Convulsões generalizadas

Referências

Principais artigos

Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):522-30.Texto completo  Resumo

Scheffer IE, Berkovic S, Capovilla G, et al. ILAE classification of the epilepsies: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):512-21.Texto completo  Resumo

Bernasconi A, Cendes F, Theodore WH, et al. Recommendations for the use of structural magnetic resonance imaging in the care of patients with epilepsy: a consensus report from the International League Against Epilepsy Neuroimaging Task Force. Epilepsia. 2019 Jun;60(6):1054-68. Resumo

Krumholz A, Wiebe S, Gronseth GS, et al. Evidence-based guideline: management of an unprovoked first seizure in adults. Neurology. 2015 Apr 21;84(16):1705-13.Texto completo  Resumo

Campos MSA, Ayres LR, Morelo MRS, et al. Comparative efficacy of antiepileptic drugs for patients with generalized epileptic seizures: systematic review and network meta-analyses. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018 Jun;40(3):589-98. Resumo

Boon P, De Cock E, Mertens A, et al. Neurostimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy: a systematic review of clinical evidence for efficacy, safety, contraindications and predictors for response. Curr Opin Neurol. 2018 Apr;31(2):198-210. Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia. 1981 Aug;22(4):489-501. Resumo

2. Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, et al. Operational classification of seizure types by the International League Against Epilepsy: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):522-30.Texto completo  Resumo

3. Scheffer IE, Berkovic S, Capovilla G, et al. ILAE classification of the epilepsies: position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017 Apr;58(4):512-21.Texto completo  Resumo

4. Hauser W, Kurland L. The epidemiology of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Epilepsia. 1975 Mar;16(1):1-66. Resumo

5. Juul-Jensen P, Foldspang A. Natural history of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia. 1983 Jun;24(3):297-312. Resumo

6. Tsuboi T. Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in Tokyo. Epilepsia. 1988 Mar-Apr;29(2):103-10. Resumo

7. Myers CT, Mefford HC. Advancing epilepsy genetics in the genomic era. Genome Med. 2015 Aug 25;7:91.Texto completo  Resumo

8. Ellis CA, Petrovski S, Berkovic SF. Epilepsy genetics: clinical impacts and biological insights. Lancet Neurol. 2020 Jan;19(1):93-100. Resumo

9. Anderson E, Berkovic S, Dulac O, et al. ILAE genetics commission conference report: molecular analysis of complex genetic epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2002 Oct;43(10):1262-7.Texto completo  Resumo

10. Santos BPD, Marinho CRM, Marques TEBS, et al. Genetic susceptibility in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: systematic review of genetic association studies. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 21;12(6):e0179629.Texto completo  Resumo

11. El Achkar CM, Olson HE, Poduri A, et al. The genetics of the epilepsies. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2015 Jul;15(7):39. Resumo

12. Prince DA, Connors BW. Mechanisms of interictal epileptogenesis. Adv Neurol. 1986;44:275-99. Resumo

13. Rao VR, Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy. Curr Biol. 2015 Aug 31;25(17):R742-6.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Jallon P, Latour P. Epidemiology of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2005;46 Suppl 9:10-4.Texto completo  Resumo

15. Pedersen E. Postencephalitic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1964 Mar;5:43-50. Resumo

16. Chen YJ, Fang PC, Chow JC, et al. Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of postencephalitic epilepsy in children. J Child Neurol. 2006 Dec;21(12):1047-51. Resumo

17. Rao VR, Parko KL. Clinical approach to posttraumatic epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 2015 Feb;35(1):57-63.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Wyllie E, ed. The treatment of epilepsy: principles and practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.

19. Scher MS, Aso K, Beggarly ME, et al. Electrographic seizures in preterm and full-term neonates: clinical correlates, associated brain lesions, and risk for neurologic sequelae. Pediatrics. 1993 Jan;91(1):128-34. Resumo

20. Holanda MR, Melo AN. Comparative clinical study of preterm and full-term newborn neonatal seizures. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2006 Mar;64(1):45-50.Texto completo  Resumo

21. Ronen G, Penney S, Andrews W. The epidemiology of clinical neonatal seizures in Newfoundland: a population-based study. J Pediatr. 1999 Jan;134(1):71-5. Resumo

22. Nelson KB, Ellenberg JH. Predictors of epilepsy in children who have experienced febrile seizures. N Engl J Med. 1976 Nov 4;295(19):1029-33. Resumo

23. Van der Berg BJ, Yerushalmy J. Studies on convulsive disorders in young children. I. Incidence of febrile and nonfebrile convulsions by age and other factors. Pediatr Res. 1969 Jul;3(4):298-304. Resumo

24. Wallace SJ. Recurrence of febrile convulsions. Arch Dis Child. 1974 Oct;49(10):763-5.Texto completo  Resumo

25. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Transient loss of consciousness ('blackouts') in over 16s. Sep 2014 [internet publication].Texto completo

26. Lavi R, Yarnitsky D, Rowe JM, et al. Standard vs atraumatic Whitacre needle for diagnostic lumbar puncture: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2006 Oct 24;67(8):1492-4. Resumo

27. Arendt K, Demaerschalk BM, Wingerchuk DM, Camann W. Atraumatic lumbar puncture needles: after all these years, are we still missing the point? Neurologist. 2009 Jan;15(1):17-20. Resumo

28. Nath S, Koziarz A, Badhiwala JH, et al. Atraumatic versus conventional lumbar puncture needles: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Mar 24;391(10126):1197-204. Resumo

29. Rochwerg B, Almenawer SA, Siemieniuk RAC, et al. Atraumatic (pencil-point) versus conventional needles for lumbar puncture: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 May 22;361:k1920.Texto completo  Resumo

30. Ahmed SV, Jayawarna C, Jude E. Post lumbar puncture headache: diagnosis and management. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Nov;82(973):713-6.Texto completo  Resumo

31. Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Ciapponi A, Roqué i Figuls M, et al. Posture and fluids for preventing post-dural puncture headache. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 7;(3):CD009199.Texto completo  Resumo

32. Chen DK, So YT, Fisher RS, et al. Use of serum prolactin in diagnosing epileptic seizures. Neurology. 2005 Sep 13;65(5):668-75.Texto completo  Resumo

33. Sundararajan T, Tesar GE, Jimenez XF. Biomarkers in the diagnosis and study of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a systematic review. Seizure. 2016 Feb;35:11-22.Texto completo  Resumo

34. Wyllie E, Lueders H, Pippenger C, et al. Postictal serum creatine kinase in the diagnosis of seizure disorders. Arch Neurol. 1985 Feb;42(2):123-6. Resumo

35. Libman MD, Potvin L, Coupal L, et al. Seizure vs. syncope: measuring serum creatine kinase in the emergency department. J Gen Intern Med. 1991 Sep-Oct;6(5):408-12. Resumo

36. Neufeld MY, Treves TA, Chistik V, et al. Sequential serum creatine kinase determination differentiates vaso-vagal syncope from generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Acta Neurol Scand. 1997 Mar;95(3):137-9. Resumo

37. Tatum WO, Rubboli G, Kaplan PW, et al. Clinical utility of EEG in diagnosing and monitoring epilepsy in adults. Clin Neurophysiol. 2018 May;129(5):1056-82.Texto completo  Resumo

38. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Guideline twelve: guidelines for long-term monitoring for epilepsy. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2008 Jun;25(3):170-80.Texto completo  Resumo

39. Bernasconi A, Cendes F, Theodore WH, et al. Recommendations for the use of structural magnetic resonance imaging in the care of patients with epilepsy: a consensus report from the International League Against Epilepsy Neuroimaging Task Force. Epilepsia. 2019 Jun;60(6):1054-68. Resumo

40. Van Donselaar CA, Schimsheimer RJ, Geerts AT, et al. Value of the electroencephalogram in adult patients with untreated idiopathic first seizures. Arch Neurol. 1992 Mar;49(3):231-7. Resumo

41. Schreiner A, Pohlmann-Eden B. Value of the early electroencephalogram after a first unprovoked seizure. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2003 Jul;34(3):140-4. Resumo

42. Gilbert DL, Sethuraman G, Kotagal U, et al. Meta-analysis of EEG test performance shows wide variation among studies. Neurology. 2003 Feb 25;60(4):564-70. Resumo

43. Burkholder DB, Britton JW, Rajasekaran V, et al. Routine vs extended outpatient EEG for the detection of interictal epileptiform discharges. Neurology. 2016 Apr 19;86(16):1524-30.Texto completo  Resumo

44. Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia. 1989 Jul-Aug;30(4):389-99. Resumo

45. Engel J Jr. A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy: report of the ILAE task force on Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2001 Jun;42(6):796-803.Texto completo  Resumo

46. Berg AT, Berkovic SF, Brodie MG, et al. Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005-2009. Epilepsia. 2010 Apr;51(4):676-85.Texto completo  Resumo

47. Fisher RS, Acevedo C, Arzimanoglou A, et al. ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2014 Apr;55(4):475-82.Texto completo  Resumo

48. Krumholz A, Wiebe S, Gronseth GS, et al. Evidence-based guideline: management of an unprovoked first seizure in adults. Neurology. 2015 Apr 21;84(16):1705-13.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Leone MA, Giussani G, Nolan SJ, et al. Immediate antiepileptic drug treatment, versus placebo, deferred, or no treatment for first unprovoked seizure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 6;(5):CD007144.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Shorvon SD, Bermejo PE, Gibbs AA, et al. Antiepileptic drug treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures: An evaluation of regulatory data and five criteria for drug selection. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 May;82:91-103.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Kwan P, Brodie MJ. Early identification of refractory epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2000 Feb 3;342(5):314-9.Texto completo  Resumo

52. Mohanraj R, Brodie MJ. Outcomes of newly diagnosed idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes in a non-pediatric setting. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007 Mar;115(3):204-8. Resumo

53. Shih JJ, Ochoa JG. A systematic review of antiepileptic drug initiation and withdrawal. Neurologist. 2009 May;15(3):122-31. Resumo

54. Brodie MJ, Kwan P. Staged approach to epilepsy management. Neurology. 2002 Apr 23;58(8 Suppl 5):S2-8. Resumo

55. Palleria C, Cozza G, Khengar R, et al. Safety Profile of the Newest Antiepileptic Drugs: A Curated Literature Review. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(37):5606-5624.Texto completo  Resumo

56. Perucca E, Brodie MJ, Kwan P, et al. 30 years of second-generation antiseizure medications: impact and future perspectives. Lancet Neurol. 2020 Jun;19(6):544-56. Resumo

57. European Medicines Agency. New measures to avoid valproate exposure in pregnancy endorsed. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

58. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Antiepileptic drugs in pregnancy: updated advice following comprehensive safety review. Jan 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

59. LaRoche SM, Helmers SL. The new antiepileptic drugs: scientific review. JAMA. 2004 Feb 4;291(5):605-14.Texto completo  Resumo

60. Smith CT, Marson AG, Chadwick DW, et al. Multiple treatment comparisons in epilepsy monotherapy trials. Trials. 2007 Nov 5;8:34.Texto completo  Resumo

61. Campos MSA, Ayres LR, Morelo MRS, et al. Comparative efficacy of antiepileptic drugs for patients with generalized epileptic seizures: systematic review and network meta-analyses. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018 Jun;40(3):589-98. Resumo

62. Glauser T, Ben-Menachem E, Bourgeois B, et al; ILAE Subcommission on AED Guidelines. Updated ILAE evidence review of antiepileptic drug efficacy and effectiveness as initial monotherapy for epileptic seizures and syndromes. Epilepsia. 2013 Mar;54(3):551-63.Texto completo  Resumo

63. Nevitt SJ, Marson AG, Weston J, et al. Sodium valproate versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 9;(8):CD001769.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Nevitt SJ, Sudell M, Weston J, et al. Antiepileptic drug monotherapy for epilepsy: a network meta-analysis of individual participant data. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 15;(12):CD011412.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary: efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs I: treatment of new-onset epilepsy. Report of the American Epilepsy Society and the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Epilepsy Curr. 2018 Jul-Aug;18(4):260-8.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Nevitt SJ, Sudell M, Tudur Smith C, et al. Topiramate versus carbamazepine monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jun 24;(6):CD012065.Texto completo  Resumo

67. Nevitt SJ, Tudur Smith C, Weston J, et al. Lamotrigine versus carbamazepine monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jun 28;(6):CD001031.Texto completo  Resumo

68. Nevitt SJ, Tudur Smith C, Marson AG. Oxcarbazepine versus phenytoin monotherapy for epilepsy: an individual participant data review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 23;(10):CD003615.Texto completo  Resumo

69. Brodie MJ, Perucca E, Ryvlin P, et al. Comparison of levetiracetam and controlled-release carbamazepine in newly diagnosed epilepsy. Neurology. 2007 Feb 6;68(6):402-8. Resumo

70. Marson AG, Williamson PR, Clough H, et al. Carbamazepine versus valproate monotherapy for epilepsy: a meta-analysis. Epilepsia. 2002 May;43(5):505-13. Resumo

71. McAuley JW, Biederman TS, Smith JC, et al. Newer therapies in the drug treatment of epilepsy. Ann Pharmacother. 2002 Jan;36(1):119-29. Resumo

72. Hoy SM. Lacosamide: a review in focal-onset seizures in patients with epilepsy. CNS Drugs. 2018 May;32(5):473-84. Resumo

73. Feyissa AM. Brivaracetam in the treatment of epilepsy: a review of clinical trial data. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2019 Sep 9;15:2587-600.Texto completo  Resumo

74. Zhou Q, Zheng J, Yu L, et al. Pregabalin monotherapy for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Oct 17;(10):CD009429.Texto completo  Resumo

75. Marson AG, Al-Kharusi AM, Alwaidh M, et al. The SANAD study of effectiveness of carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, or topiramate for treatment of partial epilepsy: an unblinded randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Mar 24;369(9566):1000-15.Texto completo  Resumo

76. Baulac M, Brodie MJ, Patten A, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of zonisamide versus controlled-release carbamazepine for newly diagnosed partial epilepsy: a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Jul;11(7):579-88. Resumo

77. Baulac M, Patten A, Giorgi L. Long-term safety and efficacy of zonisamide versus carbamazepine monotherapy for treatment of partial seizures in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy: results of a phase III, randomized, double-blind study. Epilepsia. 2014 Oct;55(10):1534-43.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Willems LM, Zöllner JP, Paule E, et al. Eslicarbazepine acetate in epilepsies with focal and secondary generalised seizures: systematic review of current evidence. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Mar;11(3):309-24. Resumo

79. Bourdet SV, Gidal BE, Alldredge BK. Pharmacologic management of epilepsy in the elderly. J Am Pharma Assoc. 2001 May-Jun;41(3):421-36. Resumo

80. Rankin A, Cadogan CA, Patterson SM, et al. Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy for older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Sep 3;(9):CD008165.Texto completo  Resumo

81. Bergey GK. Initial treatment of epilepsy: special issues in treating the elderly. Neurology. 2004 Nov 23;63(10 suppl 4):S40-8. Resumo

82. Jankovic SM, Dostic M. Choice of antiepileptic drugs for the elderly: possible drug interactions and adverse effects. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012 Jan;8(1):81-91. Resumo

83. Marson AG, Appleton R, Baker GA, et al. A randomised controlled trial examining the longer-term outcomes of standard versus new antiepileptic drugs. The SANAD trial. Health Technol Assess. 2007 Oct;11(37):iii-iv;ix-x;1-134.Texto completo  Resumo

84. Bergey GK. Evidence-based treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsies with new antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia. 2005;46 Suppl 9:161-8.Texto completo  Resumo

85. Potschka H, Trinka E. Perampanel: does it have broad-spectrum potential? Epilepsia. 2019 Mar;60 Suppl 1:22-36.Texto completo  Resumo

86. Tyrlikova I, Brazdil M, Rektor I, et al. Perampanel as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for focal onset seizures, focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures and as adjunctive therapy of generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Expert Rev Neurother. 2019 Jan;19(1):5-16. Resumo

87. Colleran N, O Connor T, O Brien JJ. Anti epileptic drug trials for patients with drug resistant idiopathic generalised epilepsy: a meta-analysis. Seizure. 2017 Oct;51:145-56.Texto completo  Resumo

88. French JA, Kanner AM, Bautista J, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs II: treatment of refractory epilepsy. Neurology. 2004 Apr 27;62(8):1261-73.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Bresnahan R, Panebianco M, Marson AG. Lamotrigine add-on therapy for drug-resistant generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 1;(7):CD007783.Texto completo  Resumo

90. Bresnahan R, Panebianco M, Marson AG. Brivaracetam add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 28;(3):CD011501.Texto completo  Resumo

91. Bresnahan R, Martin-McGill KJ, Williamson J, et al. Clobazam add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 22;(10):CD004154.Texto completo  Resumo

92. Bresnahan R, Hounsome J, Jette N, et al. Topiramate add-on therapy for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 23;(10):CD001417.Texto completo  Resumo

93. Mbizvo GK, Dixon P, Hutton JL, et al. Levetiracetam add-on for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jun 30;(6):CD001901.Texto completo

94. Brigo F, Lattanzi S, Igwe SC, et al. Zonisamide add-on therapy for focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 24;(7):CD001416.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Panebianco M, Al-Bachari S, Hutton JL, et al. Gabapentin add-on treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jan 12;(1):CD001415.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Panebianco M, Bresnahan R, Hemming K, et al. Pregabalin add-on for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 9;(7):CD005612.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Sheng J, Liu S, Qin H, et al. Drug-resistant epilepsy and surgery. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018;16(1):17-28.Texto completo  Resumo

98. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, et al. Factors associated with seizure freedom in the surgical resection of glioneuronal tumors. Epilepsia. 2012 Jan;53(1):51-7. Resumo

99. Englot DJ, Wang DD, Rolston JD, et al. Rates and predictors of long-term seizure freedom after frontal lobe epilepsy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2012 May;116(5):1042-8. Resumo

100. Boon P, De Cock E, Mertens A, et al. Neurostimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy: a systematic review of clinical evidence for efficacy, safety, contraindications and predictors for response. Curr Opin Neurol. 2018 Apr;31(2):198-210. Resumo

101. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wright CW, et al. Rates and predictors of seizure freedom with vagus nerve stimulation for intractable epilepsy neurosurgery. 2016 Sep;79(3):345-53.Texto completo  Resumo

102. Redgrave J, Day D, Leung H, et al. Safety and tolerability of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in humans; a systematic review. Brain Stimul. 2018 Nov - Dec;11(6):1225-38. Resumo

103. Wang HJ, Tan G, Zhu LN, et al. Predictors of seizure reduction outcome after vagus nerve stimulation in drug-resistant epilepsy. Seizure. 2019 Mar;66:53-60.Texto completo  Resumo

104. Li MCH, Cook MJ. Deep brain stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2018 Feb;59(2):273-90. Resumo

105. Chang B, Xu J. Deep brain stimulation for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis with an emphasis on alleviation of seizure frequency outcome. Childs Nerv Syst. 2018 Feb;34(2):321-7. Resumo

106. Jobst BC, Kapur R, Barkley GL, et al. Brain-responsive neurostimulation in patients with medically intractable seizures arising from eloquent and other neocortical areas. Epilepsia. 2017 Jun;58(6):1005-14.Texto completo  Resumo

107. Geller EB, Skarpaas TL, Gross RE, et al. Brain-responsive neurostimulation in patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2017 Jun;58(6):994-1004.Texto completo  Resumo

108. Heck CN, King-Stephens D, Massey AD, et al. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial. Epilepsia. 2014 Mar;55(3):432-41.Texto completo  Resumo

109. Strozzi I, Nolan SJ, Sperling MR, et al. Early versus late antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with epilepsy in remission. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(2):CD001902.Texto completo  Resumo

110. Hixson JD. Stopping antiepileptic drugs: when and why? Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2010 Sep;12(5):434-42.Texto completo  Resumo

111. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Orphan drug designations and approvals: topiramate injection. Jul 2013 [internet publication].Texto completo

112. Bruno E, Viana PF, Sperling MR, et al. Seizure detection at home: Do devices on the market match the needs of people living with epilepsy and their caregivers? Epilepsia. 2020 Nov;61 Suppl 1:S11-S24.Texto completo  Resumo

113. Schiller Y, Najjar Y. Quantifying the response to antiepileptic drugs: effect of past treatment history. Neurology. 2008 Jan 1;70(1):54-65.Texto completo  Resumo

114. Trinka E, Cock H, Hesdorffer D, et al. A definition and classification of status epilepticus: report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification of Status Epilepticus. Epilepsia. 2015 Oct;56(10):1515-23.Texto completo  Resumo

115. Betjemann JP, Lowenstein DH. Status epilepticus in adults. Lancet Neurol. 2015 Jun;14(6):615-24. Resumo

116. Silbergleit R, Durkalski V, Lowenstein D, et al. Intramuscular versus intravenous therapy for prehospital status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 16;366(7):591-600.Texto completo  Resumo

117. Treiman DM, Meyers PD, Walton NY, et al; Veterans Affairs Status Epilepticus Cooperative Study Group. A comparison of four treatments for generalized convulsive status epilepticus. N Engl J Med. 1998 Sep 17;339(12):792-8.Texto completo  Resumo

118. Rossetti AO, Lowenstein DH. Management of refractory status epilepticus in adults: still more questions than answers. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Oct;10(10):922-30.Texto completo  Resumo

119. Wheless JW. Acute management of seizures in the syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2003;44(suppl 2):22-6. Resumo

120. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Epilepsies: diagnosis and management. May 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

121. Glauser T, Shinnar S, Gloss D, et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children and adults: report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society. Epilepsy Curr. 2016 Jan-Feb;16(1):48-61.Texto completo  Resumo

122. Harden C, Tomson T, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline summary: sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence rates and risk factors: report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology. 2017 Apr 25;88(17):1674-80.Texto completo  Resumo

123. Ryvlin P, Cucherat M, Rheims S. Risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in patients given adjunctive antiepileptic treatment for refractory seizures: a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomised trials. Lancet Neurol. 2011 Nov;10(11):961-8. Resumo

124. Maguire MJ, Jackson CF, Marson AG, et al. Treatments for the prevention of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Apr 2;4:CD011792.Texto completo  Resumo

125. Patsalos PN, Spencer EP, Berry DJ. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antiepileptic Drugs in Epilepsy: A 2018 Update. Ther Drug Monit. 2018 Oct;40(5):526-548.Texto completo  Resumo

O uso deste conteúdo está sujeito ao nosso aviso legal