Síndromes de dor crônica

Referências

Principais artigos

Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 2018 Jan;38(1):1-211.Texto completo  Resumo

American Chronic Pain Association; Stanford Medicine. ACPA and Stanford resource guide to chronic pain management: an integrated guide to medical, interventional, behavioral, pharmacologic and rehabilitation therapies. 2021 edition. 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

World Health Organization. Guidelines on the management of chronic pain in children. December 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

Williams ACC, Fisher E, Hearn L, et al. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 12;(8):CD007407.Texto completo  Resumo

Cruccu G, Garcia-Larrea L, Hansson P, et al. EAN guidelines on central neurostimulation therapy in chronic pain conditions. Eur J Neurol. 2016 Oct;23(10):1489-99.Texto completo  Resumo

Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain - United States, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 Mar 18;65(1):1-49.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. World Health Organization. ICD-11 for mortality and morbidity statistics. 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

2. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 2018 Jan;38(1):1-211.Texto completo  Resumo

3. Kristiansson P, Svärdsudd K, von Schoultz B. Back pain during pregnancy: a prospective study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996 Mar 15;21(6):702-9. Resumo

4. GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2018 Nov 10;392(10159):1789-858.Texto completo  Resumo

5. Dahlhamer J, Lucas J, Zelaya C, et al. Prevalence of chronic pain and high-impact chronic pain among adults: United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep 14;67(36):1001-6.Texto completo  Resumo

6. Public Health England. Chronic pain in adults 2017. June 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

7. Skootsky SA, Jaeger B, Oye RK. Prevalence of myofascial pain in general internal medicine practice. West J Med. 1989 Aug;151(2):157-60.Texto completo  Resumo

8. Cao QW, Peng BG, Wang L, et al. Expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. World J Clin Cases. 2021 Mar 26;9(9):2077-89.Texto completo  Resumo

9. Reginster JY. The prevalence and burden of arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002 Apr;41 Supp 1:3-6.Texto completo  Resumo

10. Hasselström J, Liu-Palmgren J, Rasjö-Wrååk G. Prevalence of pain in general practice. Eur J Pain. 2002;6(5):375-85. Resumo

11. Smith BH, Torrance N, Ferguson JA, et al. Towards a definition of refractory neuropathic pain for epidemiological research: an international Delphi survey of experts. BMC Neurol. 2012 May 28;12:29.Texto completo  Resumo

12. VanDenKerkhof EG, Mann EG, Torrance N, et al. An epidemiological study of neuropathic pain symptoms in Canadian adults. Pain Res Manag. 2016;2016:9815750.Texto completo  Resumo

13. Marques AP, Santo ASDE, Berssaneti AA, et al. Prevalence of fibromyalgia: literature review update. Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed. 2017 Jul - Aug;57(4):356-63.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum. 2008 Jan;58(1):26-35.Texto completo  Resumo

15. Brett KM, Burt CW. Utilization of ambulatory medical care by women: United States, 1997-98. Vital Health Stat 13. 2001 Jul;(149):1-46.Texto completo  Resumo

16. Rasmussen BK, Jensen R, Schroll M, et al. Epidemiology of headache in a general population - a prevalence study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44(11):1147-57. Resumo

17. Tepper SJ, Dahlöf CG, Dowson A, et al. Prevalence and diagnosis of migraine in patients consulting their physician with a complaint of headache: data from the Landmark Study. Headache. 2004 Oct;44(9):856-64. Resumo

18. Russell MB. Epidemiology and genetics of cluster headache. Lancet Neurol. 2004 May;3(5):279-83. Resumo

19. Scott FT, Leedham-Green ME, Barrett-Muir WY, et al. A study of shingles and the development of postherpetic neuralgia in East London. J Med Virol. 2003;70 Suppl 1:S24-30. Resumo

20. Jeong Y, Holden JE. Commonly used preclinical models of pain. West J Nurs Res. 2008 Apr;30(3):350-64. Resumo

21. Ng KJ, Tsui SL, Chan WS. Prevalence of common chronic pain in Hong Kong adults. Clin J Pain. 2002 Sep-Oct;18(5):275-81. Resumo

22. Blyth FM, March LM, Brnabic AJ, et al. Chronic pain in Australia: a prevalence study. Pain. 2001 Jan;89(2-3):127-34. Resumo

23. Grotle M, Brox JI, Veierod MB, et al. Clinical course and prognostic factors in acute low back pain: patients consulting primary care for the first time. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Apr 15;30(8):976-82. Resumo

24. Rezaei B, Mousavi E, Heshmati B, et al. Low back pain and its related risk factors in health care providers at hospitals: a systematic review. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2021 Oct;70:102903.Texto completo  Resumo

25. Driscoll T, Jacklyn G, Orchard J, et al. The global burden of occupationally related low back pain: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jun;73(6):975-81. Resumo

26. Yang H, Haldeman S, Lu ML, et al. Low back pain prevalence and related workplace psychosocial risk factors: a study using data from the 2010 national health interview survey. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2016 Sep;39(7):459-72.Texto completo  Resumo

27. Toblin RL, Quartana PJ, Riviere LA, et al. Chronic pain and opioid use in US soldiers after combat deployment. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Aug;174(8):1400-1.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Aigner M, Bach M. Clinical utility of DSM-IV pain disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1999 Sep-Oct;40(5):353-7. Resumo

29. Sansone RA, Whitecar P, Meier BP, et al. The prevalence of borderline personality among primary care patients with chronic pain. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2001 Jul-Aug;23(4):193-7. Resumo

30. Fietta P, Fietta P, Manganelli P. Fibromyalgia and psychiatric disorders. Acta Biomed. 2007 Aug;78(2):88-95. Resumo

31. Manchikanti L, Fellows B, Pampati V, et al. Comparison of psychological status of chronic pain patients and the general population. Pain Physician. 2002 Jan;5(1):40-8.Texto completo  Resumo

32. John U, Hanke M, Meyer C, et al. Tobacco smoking in relation to pain in a national general population survey. Prev Med. 2006 Dec;43(6):477-81. Resumo

33. Perski O, Garnett C, Shahab L, et al. Associations between smoking status and bodily pain in a cross-sectional survey of UK respondents. Addict Behav. 2020 Mar;102:106229.Texto completo  Resumo

34. Dooling KL, Guo A, Patel M, et al. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for use of herpes zoster vaccines. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jan 26;67(3):103-8.Texto completo  Resumo

35. Anderson TC, Masters NB, Guo A, et al. Use of recombinant zoster vaccine in immunocompromised adults aged ≥19 years: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – United States, 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Jan 21;71(3):80-4.Texto completo  Resumo

36. Gormley GJ, Steele WK, Gilliland A, et al. Can diagnostic triage by general practitioners or rheumatology nurses improve the positive predictive value of referrals to early arthritis clinics? Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003 Jun;42(6):763-8.Texto completo  Resumo

37. Harden RN, Bruehl S, Stanton-Hicks M, et al. Proposed new diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome. Pain Med. 2007 May-Jun;8(4):326-31. Resumo

38. Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 May;62(5):600-10.Texto completo  Resumo

39. Marcus DA. Chronic pain: a primary care guide to practical management. 2nd ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2009.

40. Reid MC, Engles-Horton LL, Weber MB, et al. Use of opioid medications for chronic noncancer pain syndromes in primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 2002 Mar;17(3):173-9.Texto completo  Resumo

41. Charlton R. Optimal management of giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2012;8:173-9.Texto completo  Resumo

42. Jensen MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jul 14;331(2):69-73.Texto completo  Resumo

43. Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, et al. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects. A prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990 Mar;72(3):403-8. Resumo

44. Borenstein DG, O'Mara JW Jr, Boden SD, et al. The value of magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine to predict low-back pain in asymptomatic subjects: a seven-year follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001 Sep;83-A(9):1306-11. Resumo

45. Buttgereit F, Dejaco C, Matteson EL, et al. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis: a systematic review. JAMA. 2016 Jun 14;315(22):2442-58. Resumo

46. Cantini F, Niccoli L, Storri L, et al. Are polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis the same disease? Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Apr;33(5):294-301. Resumo

47. Cohen SP, Vase L, Hooten WM. Chronic pain: an update on burden, best practices, and new advances. Lancet. 2021 May 29;397(10289):2082-97. Resumo

48. American Chronic Pain Association; Stanford Medicine. ACPA and Stanford resource guide to chronic pain management: an integrated guide to medical, interventional, behavioral, pharmacologic and rehabilitation therapies. 2021 edition. 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

49. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic pain (primary and secondary) in over 16s: assessment of all chronic pain and management of chronic primary pain. April 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

50. World Health Organization. Guidelines on the management of chronic pain in children. December 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

51. American Geriatrics Society. Pharmacological management of persistent pain in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Aug;57(8):1331-46. Resumo

52. Geneen LJ, Moore RA, Clarke C, et al. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 24;(4):CD011279.Texto completo  Resumo

53. Williams ACC, Fisher E, Hearn L, et al. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 12;(8):CD007407.Texto completo  Resumo

54. Fisher E, Law E, Dudeney J, et al. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Sep 29;(9):CD003968.Texto completo  Resumo

55. Fisher E, Law E, Dudeney J, et al. Psychological therapies (remotely delivered) for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Apr 2;(4):CD011118.Texto completo  Resumo

56. Buhrman M, Syk M, Burvall O, et al. Individualized guided internet-delivered cognitive-behavior therapy for chronic pain patients with comorbid depression and anxiety: a randomized controlled trial. Clin J Pain. 2015 Jun;31(6):504-16. Resumo

57. Scott NA, Guo B, Barton PM, et al. Trigger point injections for chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review. Pain Med. 2009 Jan;10(1):54-69.Texto completo  Resumo

58. Cummings TM, White AR. Needling therapies in the management of myofascial trigger point pain: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jul;82(7):986-92.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Tantanatip A, Chang KV. Myofascial pain syndrome. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan.Texto completo  Resumo

60. Malanga GA, Gwynn MW, Smith R, et al. Tizanidine is effective in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. Pain Physician. 2002 Oct;5(4):422-32. Resumo

61. Kolasinski SL, Neogi T, Hochberg MC, et al. 2019 American College of Rheumatology/Arthritis Foundation guideline for the management of osteoarthritis of the hand, hip, and knee. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Feb;72(2):149-62.Texto completo  Resumo

62. Fraenkel L, Bathon JM, England BR, et al. 2021 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2021 Jul;73(7):1108-23.Texto completo  Resumo

63. Derry S, Bell RF, Straube S, et al. Pregabalin for neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 23;(1):CD007076.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Wiffen PJ, Derry S, Bell RF, et al. Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 9;(6):CD007938.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Mathieson S, Lin CC, Underwood M, et al. Pregabalin and gabapentin for pain. BMJ. 2020 Apr 28;369:m1315. Resumo

66. Onakpoya IJ, Thomas ET, Lee JJ, et al. Benefits and harms of pregabalin in the management of neuropathic pain: a rapid review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. BMJ Open. 2019 Jan 21;9(1):e023600.Texto completo  Resumo

67. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neuropathic pain in adults: pharmacological management in non-specialist settings. September 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

68. Derry S, Rice AS, Cole P, et al. Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 13;(1):CD007393.Texto completo  Resumo

69. Derry S, Moore RA. Topical capsaicin (low concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD010111.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Daly AE, Bialocerkowski AE. Does evidence support physiotherapy management of adult complex regional pain syndrome type one? A systematic review. Eur J Pain. 2009 Apr;13(4):339-53. Resumo

71. Cruccu G, Garcia-Larrea L, Hansson P, et al. EAN guidelines on central neurostimulation therapy in chronic pain conditions. Eur J Neurol. 2016 Oct;23(10):1489-99.Texto completo  Resumo

72. Knotkova H, Hamani C, Sivanesan E, et al. Neuromodulation for chronic pain. Lancet. 2021 May 29;397(10289):2111-24. Resumo

73. O'Connell NE, Marston L, Spencer S, et al. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 16;(3):CD008208.Texto completo  Resumo

74. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain of neuropathic or ischaemic origin. October 2008 [internet publication].Texto completo

75. Gibson W, Wand BM, O'Connell NE. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 14;(9):CD011976.Texto completo  Resumo

76. Ju ZY, Wang K, Cui HS, et al. Acupuncture for neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 2;(12):CD012057.Texto completo  Resumo

77. McFarlane GJ, Kronisch C, Dean LE, et al. EULAR revised recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Feb;76(2):318-28.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Bidonde J, Busch AJ, Schachter CL, et al. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(6):CD012700.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Bidonde J, Busch AJ, Schachter CL, et al. Mixed exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 May 24;(5):CD013340.Texto completo  Resumo

80. Busch AJ, Webber SC, Richards RS, et al. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 20;(12):CD010884.Texto completo  Resumo

81. Bidonde J, Busch AJ, Webber SC, et al. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 28;(10):CD011336.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Rossi P, Jensen R, Nappi G, et al. A narrative review on the management of medication overuse headache: the steep road from experience to evidence. J Headache Pain. 2009 Dec;10(6):407-17.Texto completo  Resumo

83. Alstadhaug KB, Ofte HK, Kristoffersen ES. Preventing and treating medication overuse headache. Pain Rep. 2017 Jul;2(4):e612.Texto completo  Resumo

84. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Clinical knowledge summary: headache - medication overuse. November 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

85. Diener HC, Antonaci F, Braschinsky M, et al. European Academy of Neurology guideline on the management of medication-overuse headache. Eur J Neurol. 2020 Jul;27(7):1102-1116.Texto completo  Resumo

86. British Association for the Study of Headache. Guidelines for all healthcare professionals in the diagnosis and management of migraine, tension-type, cluster and medication-overuse headache. 3rd edition (1st revision). September 2010 [internet publication].Texto completo

87. Chou R, Hartung D, Turner J, et al. Opioid treatments for chronic pain [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2020 Apr. Report No: 20-EHC011.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain - United States, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 Mar 18;65(1):1-49.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Chou R, Turner JA, Devine EB, et al. The effectiveness and risks of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Feb 17;162(4):276-86.Texto completo  Resumo

90. Faculty of Pain Medicine of the Royal College of Anaesthetists. Opioids aware [internet publication].Texto completo

91. Miller M, Barber CW, Leatherman S, et al. Prescription opioid duration of action and the risk of unintentional overdose among patients receiving opioid therapy. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Apr;175(4):608-15.Texto completo  Resumo

92. Levy N, Lord LJ, Lobo DN. UK recommendations on opioid stewardship. BMJ. 2021 Jan 5;372:m4901. Resumo

93. Park TW, Saitz R, Ganoczy D, et al. Benzodiazepine prescribing patterns and deaths from drug overdose among US veterans receiving opioid analgesics: case-cohort study. BMJ. 2015 Jun 10;350:h2698.Texto completo  Resumo

94. Bolz M, Körber S, Reimer T, et al. The treatment of illnesses arising in pregnancy. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2017 Sep 15;114(37):616-26.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Fox AW, Diamond ML, Spierings EL. Migraine during pregnancy: options for therapy. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(6):465-81. Resumo

96. European Medicines Agency. New measures to avoid valproate exposure in pregnancy endorsed. March 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

97. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy: updated advice following comprehensive safety review. January 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

98. Bérard A, Zhao JP, Sheehy O. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women: an updated analysis of the Quebec pregnancy cohort. BMJ Open. 2017 Jan 12;7(1):e013372.Texto completo  Resumo

99. Farrar JT, Young JP Jr, LaMoreaux L, et al. Clinical importance of changes in chronic pain intensity measured on an 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Pain. 2001 Nov;94(2):149-58. Resumo

100. Herndon CM, Hutchison RW, Berdine HJ, et al. Management of chronic nonmalignant pain with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Joint opinion statement of the Ambulatory Care, Cardiology, and Pain and Palliative Care Practice and Research Networks of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy. 2008 Jun;28(6):788-805. Resumo

101. Martin KR, Reid DM. Is there role for vitamin D in the treatment of chronic pain? Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2017 Jun;9(6):131-5.Texto completo  Resumo

102. Pearce SH, Cheetham TD. Diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency. BMJ. 2010 Jan 11;340:b5664. Resumo

103. Wang L, Hong PJ, May C, et al. Medical cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic non-cancer and cancer related pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. BMJ. 2021 Sep 8;374:n1034.Texto completo  Resumo

104. Busse JW, Vankrunkelsven P, Zeng L, et al. Medical cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic pain: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2021 Sep 8;374:n2040.Texto completo  Resumo

105. Mücke M, Phillips T, Radbruch L, et al. Cannabis-based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 7;3(3):CD012182.Texto completo  Resumo

106. Mäntyselkä P, Kumpusalo E, Ahonen R, et al. Pain as a reason to visit the doctor: a study in Finnish primary health care. Pain. 2001 Jan;89(2-3):175-80. Resumo

107. Valat J, Goupille P, Rozenberg S, et al. Acute low back pain: predictive index of chronicity from a cohort of 2487 subjects. Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67(5):456-61. Resumo

108. Schiøttz-Christensen B, Nielsen GL, Hansen VK, et al. Long-term prognosis of acute low back pain in patients seen in general practice: a 1-year prospective follow-up study. Fam Pract. 1999 Jun;16(3):223-32.Texto completo  Resumo

109. Croft PR, Macfarlane GJ, Papageorgiou AC, et al. Outcome of low back pain in general practice: a prospective study. BMJ. 1998 May 2;316(7141):1356-9.Texto completo  Resumo

110. Thomas E, Silman AJ, Croft PR, et al. Predicting who develops chronic low back pain in primary care: a prospective study. BMJ. 1999 Jun 19;318(7199):1662-7.Texto completo  Resumo

111. Gerwin RD. Classification, epidemiology, and natural history of myofascial pain syndrome. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2001 Oct;5(5):412-20. Resumo

112. White KP, Harth M. Classification, epidemiology, and natural history of fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2001 Aug;5(4):320-9. Resumo

113. Pöyhiä R, Da Costa D, Fitzcharles MA. Pain and pain relief in fibromyalgia patients followed for three years. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Aug;45(4):355-61.Texto completo  Resumo

114. McWilliams LA, Cox BJ, Enns MW. Mood and anxiety disorders associated with chronic pain: an examination in a nationally representative sample. Pain. 2003 Nov;106(1-2):127-33. Resumo

115. Chabal C, Erjavec MK, Jacobson L, et al. Prescription opiate abuse in chronic pain patients: clinical criteria, incidence, and predictors. Clin J Pain. 1997 Jun;13(2):150-5. Resumo

116. Ossipov MH, Lai J, Vanderah TW, et al. Induction of pain facilitation by sustained opioid exposure: relationship to opioid antinociceptive tolerance. Life Sci. 2003 Jun 27;73(6):783-800. Resumo

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