Abstinência alcoólica

Referências

Principais artigos

Bayard M, McIntyre J, Hill KR, et al. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Mar 15;69(6):1443-50.Texto completo  Resumo

Ebell MH. Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Apr 1;73(7):1191.Texto completo  Resumo

Bråthen G, Ben-Menachem E, Brodtkorb E, et al. Chapter 29: alcohol-related seizures. EFNS guidelines of alcohol-related seizures. In: Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, Brainin M, eds. European handbook of neurological management. 2nd ed, v1. Oxford, UK: Blackwell publishing; 2011:429-36.Texto completo

Artigos de referência

1. Isbell H, Fraser HF, Wikler A, et al. An experimental study of the etiology of rum fits and delirium tremens. Q J Stud Alcohol. 1955 Mar;16(1):1-33. Resumo

2. Victor M, Adams RD. The effect of alcohol on the nervous system. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis. 1953;32:526-73. Resumo

3. Bayard M, McIntyre J, Hill KR, et al. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Mar 15;69(6):1443-50.Texto completo  Resumo

4. McMicken DB, Finnell JT. Alcohol related disease. In: Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc; 2006:184.

5. Schuckit MA. Recognition and management of withdrawal delirium (delirium tremens). N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 27;371(22):2109-13. Resumo

6. World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. Sep 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

7. US Department of Health and Human Services: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Reports and detailed tables from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Sep 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

8. Esser MB, Hedden SL, Kanny D, et al. Prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers, 2009-2011. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014 Nov 20;11:E206.Texto completo  Resumo

9. Schmidt KJ, Doshi MR, Holzhausen JM, et al. Treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal. Ann Pharmacother. 2016 May;50(5):389-401. Resumo

10. Foy A, Kay J. The incidence of alcohol-related problems and the risk of alcohol withdrawal in a general hospital population. Drug Alcohol Rev. 1995;14(1):49-54. Resumo

11. Foy A. Alcohol problems in a general hospital. Addict Biol. 1999;4(1):23-34. Resumo

12. Dixit D, Endicott J, Burry L, et al. Management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome in critically ill patients. Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Jul;36(7):797-822. Resumo

13. Uusaro A, Parviainen I, Tenhunen JJ, et al. The proportion of intensive care unit admissions related to alcohol use: a prospective cohort study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005 Oct;49(9):1236-40. Resumo

14. Ungur LA, Neuner B, John S, et al. Prevention and therapy of alcohol withdrawal on intensive care units: systematic review of controlled trials. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Apr;37(4):675-86. Resumo

15. Lukan JK, Reed DN Jr, Looney SW, et al. Risk factors for delirium tremens in trauma patients. J Trauma. 2002 Nov;53(5):901-6. Resumo

16. Jawa RS, Stothert JC, Shostrom VK, et al. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome in admitted trauma patients. Am J Surg. 2014 Nov;208(5):781-7. Resumo

17. Salottolo K, McGuire E, Mains CW, et al. Occurrence, predictors, and prognosis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and delirium tremens following traumatic injury. Crit Care Med. 2017 May;45(5):867-74. Resumo

18. Gold JA, Nelson LS. Chapter 81: ethanol withdrawal. In: Hoffman RS, Howland MA, Lewin NA, et al, eds. Goldfrank’s toxicologic emergencies, 10th edition. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill Professional; 2015:1108-13.

19. Stehman CR, Mycyk MB. A rational approach to the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Apr;31(4):734-42. Resumo

20. Sarff M, Gold JA. Alcohol withdrawal syndromes in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2010 Sep;38(9 Suppl):S494-501. Resumo

21. Ferguson JA, Suelzer CJ, Eckert GJ, et al. Risk factors for delirium tremens development. J Gen Intern Med. 1996 Jul;11(7):410-4. Resumo

22. Linnoila M, Mefford I, Nutt D, et al. RNIH conference. Alcohol withdrawal and noradrenergic function. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Dec;107(6):875-89. Resumo

23. Brousse G, Arnaud B, Vorspan F, et al. Alteration of glutamate/GABA balance during acute alcohol withdrawal in emergency department: a prospective analysis. Alcohol Alcohol. 2012 Sep-Oct;47(5):501-8.Texto completo  Resumo

24. Roberto M, Varodayan FP. Synaptic targets: chronic alcohol actions. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Aug 1;122:85-99.Texto completo  Resumo

25. Littleton J. Neurochemical mechanisms underlying alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Health Res World. 1998;22(1):13-24. Resumo

26. Lovinger DM, Roberto M. Synaptic effects induced by alcohol. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2013;13:31-86.Texto completo  Resumo

27. Melendez RI, Hicks MP, Cagle SS, et al. Ethanol exposure decreases glutamate uptake in the nucleus accumbens. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Mar;29(3):326-33. Resumo

28. Dahchour A, De Witte P. Effect of repeated ethanol withdrawal on glutamate microdialysate in the hippocampus. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1999 Oct;23(10):1698-703. Resumo

29. Kelm MK, Criswell HE, Breese GR. Ethanol-enhanced GABA release: a focus on G protein-coupled receptors. Brain Res Rev. 2011 Jan 1;65(2):113-23.Texto completo  Resumo

30. Kelm MK, Criswell HE, Breese GR. The role of protein kinase A in the ethanol-induced increase in spontaneous GABA release onto cerebellar Purkinje neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2008 Dec;100(6):3417-28.Texto completo  Resumo

31. Becker HC. Kindling in alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Health Res World. 1998;22(1):25-33. Resumo

32. Ballenger JC, Post RM. Kindling as a model for alcohol withdrawal syndromes. Br J Psychiatry. 1978 Jul;133:1-14. Resumo

33. Brown ME, Anton RF, Malcolm R, et al. Alcohol detoxification and withdrawal seizures: clinical support for a kindling hypothesis. Biol Psychiatry. 1988 Mar 1;23(5):507-14. Resumo

34. Booth BM, Blow FC. The kindling hypothesis: further evidence from a U.S. national study of alcoholic men. Alcohol Alcohol. 1993 Sep;28(5):593-8. Resumo

35. McCown TJ, Breese GR. Multiple withdrawals from chronic ethanol "kindles" inferior collicular seizure activity: evidence for kindling of seizures associated with alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1990 Jun;14(3):394-9. Resumo

36. Goodson CM, Clark BJ, Douglas IS. Predictors of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Oct;38(10):2664-77. Resumo

37. Maldonado JR, Sher Y, Ashouri JF, et al. The "Prediction of Alcohol Withdrawal Severity Scale" (PAWSS): systematic literature review and pilot study of a new scale for the prediction of complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Alcohol. 2014 Jun;48(4):375-90.Texto completo  Resumo

38. Wood E, Albarqouni L, Tkachuk S, et al. Will this hospitalized patient develop severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome?: The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA. 2018 Aug 28;320(8):825-33. Resumo

39. O'Connor P. Alcohol abuse and dependence. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D. eds. Cecil textbook of medicine. 22nd ed. St. Louis, MO: W.B. Saunders Company; 2004:17.

40. Kosten TR, O'Connor PG. Management of drug and alcohol withdrawal. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 1;348(18):1786-95. Resumo

41. Rastegar DA, Applewhite D, Alvanzo AAH, et al. Development and implementation of an alcohol withdrawal protocol using a 5-item scale, the Brief Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (BAWS). Subst Abus. 2017 Jul 12;38(4):394-400. Resumo

42. Pryse-Phillips W, Murray TJ, Boyd J. Toxic damage to the nervous system. In: Noble J, Greene H. eds. Textbook of primary care medicine. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc; 2001:1569.

43. Alcohol withdrawal. In: Moore DP, Jefferson JW, eds. Handbook of medical psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier-Mosby; 2004:49.

44. Victor M, Brausch C. The role of abstinence in the genesis of alcoholic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1967 Mar;8(1):1-20. Resumo

45. Chang PH, Steinberg MB. Alcohol withdrawal. Med Clin North Am. 2001 Sep;85(5):1191-212. Resumo

46. Victor M, Hope JM. The phenomenon of auditory hallucinations in chronic alcoholism; a critical evaluation of the status of alcoholic hallucinosis. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1958 May;126(5):451-81. Resumo

47. Delirium tremens. In: Moore DP, Jefferson JW, eds. Handbook of medical psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier-Mosby; 2004:50.

48. Roffman JL, Stern TA. Alcohol withdrawal in the setting of elevated blood alcohol levels. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;8(3):170-3.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Schwartz NS, Clutter WE, Shah SD, et al. Glycemic thresholds for activation of glucose counterregulatory systems are higher than the threshold for symptoms. J Clin Invest. 1987 Mar;79(3):777-81.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Hepburn DA, Deary IJ, Frier BM, et al. Symptoms of acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia in humans with and without IDDM. Factor-analysis approach. Diabetes Care. 1991 Nov;14(11):949-57. Resumo

51. Torvik A, Lindboe CF, Rogde S. Brain lesions in alcoholics: a neuropathological study with clinical correlations. J Neurol Sci. 1982 Nov;56(2-3):233-48. Resumo

52. Harper CG, Giles M, Finlay-Jones R. Clinical signs in the Wernicke-Korsakoff complex: a retrospective analysis of 131 cases diagnosed at necropsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1986 Apr;49(4):341-5. Resumo

53. Conley RR, Kelley DL. Schizophrenia. In: Rakel RE. ed. Conn's current therapy. 58th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2006.

54. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

55. Chiang C, Wax PM. Withdrawal syndromes. In: Ford MD, ed. Clinical toxicology. 1st ed. St. Louis, MO: W.B. Saunders Company; 2001.

56. Dillman WH. Chapter 239: the thyroid. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, Bennett JC, et al, eds. Cecil textbook of medicine. 22nd ed. St. Louis, MO: W.B. Saunders Company; 2004.

57. Miller TB, Geraci EB. Head injury in the presence of alcohol intoxication. Int J Trauma Nurs. 1997 Apr-Jun;3(2):50-5. Resumo

58. Hasin D, Katz H. Somatoform and substance use disorders. Psychosom Med. 2007 Dec;69(9):870-5. Resumo

59. Lipowski ZJ. Somatization: the experience and communication of psychological distress as somatic symptoms. Psychother Psychosom. 1987;47(3-4):160-7. Resumo

60. Sullivan JT, Sykora K, Schneiderman J, et al. Assessment of alcohol withdrawal: the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar). Br J Addict. 1989 Nov;84(11):1353-7. Resumo

61. Rappaport D, Chuu A, Hullett C, et al. Assessment of alcohol withdrawal in Native American patients utilizing the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Revised Scale. J Addict Med. 2013 May-Jun;7(3):196-9. Resumo

62. Sen S, Grgurich P, Tulolo A, et al. A symptom-triggered benzodiazepine protocol utilizing SAS and CIWA-Ar scoring for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the critically ill. Ann Pharmacother. 2017 Feb;51(2):101-10. Resumo

63. Awissi DK, Lebrun G, Coursin DB, et al. Alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens in the critically ill: a systematic review and commentary. Intensive Care Med. 2013 Jan;39(1):16-30. Resumo

64. Maldonado JR, Sher Y, Das S, et al. Prospective validation study of the Prediction of Alcohol Withdrawal Severity Scale (PAWSS) in medically ill inpatients: a new scale for the prediction of complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Alcohol Alcohol. 2015 May 21;50(5):509-18.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Williams N. The CAGE questionnaire. Occup Med (Lond). 2014 Sep;64(6):473-4.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Bernadt MW, Mumford J, Taylor C, et al. Comparison of questionnaire and laboratory tests in the detection of excessive drinking and alcoholism. Lancet. 1982 Feb 6;1(8267):325-8. Resumo

67. Kelly TM, Donovan JE, Chung T, et al. Alcohol use disorders among emergency department-treated older adolescents: a new brief screen (RUFT-Cut) using the AUDIT, CAGE, CRAFFT, and RAPS-QF. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 May;28(5):746-53. Resumo

68. Williams N. The FAST questionnaire. Occup Med (Lond). 2014 Oct;64(7):559-60.Texto completo  Resumo

69. Raistrick D, Bradshaw J, Tober G, et al. Development of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ): a questionnaire to measure alcohol and opiate dependence in the context of a treatment evaluation package. Addiction. 1994 May;89(5):563-72. Resumo

70. Stockwell T, Hodgson R, Edwards G, et al. The development of a questionnaire to measure severity of alcohol dependence. Br J Addict Alcohol Other Drugs. 1979 Mar;74(1):79-87. Resumo

71. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: how to predict, prevent, diagnose and treat it. Prescrire Int. 2007 Feb;16(87):24-31. Resumo

72. Martin K, Katz A. The role of barbiturates for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Psychosomatics. 2016 Jul-Aug;57(4):341-7. Resumo

73. Brotherton AL, Hamilton EP, Kloss HG, et al. Propofol for treatment of refractory alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a review of the literature. Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Apr;36(4):433-42. Resumo

74. Hack JB, Hoffmann RS, Nelson LS. Resistant alcohol withdrawal: does an unexpectedly large sedative requirement identify these patients early? J Med Toxicol. 2006 Jun;2(2):55-60. Resumo

75. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Alcohol-use disorders: diagnosis and clinical management of alcohol-related physical complications. Apr 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

76. Stephens JR, Liles EA, Dancel R, et al. Who needs inpatient detox? Development and implementation of a hospitalist protocol for the evaluation of patients for alcohol detoxification. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Apr;29(4):587-93. Resumo

77. Long D, Long B, Koyfman A. The emergency medicine management of severe alcohol withdrawal. Am J Emerg Med. 2017 Jul;35(7):1005-11. Resumo

78. Ebell MH. Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Apr 1;73(7):1191.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Bråthen G, Ben-Menachem E, Brodtkorb E, et al. Chapter 29: alcohol-related seizures. EFNS guidelines of alcohol-related seizures. In: Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, Brainin M, eds. European handbook of neurological management. 2nd ed, v1. Oxford, UK: Blackwell publishing; 2011:429-36.Texto completo

80. Amato L, Minozzi S, Davoli M. Efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jun 15;(6):CD008537.Texto completo  Resumo

81. Amato L, Minozzi S, Vecchi S, et al. Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Mar 17;(3):CD005063.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Skinner RT. Symptom-triggered vs. fixed-dosing management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Medsurg Nurs. 2014 Sep-Oct;23(5):307-15, 329. Resumo

83. Gold JA, Rimal B, Nolan A, et al. A strategy of escalating doses of benzodiazepines and phenobarbital administration reduces the need for mechanical ventilation in delirium tremens. Crit Care Med. 2007 Mar;35(3):724-30.Texto completo  Resumo

84. Martin K, Katz A. The role of barbiturates for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Psychosomatics. 2016 Mar 2;57(4):341-7. Resumo

85. Rosenson J, Clements C, Simon B, et al. Phenobarbital for acute alcohol withdrawal: a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Emerg Med. 2013 Mar;44(3):592-8.e2. Resumo

86. Hammond DA, Rowe JM, Wong A, et al. Patient outcomes associated with phenobarbital use with or without benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a systematic review. Hosp Pharm. 2017 Jul 17;52(9):607-16.Texto completo  Resumo

87. Sullivan SM, Dewey BN, Jarrell DH, et al. Comparison of phenobarbital-adjunct versus benzodiazepine-only approach for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2018 Oct 11;S0735-6757(18)30821-0. Resumo

88. Oks M, Cleven KL, Healy L, et al. The safety and utility of phenobarbital use for the treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the medical intensive care unit. J Intensive Care Med. 2018 Jan 1:885066618783947. Resumo

89. Tidwell WP, Thomas TL, Pouliot JD, et al. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: phenobarbital vs CIWA-Ar protocol. Am J Crit Care. 2018 Nov;27(6):454-60. Resumo

90. Mueller SW, Preslaski CR, Kiser TH, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose range study of dexmedetomidine as adjunctive therapy for alcohol withdrawal. Crit Care Med. 2014 May;42(5):1131-9. Resumo

91. Woods AD, Giometti R, Weeks SM. The use of dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to benzodiazepine-based therapy to decrease the severity of delirium in alcohol withdrawal in adult intensive care unit patients: a systematic review. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2015 Jan;13(1):224-52. Resumo

92. Sohraby R, Attridge RL, Hughes DW. Use of propofol-containing versus benzodiazepine regimens for alcohol withdrawal requiring mechanical ventilation. Ann Pharmacother. 2014 Apr;48(4):456-61. Resumo

93. Wong A, Benedict NJ, Lohr BR, et al. Management of benzodiazepine-resistant alcohol withdrawal across a healthcare system: benzodiazepine dose-escalation with or without propofol. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Sep 1;154:296-9. Resumo

94. Ferri FF. Practical guide to the care of the medical patient. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby-Elsevier; 2007.

95. Schmidt KJ, Doshi MR, Holzhausen JM, et al. Treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal. Ann Pharmacother. 2016 May;50(5):389-401. Resumo

96. Liu J, Wang LN. Baclofen for alcohol withdrawal. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 20;(8):CD008502.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Alcoholism and alcohol abuse (alcohol dependence, DSM-1V 303.90; alcohol abuse, DSM-1V 305.00). In: Moore DP, Jefferson JW, eds. Handbook of medical psychiatry. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier-Mosby; 2004.

O uso deste conteúdo está sujeito ao nosso aviso legal