Cross JH. Treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(2):CD003277.Texto completo  Resumo

86. Wier HA, Cerna A, So TY. Rufinamide for pediatric patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: a comprehensive overview. Pediatr Drugs. 2011 Apr 1;13(2):97-106. Resumo

87. Kim SH, Eun SH, Kang HC, et al. Rufinamide as an adjuvant treatment in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Seizure. 2012 May;21(4):288-91. Resumo

88. Leahy JT, Chu-Shore CJ, Fisher JL. Clobazam as an adjunctive therapy in treating seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:673-81.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Panayiotopoulos CP. Typical absence seizures and their treatment. Arch Dis Child. 1999 Oct;81(4):351-5.Texto completo  Resumo

90. Coppola G, Auricchio G, Federico R, et al. Lamotrigine versus valproic acid as first-line monotherapy in newly diagnosed typical absence seizures: an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study. Epilepsia. 2004 Sep;45(9):1049-53.Texto completo  Resumo

91. Trudeau V, Myers S, LaMoreaux L, et al. Gabapentin in naive childhood absence epilepsy: results from two double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies. J Child Neurol. 1996 Nov;11(6):470-5. Resumo

92. Kostov H, Larsson PG, Roste GK. Is vagus nerve stimulation a treatment option for patients with drug-resistant idiopathic generalized epilepsy? Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2007;187:55-8. Resumo

93. Covanis A, Gupta AK, Jeavons PM. Sodium valproate: monotherapy and polytherapy. Epilepsia. 1982 Dec;23(6):693-720. Resumo

94. Trevathan E, Kerls SP, Hammer AE, et al. Lamotrigine adjunctive therapy among children and adolescents with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Pediatrics. 2006 Aug;118(2):e371-8. Resumo

95. Tennis P, Eldridge RR; International Lamotrigine Pregnancy Registry Scientific Advisory Committee. Preliminary results on pregnancy outcomes in women using lamotrigine. Epilepsia. 2002 Oct;43(10):1161-7.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Berkovic SF, Knowlton RC, Leroy RF, et al; Levetiracetam N01057 Study Group. Placebo-controlled study of levetiracetam in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Neurology. 2007 Oct 30;69(18):1751-60. Resumo

97. Sharpe DV, Patel AD, Abou-Khalil B, et al. Levetiracetam monotherapy in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Seizure. 2008 Jan;17(1):64-8. Resumo

98. Verrotti A, Cerminara C, Coppola G, et al. Levetiracetam in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: long-term efficacy in newly diagnosed adolescents. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008 Jan;50(1):29-32. Resumo

99. Marson AG, Al-Kharusi AM, Alwaidh M, et al; SANAD Study group. The SANAD study of effectiveness of valproate, lamotrigine, or topiramate for generalised and unclassifiable epilepsy: an unblinded randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Mar 24;369(9566):1016-26.Texto completo  Resumo

100. Wirrell E, Camfield C, Camfield P, et al. Prognostic significance of failure of the initial antiepileptic drug in children with absence epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2001 Jun;42(6):760-3. Resumo

101. Biton V, Montouris GD, Ritter F, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of topiramate in primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Topiramate YTC Study Group. Neurology. 1999 Apr 22;52(7):1330-7. Resumo

102. Wheless JW. Use of topiramate in childhood generalized seizure disorders. J Child Neurol. 2000;15(suppl 1):S7-13. Resumo

103. Wheless JW, Neto W, Wang S; EPMN-105 Study Group. Topiramate, carbamazepine, and valproate monotherapy: double-blind comparison in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. J Child Neurol. 2004 Feb;19(2):135-41. Resumo

104. Mehta V, Ferrie CD, Cross JH, et al. Corticosteroids including ACTH for childhood epilepsy other than epileptic spasms. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(6):CD005222.Texto completo  Resumo

105. Gloss D, Pargeon K, Pack A, et al. Antiseizure medication withdrawal in seizure-free patients: practice advisory update summary: report of the AAN guideline subcommittee. Neurology. 2021 Dec 7;97(23):1072-81.Texto completo  Resumo

106. Panayiotopoulos CP. The epilepsies: seizures, syndromes and management. Oxford, UK: Bladon Medical Publishing; 2005:105.

107. Henderson CB, Filloux FM, Alder SC, et al. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet as a treatment option for epilepsy: meta-analysis. J Child Neurol. 2006 Mar;21(3):193-8. Resumo

108. Morris GL 3rd, Gloss D, Buchhalter J, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of epilepsy. Neurology. 2013 Oct 15;81(16):1453-9.Texto completo  Resumo

109. Wallace SJ. Myoclonus and epilepsy in childhood: a review of treatment with valproate, ethosuximide, lamotrigine and zonisamide. Epilepsy Res. 1998 Jan;29(2):147-54. Resumo

110. Tjia-Leong E, Leong K, Marson AG. Lamotrigine adjunctive therapy for refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(12):CD007783.Texto completo  Resumo

111. Devinsky O, Patel AD, Cross JH, et al. Effect of cannabidiol on drop seizures in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 17;378(20):1888-97.Texto completo  Resumo

112. Miller I, Scheffer IE, Gunning B, et al. Dose-ranging effect of adjunctive oral cannabidiol vs placebo on convulsive seizure frequency in Dravet syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol. 2020 May 1;77(5):613-21.Texto completo  Resumo

113. Hogan RE, Gidal BE, Koplowitz B, et al. Bioavailability and safety of diazepam intranasal solution compared to oral and rectal diazepam in healthy volunteers. Epilepsia. 2020 Mar;61(3):455-64.Texto completo  Resumo

114. Lagae L, Sullivan J, Knupp K, et al. Fenfluramine hydrochloride for the treatment of seizures in Dravet syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2020 Dec 21;394(10216):2243-54. Resumo

115. Nabbout R, Mistry A, Zuberi S, et al. Fenfluramine for treatment-resistant seizures in patients with Dravet syndrome receiving stiripentol-inclusive regimens: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol. 2019 Dec 2 [Epub ahead of print].Texto completo  Resumo

116. Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, et al. Efficacy and safety of fenfluramine for the treatment of seizures associated with ennox-Gastaut syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Neurol. 2022 May 2 [Epub ahead of print].Texto completo  Resumo

117. Hauser E, Freilinger M, Seidl R, et al. Prognosis of childhood epilepsy in newly referred patients. J Child Neurol. 1996;11:201-204. Resumo

118. Sillanpää M, Schmidt D. Natural history of treated childhood-onset epilepsy: prospective, long-term population-based study. Brain. 2006;129:617-624.Texto completo  Resumo

119. Leone MA, Solari A, Beghi E; FIRST Group. Treatment of the first tonic-clonic seizure does not affect long-term remission of epilepsy. Neurology. 2006;67:2227-2229. Resumo

120. Beghi E, Leone M, Vallalta R, et al. Long-term mortality after a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure: risk factors and treatment effects. Oral presentations, abstract O6. Regional North American Annual Meeting of the World Federation of Neurology - Research Group on Neuroepidemiology, Toronto; 2010. Neuroepidemiology. 2010;34:274.Texto completo

121. Mitchell WG. Status epilepticus and acute serial seizures in children. J Child Neurol. 2002 Jan;17 Suppl 1:S36-43. Resumo

122. Sofou K, Kristjánsdóttir R, Papachatzakis NE, et al. Management of prolonged seizures and status epilepticus in childhood: a systematic review. J Child Neurol. 2009 Aug;24(8):918-26. Resumo

123. Neville BG, Chin RF, Scott RC. Childhood convulsive status epilepticus: epidemiology, management and outcome. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2007;186:21-4. Resumo

124. Shorvon S. The management of status epilepticus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001 Jun;70 Suppl 2:II22-7.Texto completo  Resumo

125. Harden C, Tomson T, Gloss D, et al; American Academy of Neurology, American Epilepsy Society. Practice guideline summary: sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence rates and risk factors. Neurology. 2017 Apr 25;88(17):1674-80.Texto completo  Resumo

126. da Costa CRCM, Maia Filho HS, Gomes MM. Clinical and neuropsychological evaluation of attention in children and adolescents with epilepsy: a systematic review [in Portuguese]. J Epilepsy Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;15(2):77-82.Texto completo

127. Cheng LS, Prasad AN, Rieder MJ. Relationship between antiepileptic drugs and biological markers affecting long-term cardiovascular function in children and adolescents. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Winter;17(1):e5-46. Resumo

128. Fleeman N, Bradley PM, Panebianco M, et al. Care delivery and self-management strategies for children with epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022 Apr 27;4:CD006245.Texto completo  Resumo

129. Fleeman N, Bradley PM. Care delivery and self-management strategies for children with epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;(3):CD006245.Texto completo  Resumo

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