Pneumonia hospitalar

Referências

Principais artigos

Kress JP, Pohlman AS, O'Connor MF, et al. Daily interruption of sedative infusions in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 18;342(20):1471-7.Texto completo  Resumo

Kollef MH, Afessa B, Anzueto A, et al. Silver-coated endotracheal tubes and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia: the NASCENT randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 Aug 20;300(7):805-13.Texto completo  Resumo

Singh N, Rogers P, Atwood CW, et al. Short-course empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the intensive care unit: a proposed solution for indiscriminate antibiotic prescription. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Aug;162(2 Pt 1):505-11.Texto completo  Resumo

Chastre J, Wolff M, Fagon JY, et al; PneumA Trial Group. Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 Nov 19;290(19):2588-98.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, et al. Management of adults with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: 2016 clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:e61-e111.Texto completo  Resumo

2. Iregui M, Ward S, Sherman G, et al. Clinical importance of delays in the initiation of appropriate antibiotic treatment for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chest. 2002 Jul;122(1):262-8. Resumo

3. Tablan OC, Anderson LJ, Besser R, et al. Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2004 Mar 26;53(RR-3):1-36.Texto completo  Resumo

4. Masterton RG, Galloway A, French G, et al. Guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia in the UK: report of the working party on hospital-acquired pneumonia of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Jul;62(1):5-34.Texto completo  Resumo

5. Richards MJ, Edwards JR, Culver DH, et al. Nosocomial infections in medical intensive care units in the United States: National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Crit Care Med. 1999 May;27(5):887-92. Resumo

6. Muscedere JG, Day A, Heyland DK. Mortality, attributable mortality, and clinical events as end points for clinical trials of ventilator-associated pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 1;51 Suppl 1:S120-5.Texto completo  Resumo

7. Kollef MH, Hamilton CW, Ernst FR. Economic impact of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a large matched cohort. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012 Mar;33(3):250-6. Resumo

8. Heyland DK, Cook DJ, Griffith L, et al. The attributable morbidity and mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the critically ill patient. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Apr;159(4 Pt 1):1249-56.Texto completo  Resumo

9. Mosier MJ, Pham TN. American Burn Association practice guidelines for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in burn patients. J Burn Care Res. 2009 Nov-Dec;30(6):910-28. Resumo

10. Rubinstein E, Kollef MH, Nathwani D. Pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jun 1;46 Suppl 5:S378-85. Resumo

11. Allen M, Mirsaeidi M, Peyrani P, et al. Emergence of community-associated MRSA as etiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia: results from the IMPACT HAP study. Paper presented at: 46th Annual Meeting of ICAAC/IDSA; October 2008; Washington, D.C.

12. Sopena N, Sabrià M; Neunos 2000 Study Group. Multicenter study of hospital-acquired pneumonia in non-ICU patients. Chest. 2005 Jan;127(1):213-9. Resumo

13. el-Ebiary M, Sarmiento X, Torres A, et al. Prognostic factors of severe Legionella pneumonia requiring admission to ICU. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Nov;156(5):1467-72.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Wilde JA, McMillan JA, Serwint J, et al. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in health care professionals: a randomized trial. JAMA. 1999 Mar 10;281(10):908-13.Texto completo  Resumo

15. Sarubbi FA Jr, Kopf HB, Wilson MB, et al. Increased recovery of Aspergillus flavus from respiratory specimens during hospital construction. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982 Jan;125(1):33-8. Resumo

16. Cook D, De Jonghe B, Brochard L, et al. Influence of airway management on ventilator-associated pneumonia: evidence from randomized trials. JAMA. 1998 Mar 11;279(10):781-7. Resumo

17. Bergmans DC, Bonten MJ, van Tiel FH, et al. Cross-colonisation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa of patients in an intensive care unit. Thorax. 1998 Dec;53(12):1053-8.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Craven DE, Steger KA. Nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated adult patients: epidemiology and prevention in 1996. Semin Respir Infect. 1996 Mar;11(1):32-53. Resumo

19. Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, et al. Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Lancet. 2000 Oct 14;356(9238):1307-12. Resumo

20. Kollef MH. The prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 25;340(8):627-34. Resumo

21. Cook D, Guyatt G, Marshall J, et al. A comparison of sucralfate and ranitidine for the prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 1998 Mar 19;338(12):791-7.Texto completo  Resumo

22. Donowitz GR, Mandell GL. Acute pneumonia. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2005:819-45.

23. Hess DR. Patient positioning and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Respir Care. 2005 Jul;50(7):892-8; discussion 898-9. Resumo

24. Drakulovic MB, Torres A, Bauer TT, et al. Supine body position as a risk factor for nosocomial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a randomised trial. Lancet. 1999 Nov 27;354(9193):1851-8. Resumo

25. Niël-Weise BS, Gastmeier P, Kola A, et al. An evidence-based recommendation on bed head elevation for mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care. 2011;15(2):R111.Texto completo  Resumo

26. Huang JC, Cao Y, Liao C, et al. Effect of histamine-2-receptor antagonists versus sucralfate on stress ulcer prophylaxis in mechanically ventilated patients: a meta-analysis of 10 randomized controlled trials. Crit Care. 2010;14(5):R194.Texto completo  Resumo

27. MacLaren R, Reynolds PM, Allen RR. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists vs proton pump inhibitors on gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage and infectious complications in the intensive care unit. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Apr;174(4):564-74. Resumo

28. Schleder B, Stott K, Lloyd RC. The effect of a comprehensive oral care protocol on patients at risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care Nurse Clinic N Am. 2002;4:27-30.

29. Hua F, Xie H, Worthington HV, et al. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 25;(10):CD008367.Texto completo  Resumo

30. Berry AM, Davidson PM, Masters J, et al. Systematic literature review of oral hygiene practices for intensive care patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Am J Crit Care. 2007 Nov;16(6):552-62; quiz 563. Resumo

31. DeRiso AJ 2nd, Ladowski JS, Dillon TA, et al. Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% oral rinse reduces the incidence of total nosocomial respiratory infection and nonprophylactic systemic antibiotic use in patients undergoing heart surgery. Chest. 1996 Jun;109(6):1556-61. Resumo

32. Marelich GP, Murin S, Battistella F, et al. Protocol weaning of mechanical ventilation in medical and surgical patients by respiratory care practitioners and nurses: effect on weaning time and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chest. 2000 Aug;118(2):459-67. Resumo

33. Kress JP, Pohlman AS, O'Connor MF, et al. Daily interruption of sedative infusions in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 18;342(20):1471-7.Texto completo  Resumo

34. Gao F, Yang LH, He HR, et al. The effect of reintubation on ventilator-associated pneumonia and mortality among mechanically ventilated patients with intubation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart Lung. 2016 Jul-Aug;45(4):363-71. Resumo

35. Klompas M, Branson R, Eichenwald EC, et al. Strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014 Aug;35(8):915-36.Texto completo  Resumo

36. Allegranzi B, Pittet D. Preventing infections acquired during health-care delivery. Lancet. 2008 Nov 15;372(9651):1719-20. Resumo

37. Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings: recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002 Oct 25;51(RR-16):1-45, quiz CE1-4.Texto completo  Resumo

38. Burns KE, Meade MO, Premji A, et al. Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation as a weaning strategy for intubated adults with respiratory failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 9;(12):CD004127.Texto completo  Resumo

39. Ou J, Chen H, Li L, et al. The role of non-invasive ventilation used immediately after planned extubation for adults with chronic respiratory disorders. Saudi Med J. 2018 Feb;39(2):131-6.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Hellyer TP, Ewan V, Wilson P, et al. The Intensive Care Society recommended bundle of interventions for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. J Intensive Care Soc. 2016 Aug;17(3):238-43.Texto completo  Resumo

41. Han JN, Liu YP, Ma S, et al. Effects of decreasing the frequency of ventilator circuit changes to every 7 days on the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Beijing hospital. Respir Care. 2001 Sep;46(9):891-6. Resumo

42. Han J, Liu Y. Effect of ventilator circuit changes on ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Care. 2010 Apr;55(4):467-74.Texto completo  Resumo

43. Panchabhai TS, Dangayach NS, Krishnan A, et al. Oropharyngeal cleansing with 0.2% chlorhexidine for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients: an open-label randomized trial with 0.01% potassium permanganate as control. Chest. 2009 May;135(5):1150-6. Resumo

44. Klompas M, Speck K, Howell MD, et al. Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 May;174(5):751-61. Resumo

45. Alexiou VG, Ierodiakonou V, Dimopoulos G, et al. Impact of patient position on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Crit Care. 2009 Dec;24(4):515-22. Resumo

46. Kollef MH, Afessa B, Anzueto A, et al. Silver-coated endotracheal tubes and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia: the NASCENT randomized trial. JAMA. 2008 Aug 20;300(7):805-13.Texto completo  Resumo

47. Damas P, Frippiat F, Ancion A, et al. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated conditions: a randomized controlled trial with subglottic secretion suctioning. Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan;43(1):22-30. Resumo

48. Mao Z, Gao L, Wang G, et al. Subglottic secretion suction for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: an updated meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Crit Care. 2016 Oct 28;20(1):353.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Lacherade JC, De Jonghe B, Guezennec P, et al. Intermittent subglottic secretion drainage and ventilator-associated pneumonia: a multicenter trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Oct 1;182(7):910-7.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Gillies D, Todd DA, Foster JP, Batuwitage BT. Heat and moisture exchangers versus heated humidifiers for mechanically ventilated adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 14;(9):CD004711.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Siempos II, Ntaidou TK, Falagas ME. Impact of the administration of probiotics on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care Med. 2010 Mar;38(3):954-62. Resumo

52. Canter RR, Harvey SE, Harrison DA, et al. Observational study of current use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in UK Critical Care units. Br J Anaesth. 2014 Oct;113(4):610-7. Resumo

53. Li Z, Qi J, Zhao X, et al. Risk-benefit profile of gastric vs transpyloric feeding in mechanically ventilated patients: a meta-analysis. Nutr Clin Pract. 2016 Feb;31(1):91-8. Resumo

54. van Zanten AR, Brinkman S, Arbous MS, et al. Guideline bundles adherence and mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug;42(8):1890-8. Resumo

55. Staub LJ, Biscaro RRM, Maurici R. Accuracy and Applications of Lung Ultrasound to Diagnose Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: A Systematic Review. J Intensive Care Med. 2018 Aug;33(8):447-55.Texto completo  Resumo

56. Torres A, Ewig S. Diagnosing ventilator-associated pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 29;350(5):433-5. Resumo

57. American Thoracic Society; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Feb 15;171(4):388-416.Texto completo  Resumo

58. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. A randomized trial of diagnostic techniques for ventilator-associated pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 21;355(25):2619-30.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Lam SW, Bauer SR, Fowler R, et al. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Procalcitonin-Guidance Versus Usual Care for Antimicrobial Management in Critically Ill Patients: Focus on Subgroups Based on Antibiotic Initiation, Cessation, or Mixed Strategies. Crit Care Med. 2018 May;46(5):684-90.Texto completo  Resumo

60. Sahn SA. Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 1;45(11):1480-6.Texto completo  Resumo

61. Ramirez P, Garcia MA, Ferrer M, et al. Sequential measurements of procalcitonin levels in diagnosing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2008 Feb;31(2):356-62.Texto completo  Resumo

62. Clec'h C, Timsit JF, De Lassence A, et al. Efficacy of adequate early antibiotic therapy in ventilator-associated pneumonia: influence of disease severity. Intensive Care Med. 2004 Jul;30(7):1327-33. Resumo

63. Muscedere JG, Shorr AF, Jiang X, et al. The adequacy of timely empiric antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia: an important determinant of outcome. J Crit Care. 2012 Jun;27(3):322.e7-14. Resumo

64. Ibrahim EH, Ward S, Sherman G, et al. Experience with a clinical guideline for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jun;29(6):1109-15. Resumo

65. Manzur A, Tubau F, Pujol M, et al. Nosocomial outbreak due to extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase- producing Enterobacter cloacae in a cardiothoracic intensive care unit. J Clin Microbiol. 2007 Aug;45(8):2365-9.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Mentzelopoulos SD, Pratikaki M, Platsouka E, et al. Prolonged use of carbapenems and colistin predisposes to ventilator-associated pneumonia by pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Intensive Care Med. 2007 Sep;33(9):1524-32. Resumo

67. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. November 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

68. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects. March 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

69. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA advises restricting fluoroquinolone antibiotic use for certain uncomplicated infections; warns about disabling side effects that can occur together. July 2016 [internet publication].Texto completo

70. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. December 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

71. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. October 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

72. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Pneumonia (hospital-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing. September 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

73. Franzetti F, Antonelli M, Bassetti M, et al. Consensus document on controversial issues for the treatment of hospital-associated pneumonia. Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct;14 Suppl 4:S55-65. Resumo

74. Heyland DK, Dodek P, Muscedere J, et al. Randomized trial of combination versus monotherapy for the empiric treatment of suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2008 Mar;36(3):737-44. Resumo

75. Kim JW, Chung J, Choi SH, et al. Early use of imipenem/cilastatin and vancomycin followed by de-escalation versus conventional antimicrobials without de-escalation for patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia in a medical ICU: a randomized clinical trial. Crit Care. 2012 Feb 15;16(1):R28.Texto completo  Resumo

76. Kett DH, Cano E, Quartin AA, et al. Implementation of guidelines for management of possible multidrug-resistant pneumonia in intensive care: an observational, multicentre cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Mar;11(3):181-9. Resumo

77. Freire AT, Melnyk V, Kim MJ, et al. Comparison of tigecycline with imipenem/cilastatin for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Oct;68(2):140-51. Resumo

78. McGovern PC, Wible M, El-Tahtawy A, et al. All-cause mortality imbalance in the tigecycline phase 3 and 4 clinical trials. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013 May;41(5):463-7. Resumo

79. Rubinstein E, Cammarata S, Oliphant T, et al. Linezolid (PNU-100766) versus vancomycin in the treatment of hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Feb 1;32(3):402-12.Texto completo  Resumo

80. Wunderink RG, Cammarata SK, Oliphant TH. Continuation of a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of linezolid versus vancomycin in the treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia. Clin Ther. 2003 Mar;25(3):980-92. Resumo

81. Kollef MH, Rello J, Cammarata SK, et al. Clinical cure and survival in Gram-positive ventilator-associated pneumonia: retrospective analysis of two double-blind studies comparing linezolid with vancomycin. Intensive Care Med. 2004 Mar;30(3):388-94. Resumo

82. Kalil AC, Murthy MH, Hermsen ED, et al. Linezolid versus vancomycin or teicoplanin for nosocomial pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2010 Sep;38(9):1802-8. Resumo

83. Walkey AJ, O'Donnell MR, Wiener RS. Linezolid vs glycopeptide antibiotics for the treatment of suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chest. 2011 May;139(5):1148-55. Resumo

84. Wunderink RG, Niederman MS, Kollef MH, et al. Linezolid in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial pneumonia: a randomized, controlled study. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Mar 1;54(5):621-9.Texto completo  Resumo

85. Hilf M, Yu VL, Sharp J, et al. Antibiotic therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia: outcome correlations in a prospective study of 200 patients. Am J Med. 1989 Nov;87(5):540-6. Resumo

86. Fartoukh M, Maître B, Honoré S, et al. Diagnosing pneumonia during mechanical ventilation: the clinical pulmonary infection score revisited. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Jul 15;168(2):173-9.Texto completo  Resumo

87. Trouillet JL, Vuagnat A, Combes A, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia: comparison of episodes due to piperacillin-resistant versus piperacillin-susceptible organisms. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Apr 15;34(8):1047-54.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Torres A, Zhong N, Pachl J, et al. Ceftazidime-avibactam versus meropenem in nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (REPROVE): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 non-inferiority trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Mar;18(3):285-95. Resumo

89. Eljaaly K, Enani MA, Al-Tawfiq JA. Impact of carbapenem versus non-carbapenem treatment on the rates of superinfection: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Infect Chemother. 2018 Nov;24(11):915-20.Texto completo  Resumo

90. Garnacho-Montero J, Sa-Borges M, Sole-Violan J, et al. Optimal management therapy for Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia: an observational, multicenter study comparing monotherapy with combination antibiotic therapy. Crit Care Med. 2007 Aug;35(8):1888-95. Resumo

91. Paul M, Benuri-Silbiger I, Soares-Weiser K, et al. Beta lactam monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy for sepsis in immunocompetent patients: systematic review and metaanalysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2004 Mar 20;328(7441):668.Texto completo  Resumo

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93. Singh N, Rogers P, Atwood CW, et al. Short-course empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with pulmonary infiltrates in the intensive care unit: a proposed solution for indiscriminate antibiotic prescription. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Aug;162(2 Pt 1):505-11.Texto completo  Resumo

94. Shan J, Chen HL, Zhu JH. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical pulmonary infection score for ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Respir Care. 2011 Aug;56(8):1087-94.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Chastre J, Wolff M, Fagon JY, et al; PneumA Trial Group. Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 Nov 19;290(19):2588-98.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Pugh R, Grant C, Cooke RP, et al. Short-course versus prolonged-course antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(8):CD007577.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Dimopoulos G, Poulakou G, Pneumatikos IA, et al. Short- vs long-duration antibiotic regimens for ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2013 Dec;144(6):1759-67. Resumo

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104. Chastre J, Fagon JY. Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Apr 1;165(7):867-903.Texto completo  Resumo

105. Kollef MH, Chastre J, Clavel M, et al. A randomized trial of 7-day doripenem versus 10-day imipenem-cilastatin for ventilator-associated pneumonia. Crit Care. 2012 Nov 13;16(6):R218.Texto completo  Resumo

106. Rubinstein E, Lalani T, Corey GR, et al. Telavancin versus vancomycin for hospital-acquired pneumonia due to gram-positive pathogens. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52(1):31-40.Texto completo  Resumo

107. Palmer LB, Smaldone GC, Chen JJ, et al. Aerosolized antibiotics and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jul;36(7):2008-13. Resumo

108. Póvoa FCC, Cardinal-Fernandez P, Maia IS, et al. Effect of antibiotics administered via the respiratory tract in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Crit Care. 2018 Feb;43:240-5.Texto completo  Resumo

109. Le J, Ashley ED, Neuhauser MM, et al. Consensus summary of aerosolized antimicrobial agents: application of guideline criteria. Insights from the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Jun;30(6):562-84. Resumo

110. Karvouniaris M, Makris D, Zygoulis P, et al. Nebulised colistin for ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention. Eur Respir J. 2015 Dec;46(6):1732-9. Resumo

111. Tulli G, Messori A, Trippoli S, et al. Non-inferiority of colistin compared with standard care for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 May;49(5):638-41.Texto completo  Resumo

112. Sotgiu G, Aliberti S, Gramegna A, et al. Efficacy and effectiveness of Ceftaroline Fosamil in patients with pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Res. 2018 Oct 23;19(1):205.Texto completo  Resumo

113. Liapikou A, Torres A. Emerging drugs for nosocomial pneumonia. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2016 Sep;21(3):331-41. Resumo

114. Cook DJ, Walter SD, Cook RJ, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Sep 15;129(6):433-40. Resumo

115. Trouillet JL, Chastre J, Vuagnat A, et al. Ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by potentially drug-resistant bacteria. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Feb;157(2):531-9.Texto completo  Resumo

116. Westendorp WF, Vermeij JD, Zock E, et al; PASS investigators. The Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): a pragmatic randomised open-label masked endpoint clinical trial. Lancet. 2015 Apr 18;385(9977):1519-26. Resumo

117. Aridis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Aridis Pharmaceuticals reports positive phase 1 clinical results for Aerucin® for treating hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. January 2016 [internet publication].Texto completo

118. Terragni PP, Antonelli M, Fumagalli R, et al. Early vs late tracheotomy for prevention of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010 Apr 21;303(15):1483-9.Texto completo  Resumo

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