Síndrome do choque tóxico

Referências

Principais artigos

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS): 2010 case definition. 2010 [internet publication].Texto completo

Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-e1143.Texto completo  Resumo

Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 15;59(2):e10-52.Texto completo  Resumo

Sartelli M, Guirao X, Hardcastle TC, et al. 2018 WSES/SIS-E consensus conference: recommendations for the management of skin and soft-tissue infections. World J Emerg Surg. 2018;13:58.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Working Group on Severe Streptococcal Infections. Defining the group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: rationale and consensus definition. JAMA. 1993 Jan 20;269(3):390-1. Resumo

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS): 2010 case definition. 2010 [internet publication].Texto completo

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1997 May 2;46(10):1-55.Texto completo  Resumo

4. Reingold AL, Hargrett NT, Shands KN, et al. Toxic shock syndrome surveillance in the United States, 1980 to 1981. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Jun;96(6 Pt 2):875-80. Resumo

5. Kotler DP, Sandkovsky U, Schlievert PM, et al. Toxic shock-like syndrome associated with staphylococcal enterocolitis in an HIV-infected man. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jun 15;44(12):e121-3.Texto completo  Resumo

6. Paterson MP, Hoffman EB, Roux P. Severe disseminated staphylococcal disease associated with osteitis and septic arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990 Jan;72(1):94-7.Texto completo  Resumo

7. Ferguson MA, Todd JK. Toxic shock syndrome associated with Staphylococcus aureus sinusitis in children. J Infect Dis. 1990 May;161(5):953-5. Resumo

8. Parsonnet J. Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome: new insights into diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis. 1996;16:1-20. Resumo

9. Darenberg J, Luca-Harari B, Jasir A, et al. Molecular and clinical characteristics of invasive group A streptococcal infections in Sweden. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Aug 15;45(4):450-8.Texto completo  Resumo

10. Gnann JW Jr. Varicella-zoster virus: atypical presentations and unusual complications. J Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 15;186(suppl 1):S91-S98.Texto completo  Resumo

11. Imöhl M, van der Linden M, Reinert RR, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal disease and association with varicella in Germany, 1996-2009. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011 Jun;62(1):101-9.Texto completo  Resumo

12. Davis JP, Osterholm MT, Helms CM, et al. Tri-state toxic-shock syndrome study: clinical and laboratory findings. J Infect Dis. 1982 Apr;145(4):441-8. Resumo

13. Chesney PJ. Clinical aspects and spectrum of illness of toxic shock syndrome: overview. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S1-S7. Resumo

14. Kain KC, Schulzer M, Chow AW. Clinical spectrum of nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS): comparison with menstrual TSS by multivariate discriminant analyses. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Jan;16(1):100-6. Resumo

15. Andrews M, Parent EM, Barry M, et al. Recurrent nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 May 15;32(10):1470-9. Resumo

16. Stolz SJ, Davis JP, Vergeront JM, et al. Development of serum antibody to toxic shock toxin among individuals with toxic shock syndrome in Wisconsin. J Infect Dis. 1985 May;151(5):883-9. Resumo

17. Cone LA, Woodard DR, Byrd RG, et al. A recalcitrant, erythematous, desquamating disorder associated with toxin-producing staphylococci in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1992 Apr;165(4):638-43.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Group A Streptococcal (GAS) disease. November 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

19. Lamagni TL, Darenberg J, Luca-Harari B, et al. Epidemiology of severe Streptococcus pyogenes disease in Europe. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 Jul;46(7):2359-67.Texto completo  Resumo

20. Nelson GE, Pondo T, Toews KA, et al. Epidemiology of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections in the United States, 2005-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 15;63(4):478-86.Texto completo  Resumo

21. Ekelund K, Skinhoj P, Madsen J, et al. Reemergence of emm1 and a changed superantigen profile for group A streptococci causing invasive infections: results from a nationwide study. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Apr;43(4):1789-96.Texto completo  Resumo

22. Svensson N, Oberg S, Henriques B, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Sweden in 1994 and 1995: epidemiology and clinical spectrum. Scand J Infect Dis. 2000;32(6):609-14. Resumo

23. Kaul R, McGeer A, Low DE, et al. Population-based surveillance for group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis: clinical features, prognostic indicators, and microbiological analysis of seventy-seven cases. Am J Med. 1997 Jul;103(1):18-24. Resumo

24. Schwartz B, Facklam RR, Brieman RF. Changing epidemiology of group A streptococcal infection in the USA. Lancet. 1990 Nov 10;336(8724):1167-71. Resumo

25. Davies HD, McGeer A, Schwartz B, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada. N Engl J Med. 1996 Aug 22;335(8):547-54.Texto completo  Resumo

26. Demers B, Simor AE, Vellend H, et al. Severe invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada: 1987-1991. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Jun;16(6):792-800. Resumo

27. O'Brien KL, Levine OS, Schwartz B. The changing epidemiology of group A streptococcus infections. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 1997;8:10-16.

28. Schwartz B, Elliot JA, Butler JC, et al. Clusters of invasive group A streptococcal infections in family, hospital, and nursing home settings. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;15(2):277-84. Resumo

29. Kakis A, Gibbs L, Eguia J, et al. An outbreak of group A streptococcal infection among health care workers. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Dec 1;35(11):1353-9.Texto completo  Resumo

30. Auerbach SB, Schwartz B, Williams D, et al. Outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal infections in a nursing home: lessons on prevention and control. Arch Intern Med. 1992 May;152(5):1017-22. Resumo

31. Hohenboken JJ, Anderson F, Kaplan EL. Invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) serotype M-1 outbreak in a long-term care facility (LTCF) with mortality. Paper presented at: 34th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; 1994; Orlando, FL.

32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nosocomial group A streptococcal infections associated with asymptomatic health-care workers: Maryland and California, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999 Mar 5;48(8):163-6.Texto completo  Resumo

33. Berger S, Kunerl A, Wasmuth S, et al. Menstrual toxic shock syndrome: case report and systematic review of the literature. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Sep;19(9):e313-e321.Texto completo  Resumo

34. Sharma H, Smith D, Turner CE, et al. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome in the United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Feb;24(2):.Texto completo  Resumo

35. Hajjeh RA, Reingold A, Weil A, et al. Toxic shock syndrome in the United States: surveillance update, 1979-1996. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):807-10.Texto completo  Resumo

36. Gaventa S, Reingold AL, Hightower AW, et al. Active surveillance for toxic shock syndrome in the United States, 1986. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S28-S34. Resumo

37. Schwartz B, Gaventa S, Broome CV, et al. Nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome associated with barrier contraceptives: report of a case-control study. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S43-S48. Resumo

38. Durand G, Bes M, Meugnier H, et al. Detection of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones containing the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 gene responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections in France. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Mar;44(3):847-53.Texto completo  Resumo

39. Fey PD, Said-Salim B, Rupp ME, et al. Comparative molecular analysis of community- or hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jan;47(1):196-203.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Stevens DL. Invasive group A streptococcus infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Jan;14(1):2-11. Resumo

41. Tang WM, Ho PL, Yau WP, et al. Report of two fatal cases of adult necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome caused by Streptococcus agalactiae. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Oct;31(4):E15-7.Texto completo  Resumo

42. Kotb M. Bacterial pyrogenic exotoxins as superantigens. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995 Jul;8(3):411-26.Texto completo  Resumo

43. Norrby-Teglund A, Thulin P, Gan BS, et al. Evidence for superantigen involvement in severe group A streptococcal tissue infections. J Infect Dis. 2001 Oct 1;184(7):853-60.Texto completo  Resumo

44. Stevens DL, Bryant AE, Hackett SP, et al. Group A streptococcal bacteremia: the role of tumor necrosis factor in shock and organ failure. J Infect Dis. 1996 Mar;173(3):619-26. Resumo

45. Gaworzewska ET, Coleman G. Correspondence: group A streptococcal infections and a toxic shock-like syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:1546.

46. Stegmayr B, Bjorck S, Holm S, et al. Septic shock induced by group A streptococcal infections: clinical and therapeutic aspects. Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(5):589-97. Resumo

47. Holm SE, Norrby A, Bergholm AM, et al. Aspects of pathogenesis of serious group A streptococcal infections in Sweden, 1988-1989. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jul;166(1):31-7. Resumo

48. Eriksson BK, Andersson J, Holm SE, et al. Invasive group A streptococcal infections: T1M1 isolates expressing pyrogenic exotoxins A and B in combination with selective lack of toxin-neutralizing antibodies are associated with increased risk of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;180(2):410-8.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Norrby-Teglund A, Newton D, Kotb M, et al. Superantigenic properties of the group A streptococcal exotoxin SpeF (MF). Infect Immun. 1994 Dec;62(12):5227-33.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Norrby-Teglund A, Kotb M. Host-microbe interactions in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections. J Med Microbiol. 2000 Oct;49(10):849-52.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Barry W, Hudgins L, Donta ST, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for toxic shock syndrome. JAMA. 1992 Jun 24;267(24):3315-6. Resumo

52. Basma H, Norrby-Teglund A, Guedez Y, et al. Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: role of protective humoral immunity. Infect Immun. 1999 Apr;67(4):1871-7.Texto completo  Resumo

53. Ato M, Ikebe T, Kawataba H, et al. Incompetence of neutrophils to invasive group A streptococcus is attributed to induction of plural virulence factors by dysfunction of a regulator. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(10):e3455.Texto completo  Resumo

54. Kikuchi K, Takahashi N, Piao C, et al. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains causing neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like exanthematous disease in neonatal and perinatal wards. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jul;41(7):3001-6.Texto completo  Resumo

55. van der Mee-Marquet N, Lina G, Quentin R, et al. Staphylococcal exanthematous disease in a newborn due to a virulent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain containing the TSST-1 gene in Europe: an alert for neonatologists. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Oct;41(10):4883-4.Texto completo  Resumo

56. De Boer ML, Kum WW, Pang LT, et al. Co-production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) enhances TSST-1 mediated mortality in a D-galactosamine sensitized mouse model of lethal shock. Microb Pathog. 1999 Aug;27(2):61-70. Resumo

57. Lehn N, Schaller E, Wagner H, et al. Frequency of toxic shock syndrome toxin- and enterotoxin-producing clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995 Jan;14(1):43-6. Resumo

58. Parsonnet J, Hansmann MA, Delaney ML, et al. Prevalence of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 producing Staphylococcus aureus and the presence of antibodies to this superantigen in menstruating women. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Sep;43(9):4628-34.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Bonventre PF, Thompson MR, Adinolfi LE, et al. Neutralization of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 by monoclonal antibodies in vitro and in vivo. Infect Immun. 1988 Jan;56(1):135-41.Texto completo  Resumo

60. O'Brien KL, Beall B, Barrett NL, et al. Epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995-1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 1;35(3):268-76.Texto completo  Resumo

61. Stevens DL, Tanner MH, Winship J, et al. Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a shock-like syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1989 Jul 6;321(1):1-7. Resumo

62. Stevens DL. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome: spectrum of disease, pathogenesis, and new concepts in treatment. Emerg Infect Dis. 1995 Jul-Sep;1(3):69-78.Texto completo  Resumo

63. Gourlay M, Gutierrez C, Chong A, et al. Group A streptococcal sepsis and ovarian vein thrombosis after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2001 Sep-Oct;14(5):375-80.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Gergis H, Barik S, Lim K, et al. Life-threatening puerperal infection with group A streptococcus. J R Soc Med. 1999 Aug;92(8):412-3.Texto completo  Resumo

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66. Agerson AN, Wilkins EG. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome after breast reconstruction. Ann Plast Surg. 2005 May;54(5):553-6. Resumo

67. Reingold AL, Broome CV, Gaventa S, et al. Risk factors for menstrual toxic shock syndrome: results of a multistate case-control study. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 Jan-Feb;11(suppl 1):S35-S41. Resumo

68. Osterholm MT, Davis JP, Gibson RW, et al. Toxic shock syndrome: relation to catamenial products, personal health and hygiene, and sexual practices. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Jun;96(6 Pt 2):954-8. Resumo

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70. Strandberg KL, Peterson ML, Schaefers MM, et al. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production and in vaginal interleukin 8 levels due to glycerol monolaurate in tampons. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Dec 1;49(11):1711-7. Resumo

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72. Kanetake K, Hayashi M, Hino A, et al. Primary peritonitis associated with streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today. 2004;34(12):1053-6. Resumo

73. Tseng HW, Liu CC, Wang SM, et al. Complications of varicella in children: emphasis on skin and central nervous system disorders. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2000 Dec;33(4):248-52. Resumo

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76. De Backer D, Aldecoa C, Njimi H, et al. Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2012 Mar;40(3):725-30. Resumo

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96. Sartelli M, Guirao X, Hardcastle TC, et al. 2018 WSES/SIS-E consensus conference: recommendations for the management of skin and soft-tissue infections. World J Emerg Surg. 2018;13:58.Texto completo  Resumo

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