Convulsões focais

Referências

Principais artigos

Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):522-30.Texto completo  Resumo

Scheffer IE, Berkovic S, Capovilla G, et al. ILAE classification of the epilepsies: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):512-21.Texto completo  Resumo

Leone MA, Giussani G, Nevitt SJ, et al. Immediate antiepileptic drug treatment, versus placebo, deferred, or no treatment for first unprovoked seizure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 4;(5):CD007144.Texto completo  Resumo

Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary: efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs I: treatment of new-onset epilepsy. Report of the American Epilepsy Society and the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Epilepsy Curr. 2018 Jul-Aug;18(4):260-8.Texto completo  Resumo

Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary: efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs II: treatment-resistant epilepsy. Report of the American Epilepsy Society and the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Epilepsy Curr. 2018 Jul-Aug;18(4):269-78.Texto completo  Resumo

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Epilepsy in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline No.68). Jun 2016 (updated May 2018) [internet publication].Texto completo

Nevitt SJ, Sudell M, Weston J, et al. Antiepileptic drug monotherapy for epilepsy: a network meta-analysis of individual participant data. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 15;(12):CD011412.Texto completo  Resumo

Boon P, De Cock E, Mertens A, et al. Neurostimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy: a systematic review of clinical evidence for efficacy, safety, contraindications and predictors for response. Curr Opin Neurol. 2018 Apr;31(2):198-210. Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):522-30.Texto completo  Resumo

2. Fisher RS, Acevedo C, Arzimanoglou A, et al. ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2014 Apr;55(4):475-82.Texto completo  Resumo

3. Scheffer IE, Berkovic S, Capovilla G, et al. ILAE classification of the epilepsies: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):512-21.Texto completo  Resumo

4. GBD 2016 Epilepsy Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of epilepsy, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Apr;18(4):357-75.Texto completo  Resumo

5. Fiest KM, Sauro KM, Wiebe S, et al. Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies. Neurology. 2017 Jan 17;88(3):296-303.Texto completo  Resumo

6. Sen A, Jette N, Husain M, et al. Epilepsy in older people. Lancet. 2020 Feb 29;395(10225):735-48. Resumo

7. Rao VR, Parko KL. Clinical approach to posttraumatic epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 2015 Feb;35(1):57-63.Texto completo  Resumo

8. Salazar AM, Jabbari B, Vance SC, et al. Epilepsy after penetrating head injury. I. Clinical correlates: a report of the Vietnam Head Injury Study. Neurology. 1985 Oct;35(10):1406-14. Resumo

9. Annegers JF, Grabow JD, Groover RV, et al. Seizures after head trauma: a population study. Neurology. 1980 Jul;30(7 Pt 1):683-9. Resumo

10. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Coan SP, et al. A population-based study of seizures after traumatic brain injuries. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jan 1;338(1):20-4.Texto completo  Resumo

11. Reddy DS, Volkmer R 2nd. Neurocysticercosis as an infectious acquired epilepsy worldwide. Seizure. 2017 Nov;52:176-81.Texto completo  Resumo

12. Englot DJ, Chang EF, Vecht CJ. Epilepsy and brain tumors. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016;134:267-85.Texto completo  Resumo

13. Maschio M. Brain tumor-related epilepsy. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2012 Jun;10(2):124-33.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Foy PM, Copeland GP, Shaw MD. The natural history of postoperative seizures. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1981;57(1-2):15-22. Resumo

15. Severino M, Geraldo AF, Utz N, et al. Definitions and classification of malformations of cortical development: practical guidelines. Brain. 2020 Oct 1;143(10):2874-94.Texto completo  Resumo

16. Leventer RJ, Guerrini R, Dobyns WB. Malformations of cortical development and epilepsy. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008;10(1):47-62.Texto completo  Resumo

17. Josephson CB, Rosenow F, Al-Shahi Salman R. Intracranial vascular malformations and epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 2015 Jun;35(3):223-34.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizures in Rochester, Minnesota: 1935-1984. Epilepsia. 1993 May-Jun;34(3):453-68. Resumo

19. Holtkamp M, Beghi E, Benninger F, et al. European Stroke Organisation guidelines for the management of post-stroke seizures and epilepsy. Eur Stroke J. 2017 Jun;2(2):103-15.Texto completo  Resumo

20. Subota A, Pham T, Jetté N, et al. The association between dementia and epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsia. 2017 Jun;58(6):962-72.Texto completo  Resumo

21. Goulden KJ, Shinnar S, Koller H, et al. Epilepsy in children with mental retardation: a cohort study. Epilepsia. 1991 Sep-Oct;32(5):690-7. Resumo

22. Boillot M, Baulac S. Genetic models of focal epilepsies. J Neurosci Methods. 2016 Feb 15;260:132-43. Resumo

23. Ellis CA, Petrovski S, Berkovic SF. Epilepsy genetics: clinical impacts and biological insights. Lancet Neurol. 2020 Jan;19(1):93-100. Resumo

24. Tan HJ, Singh J, Gupta R, et al. Comparison of antiepileptic drugs, no treatment, or placebo for children with benign epilepsy with centro temporal spikes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 5;(9):CD006779.Texto completo  Resumo

25. Bertram E. The relevance of kindling for human epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2007;48 Suppl 2:65-74. Resumo

26. Engelborghs S, D'Hooge R, De Deyn PP. Pathophysiology of epilepsy. Acta Neurol Belg. 2000 Dec;100(4):201-13. Resumo

27. Nemani VM. Binder DK. Emerging role of gap junctions in epilepsy. Histol Histopathol. 2005 Jan;20(1):253-9. Resumo

28. Meldrum BS, Rogawski MA. Molecular targets for antiepileptic drug development. Neurotherapeutics. 2007 Jan;4(1):18-61.Texto completo  Resumo

29. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Predictors of epilepsy in children who have experienced febrile seizures. N Engl J Med. 1976 Nov 4;295(19):1029-33. Resumo

30. Dreier JW, Li J, Sun Y, et al. Evaluation of long-term risk of epilepsy, psychiatric disorders, and mortality among children with recurrent febrile seizures: a national cohort study in Denmark. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Oct 7;173(12):1164-70. Resumo

31. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Shirts SB, et al. Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions. N Engl J Med. 1987 Feb 26;316(9):493-8. Resumo

32. Cendes F. Febrile seizures and mesial temporal sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004 Apr;17(2):161-4. Resumo

33. Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Beghai E, et al. The risk of unprovoked seizures after encephalitis and meningitis. Neurology. 1988 Sep;38(9):1407-10. Resumo

34. White AC Jr, Coyle CM, Rajshekhar V, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis: 2017 clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 3;66(8):e49-75.Texto completo  Resumo

35. Shinton RA, Gill JS, Zezulka AV, et al. The frequency of epilepsy preceding stroke. Case-control study in 230 patients. Lancet. 1987 Jan 3;1(8523):11-3. Resumo

36. College of Emergency Medicine (UK). Evidence-based flowchart for the management of first seizure in the emergency department. Dec 2009 [internet publication].Texto completo

37. Koutroumanidis M, Arzimanoglou A, Caraballo R, et al. The role of EEG in the diagnosis and classification of the epilepsy syndromes: a tool for clinical practice by the ILAE Neurophysiology Task Force (Part 1). Epileptic Disord. 2017 Sep 1;19(3):233-98. Resumo

38. Salinsky M, Kanter R, Dasheiff RM. Effectiveness of multiple EEGs in supporting the diagnosis of epilepsy: an operational curve. Epilepsia. 1987 Jul-Aug;28(4):331-4. Resumo

39. Boon P, De Reuck J, Drieghe C, et al. Long-term video-EEG monitoring revisited. The value of interictal and ictal video-EEG recording, a follow-up study. Eur Neurol. 1994;34 Suppl 1:33-9. Resumo

40. Harden CL, Huff JS, Schwartz TH, et al. Reassessment: neuroimaging in the emergency patient presenting with seizure (an evidence-based review). Neurology. 2007 Oct 30;69(18):1772-80.Texto completo  Resumo

41. Gaillard WD, Chiron C, Cross JH, et al; ILAE, Subcommittee for Pediatric Neuroimaging. Guidelines for imaging infants and children with recent-onset epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009 Sep;50(9):2147-53.Texto completo  Resumo

42. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: seizures and epilepsy. 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

43. Kuzniecky R, Burgard S, Faught E, et al. Predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Arch Neurol. 1993 Jan;50(1):65-9. Resumo

44. Szaflarski JP, Gloss D, Binder JR, et al. Practice guideline summary: use of fMRI in the presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2017 Jan 24;88(4):395-402.Texto completo  Resumo

45. Bauer PR, Reitsma JB, Houweling BM, et al. Can fMRI safely replace the Wada test for preoperative assessment of language lateralisation? A meta-analysis and systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2014 May;85(5):581-8. Resumo

46. Massot-Tarrús A, Mousavi SR, Mirsattari SM. Comparing the intracarotid amobarbital test and functional MRI for the presurgical evaluation of language in epilepsy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2017 Jul;17(7):54. Resumo

47. Massot-Tarrús A, White KP, Mousavi SR, et al. Concordance between fMRI and Wada test for memory lateralization in temporal lobe epilepsy: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Epilepsy Behav. 2020 Jun;107:107065. Resumo

48. Massot-Tarrús A, White K, Mirsattari SM. Comparing the Wada test and functional MRI for the presurgical evaluation of memory in temporal lobe epilepsy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2019 May 1;19(6):31. Resumo

49. Salamon N, Kung J, Shaw SJ, et al. FDG-PET/MRI coregistration improves detection of cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 2008 Nov 11;71(20):1594-601. Resumo

50. Opheim G, van der Kolk A, Markenroth Bloch K, et al. 7T Epilepsy Task Force consensus recommendations on the use of 7T MRI in clinical practice. Neurology. 2021 Feb 16;96(7):327-41. Resumo

51. Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders: diagnosis and assessment. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, et al, eds. Neurology in clinical practice. Principles of diagnosis and management. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2004:313-5.

52. Fahn S, Jankovic J. Principles and practice of movement disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2007:409-33.

53. Bartsch T, Butler C. Transient amnesic syndromes. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 Feb;9(2):86-97. Resumo

54. Kim J, Kwon Y, Yang Y, et al. Clinical experience of modified diffusion-weighted imaging protocol for lesion detection in transient global amnesia: an 8-year large-scale clinical study. J Neuroimaging. 2014 Jul-Aug;24(4):331-7. Resumo

55. Scheel M, Malkowsky C, Klingebiel R, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in transient global amnesia: lessons learned from 198 cases. Clin Neuroradiol. 2012 Dec;22(4):335-40. Resumo

56. Avbersek A, Sisodiya S. Does the primary literature provide support for clinical signs used to distinguish psychogenic nonepileptic seizures from epileptic seizures? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010 Jul;81(7):719-25. Resumo

57. Gidal B, Klein P, Hirsch LJ. Seizure clusters, rescue treatments, seizure action plans: unmet needs and emerging formulations. Epilepsy Behav. 2020 Nov;112:107391.Texto completo  Resumo

58. Mesraoua B, Abou-Khalil B, Hosni Khodair R, et al. Seizure clusters. J Drug Assess. 2021 Aug 14;10(1):86-90.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Jafarpour S, Hirsch LJ, Gaínza-Lein M, et al. Seizure cluster: definition, prevalence, consequences, and management. Seizure. 2019 May;68:9-15.Texto completo  Resumo

60. Leone MA, Giussani G, Nevitt SJ, et al. Immediate antiepileptic drug treatment, versus placebo, deferred, or no treatment for first unprovoked seizure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 4;(5):CD007144.Texto completo  Resumo

61. Krumholz A, Wiebe S, Gronseth GS, et al. Evidence-based guideline: management of an unprovoked first seizure in adults. Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology. 2015 Apr 21;84(16):1705-13.Texto completo  Resumo

62. Thieffry S, Klein P, Baulac M, et al. Understanding the challenge of comparative effectiveness research in focal epilepsy: a review of network meta-analyses and real-world evidence on antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia. 2020 Apr;61(4):595-609.Texto completo  Resumo

63. Perucca E, Brodie MJ, Kwan P, et al. 30 years of second-generation antiseizure medications: impact and future perspectives. Lancet Neurol. 2020 Jun;19(6):544-56. Resumo

64. Palleria C, Cozza G, Khengar R, et al. Safety profile of the newest antiepileptic drugs: a curated literature review. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(37):5606-24. Resumo

65. Tassone DM, Boyce E, Guyer J, et al. Pregabalin: a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid analogue in the treatment of neuropathic pain, partial-onset seizures, and anxiety disorders. Clin Ther. 2007 Jan;29(1):26-48. Resumo

66. Delahoy P, Thompson S, Marschner IC. Pregabalin versus gabapentin in partial epilepsy: a meta-analysis of dose-response relationships. BMC Neurol. 2010 Nov 1;10:104.Texto completo  Resumo

67. Panebianco M, Bresnahan R, Hemming K, et al. Pregabalin add-on for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 9;(7):CD005612.Texto completo  Resumo

68. Kim LG, Johnson TL, Marson AG, et al; MRC MESS Study Group. Prediction of risk of seizure recurrence after a single seizure and early epilepsy: further results from the MESS trial. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Apr;5(4):317-22.Texto completo  Resumo

69. Koch MW, Polman SK. Oxcarbazepine versus carbamazepine monotherapy for partial onset seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD006453.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Brodie MJ, Perucca E, Ryvlin P, et al; Levetiracetam Monotherapy Study Group. Comparison of levetiracetam and controlled-release carbamazepine in newly diagnosed epilepsy. Neurology. 2007 Feb 6;68(6):402-8. Resumo

71. Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary: efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs I: treatment of new-onset epilepsy. Report of the American Epilepsy Society and the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Epilepsy Curr. 2018 Jul-Aug;18(4):260-8.Texto completo  Resumo

72. Lattanzi S, Zaccara G, Giovannelli F, et al. Antiepileptic monotherapy in newly diagnosed focal epilepsy. A network meta-analysis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2019 Jan;139(1):33-41. Resumo

73. Nevitt SJ, Tudur Smith C, Weston J, et al. Lamotrigine versus carbamazepine monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jun 28;(6):CD001031.Texto completo  Resumo

74. Nevitt SJ, Tudur Smith C, Marson AG. Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 23;(10):CD003615.Texto completo  Resumo

75. Marson A, Burnside G, Appleton R, et al; SANAD II Collaborators. The SANAD II study of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of levetiracetam, zonisamide, or lamotrigine for newly diagnosed focal epilepsy: an open-label, non-inferiority, multicentre, phase 4, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2021 Apr 10;397(10282):1363-74.Texto completo  Resumo

76. Reimers A, Ljung H. An evaluation of zonisamide, including its long-term efficacy, for the treatment of focal epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019 Jun;20(8):909-15.Texto completo  Resumo

77. Nevitt SJ, Sudell M, Tudur Smith C, et al. Topiramate versus carbamazepine monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jun 24;(6):CD012065.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Arnold S, Badalamenti V, Diaz A, et al. Conversion to brivaracetam monotherapy for the treatment of patients with focal seizures: two double-blind, randomized, multicenter, historical control, phase III studies. Epilepsy Res. 2018 Mar;141:73-82. Resumo

79. Milovanović JR, Janković SM, Pejčić A, et al. Evaluation of brivaracetam: a new drug to treat epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017 Sep;18(13):1381-9. Resumo

80. Menzler K, Mross PM, Rosenow F, et al. First clinical postmarketing experiences in the treatment of epilepsies with brivaracetam: a retrospective observational multicentre study. BMJ Open. 2019 Nov 4;9(11):e030746.Texto completo  Resumo

81. Feyissa AM. Brivaracetam in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of clinical trial data. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019 Sep 9;15:2587-600.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Simoens S. Lacosamide as adjunctive therapy for partial-onset epileptic seizures: a review of the clinical and economic literature. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011 Jul;27(7):1329-38. Resumo

83. Gidal BE, Laurenza A, Hussein Z, et al. Perampanel efficacy and tolerability with enzyme-inducing AEDs in patients with epilepsy. Neurology. 2015 May 12;84(19):1972-80.Texto completo  Resumo

84. Li-Na Z, Deng C, Hai-Jiao W, et al. Indirect comparison of third-generation antiepileptic drugs as adjunctive treatment for uncontrolled focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2018 Jan;139:60-72. Resumo

85. Brigo F, Lattanzi S, Igwe SC, et al. Zonisamide add-on therapy for focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 24;(7):CD001416.Texto completo  Resumo

86. Bresnahan R, Panebianco M, Marson AG. Brivaracetam add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 28;(3):CD011501.Texto completo  Resumo

87. Bresnahan R, Hounsome J, Jette N, et al. Topiramate add-on therapy for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 23;(10):CD001417.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Panebianco M, Bresnahan R, Ramaratnam S, et al. Lamotrigine add-on therapy for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 20;(3):CD001909.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Bresnahan R, Martin-McGill KJ, Williamson J, et al. Clobazam add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 22;(10):CD004154.Texto completo  Resumo

90. Potschka H, Trinka E. Perampanel: does it have broad-spectrum potential? Epilepsia. 2019 Mar;60 (suppl 1):22-36.Texto completo  Resumo

91. Panebianco M, Al-Bachari S, Hutton JL, et al. Gabapentin add-on treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jan 12;(1):CD001415.Texto completo  Resumo

92. Bresnahan R, Atim-Oluk M, Marson AG. Oxcarbazepine add-on for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 4;(3):CD012433.Texto completo  Resumo

93. Mbizvo GK, Chandrasekar B, Nevitt SJ, et al. Levetiracetam add-on for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jun 30;(6):CD001901.Texto completo

94. Babar RK, Bresnahan R, Gillespie CS, et al. Lacosamide add-on therapy for focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 17;(5):CD008841.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Chang XC, Yuan H, Wang Y, et al. Eslicarbazepine acetate add-on therapy for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jun 22;(6):CD008907.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Krauss GL, Klein P, Brandt C, et al. Safety and efficacy of adjunctive cenobamate (YKP3089) in patients with uncontrolled focal seizures: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-response trial. Lancet Neurol. 2020 Jan;19(1):38-48. Resumo

97. Sperling MR, Abou-Khalil B, Aboumatar S, et al. Efficacy of cenobamate for uncontrolled focal seizures: post hoc analysis of a phase 3, multicenter, open-label study. Epilepsia. 2021 Dec;62(12):3005-15.Texto completo  Resumo

98. Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary: efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs II: treatment-resistant epilepsy. Report of the American Epilepsy Society and the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Epilepsy Curr. 2018 Jul-Aug;18(4):269-78.Texto completo  Resumo

99. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cenobamate for treating focal onset seizures in epilepsy. Dec 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

100. Bresnahan R, Gianatsi M, Maguire MJ, et al. Vigabatrin add-on therapy for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 30;(7):CD007302.Texto completo  Resumo

101. Panebianco M, Prabhakar H, Marson AG. Rufinamide add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Nov 8;(11):CD011772.Texto completo  Resumo

102. Bresnahan R, Martin-McGill KJ, Hutton JL, et al. Tiagabine add-on therapy for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 14;(10):CD001908.Texto completo  Resumo

103. Shi LL, Bresnahan R, Martin-McGill KJ, et al. Felbamate add-on therapy for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Aug 1;(8):CD008295.Texto completo  Resumo

104. Slater J, Chung S, Huynh L, et al. Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in the adjunctive treatment of refractory partial-onset seizures: meta-analysis of pivotal trials. Epilepsy Res. 2018 Jul;143:120-9.Texto completo  Resumo

105. Glauser T, Ben-Menachem E, Bourgeois B, et al; ILAE Subcommission on AED Guidelines. Updated ILAE evidence review of antiepileptic drug efficacy and effectiveness as initial monotherapy for epileptic seizures and syndromes. Epilepsia. 2013 Mar;54(3):551-63.Texto completo  Resumo

106. Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Del Giovane C, et al. Antiepileptic drug monotherapy for epilepsy in the elderly: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Epilepsia. 2019 Nov;60(11):2245-54. Resumo

107. Lezaic N, Gore G, Josephson CB, et al. The medical treatment of epilepsy in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epilepsia. 2019 Jul;60(7):1325-40. Resumo

108. Stephen LJ, Harden C, Tomson T, et al. Management of epilepsy in women. Lancet Neurol. 2019 May;18(5):481-91. Resumo

109. Johansen-Bibby A. Prescribing for pregnancy: epilepsy. Drug Ther Bull. 2020 Jul;58(7):103-6. Resumo

110. Wyszynski DF, Nambisan M, Surve T, et al; Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. Increased rate of major malformations in offspring exposed to valproate during pregnancy. Neurology. 2005 Mar 22;64(6):961-5. Resumo

111. Holmes LB, Wyszynski DF, Lieberman E. The AED (antiepileptic drug) pregnancy registry: a 6-year experience. Arch Neurol. 2004 May;61(5):673-8.Texto completo  Resumo

112. Meador KJ, Baker GA, Browning N, et al; NEAD Study Group. Cognitive function at 3 years of age after fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 16;360(16):1597-605. Resumo

113. Harden CL, Meador KJ, Pennell PB, et al. Practice parameter update: management issues for women with epilepsy - focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): teratogenesis and perinatal outcomes. Neurology. 2009 Jul 14;73(2):133-41.Texto completo  Resumo

114. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy: updated advice following comprehensive safety review. Jan 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

115. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Gynecologic management of adolescents and young women with seizure disorders: ACOG Committee Opinion, number 806. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;135(5):e213-20.Texto completo  Resumo

116. European Medicines Agency. New measures to avoid valproate exposure in pregnancy endorsed. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

117. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Epilepsy in pregnancy (Green-top Guideline No.68). Jun 2016 (updated May 2018) [internet publication].Texto completo

118. Zhu LN, Chen D, Xu D, et al. Newer antiepileptic drugs compared to levetiracetam as adjunctive treatments for uncontrolled focal epilepsy: an indirect comparison. Seizure. 2017 Oct;51:121-32.Texto completo  Resumo

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