Doença de Graves


Principais artigos

Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-65. Resumo

Kahaly GJ, Bartalena L, Hegedüs L, et al. 2018 European Thyroid Association Guideline for the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Eur Thyroid J. 2018 Jul 25;7(4):167-86.Texto completo  Resumo

Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016 Oct;26(10):1343-421.Texto completo  Resumo

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Thyroid disease: assessment and management. Nov 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

Mooij CF, Cheetham TD, Verburg FA, et al. 2022 European Thyroid Association guideline for the management of pediatric Graves' disease. Eur Thyroid J. 2022 Jan 1;11(1):e210073.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Tanda ML, Piantanida E, Liparulo L, et al. Prevalence and natural history of Graves' orbitopathy in a large series of patients with newly diagnosed graves' hyperthyroidism seen at a single center. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr;98(4):1443-9.Texto completo  Resumo

2. Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-65. Resumo

3. Davies TF, Andersen S, Latif R, et al. Graves' disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Jul 2;6(1):52.Texto completo  Resumo

4. Boelaert K, Torlinska B, Holder RL, et al. Older subjects with hyperthyroidism present with a paucity of symptoms and signs – a large cross-sectional study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jun;95(6):2715-26. Resumo

5. Krassas GE. Thyroid disease and female reproduction. Fertil Steril. 2000 Dec;74(6):1063-70. Resumo

6. Goswami R, Guleria R, Gupta AK, et al. Prevalence of diaphragmatic muscle weakness and dyspnoea in Graves' disease and their reversibility with carbimazole therapy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Sep;147(3):299-303. Resumo

7. Mitchell AL, Pearce SH. How should we treat patients with low serum thyrotropin concentrations? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Mar;72(3):292-6. Resumo

8. Col NF, Surks MI, Daniels GH. Subclinical thyroid disease: clinical applications. JAMA. 2004 Jan 14;291(2):239-43. Resumo

9. Biondi B, Palmieri EA, Klain M, et al. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: clinical features and treatment options. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Jan;152(1):1-9. Resumo

10. Bartley GB, Fatourechi V, Kadrmas EF, et al. Clinical features of Graves' ophthalmopathy in an incidence cohort. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996 Mar;121(3):284-90. Resumo

11. Taylor PN, Albrecht D, Scholz A, et al. Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018 Mar 23;14(5):301-16. Resumo

12. Wiersinga WM, Bartalena L. Epidemiology and prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Thyroid. 2002 Oct;12(10):855-60. Resumo

13. Laurberg P, Jorgensen T, Perrild H, et al. The Danish investigation on iodine intake and thyroid disease, DanThyr: status and perspectives. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Aug;155(2):219-28. Resumo

14. Bartley GB, Fatourechi V, Kadrmas EF, et al. Chronology of Graves' ophthalmopathy in an incidence cohort. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996 Apr;121(4):426-34. Resumo

15. Nyström HF, Jansson S, Berg G. Incidence rate and clinical features of hyperthyroidism in a long-term iodine sufficient area of Sweden (Gothenburg) 2003-2005. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 May;78(5):768-76. Resumo

16. McLeod DS, Caturegli P, Cooper DS, et al. Variation in rates of autoimmune thyroid disease by race/ethnicity in US military personnel. JAMA. 2014 Apr 16;311(15):1563-5.Texto completo  Resumo

17. Zhyzhneuskaya S, Addison C, Tsatlidis V, et al. The natural history of subclinical hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease: the rule of thirds. Thyroid. 2016 Jun;26(6):765-9. Resumo

18. Fatourechi V. Pretibial myxedema: pathophysiology and treatment options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6(5):295-309. Resumo

19. Fatourechi V, Pajouhi M, Fransway AF. Dermopathy of Graves disease (pretibial myxedema): review of 150 cases. Medicine. 1994 Jan;73(1):1-7. Resumo

20. Abraham-Nordling M, Byström K, Törring O, et al. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Dec;165(6):899-905.Texto completo  Resumo

21. Perros P, Žarković M, Azzolini C, et al. PREGO (presentation of Graves' orbitopathy) study: changes in referral patterns to European Group On Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) centres over the period from 2000 to 2012. Br J Ophthalmol. 2015 Nov;99(11):1531-5. Resumo

22. Eckstein AK, Johnson KT, Thanos M, et al. Current insights into the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy. Horm Metab Res. 2009 Jun;41(6):456-64. Resumo

23. Ajjan RA, Weetman AP. Techniques to quantify TSH receptor antibodies. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug;4(8):461-8. Resumo

24. Ando T, Latif R, Davies TF. Thyrotropin receptor antibodies: new insights into their actions and clinical relevance. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Mar;19(1):33-52. Resumo

25. Franklyn JA, Boelaert K. Thyrotoxicosis. Lancet. 2012 Mar 24;379(9821):1155-66. Resumo

26. Chen Y, Li S, Huang R, et al. Comprehensive meta-analysis reveals an association of the HLA-DRB1*1602 allele with autoimmune diseases mediated predominantly by autoantibodies. Autoimmun Rev. 2020 Jun;19(6):102532.Texto completo  Resumo

27. Carlé A, Bülow Pedersen I, Knudsen N, et al. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Jul;79(1):111-9. Resumo

28. Wiersinga WM. Smoking and thyroid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Aug;79(2):145-51.Texto completo  Resumo

29. Scappaticcio L, Castellana M, Virili C, et al. Alemtuzumab-induced thyroid events in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2020 Feb;43(2):219-29.Texto completo  Resumo

30. Fatourechi V, Garrity JA, Bartley GB, et al. Orbital decompression in Graves' ophthalmopathy associated with pretibial myxedema. J Endocrinol Invest. 1993 Jun;16(6):433-7. Resumo

31. Łacheta D, Miśkiewicz P, Głuszko A, et al. Immunological Aspects of Graves' Ophthalmopathy. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:7453260.Texto completo  Resumo

32. Perros P, Neoh C, Dickinson J. Thyroid eye disease. BMJ. 2009 Mar 6;338:b560. Resumo

33. Cawood TJ, Moriarty P, O'Farrelly C, et al. Smoking and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: A novel explanation of the biological link. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;92(1):59-64. Resumo

34. Lazarus JH. Lithium and thyroid. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;23(6):723-33. Resumo

35. Torino F, Barnabei A, Paragliola R, et al. Thyroid dysfunction as an unintended side effect of anticancer drugs. Thyroid. 2013 Nov;23(11):1345-66. Resumo

36. Decallonne B, Bartholomé E, Delvaux V, et al. Thyroid disorders in alemtuzumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients: a Belgian consensus on diagnosis and management. Acta Neurol Belg. 2018 Jan 25;118(2):153-9.Texto completo  Resumo

37. Illés A, Bíró E, Miltényi Z, et al. Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis after therapy for Hodgkin's disease. Acta Haematol. 2003;109(1):11-7. Resumo

38. Roque C, Vasconcelos CA. <sup>131</sup>I-Induced Graves' disease in patients treated for toxic multinodular goitre: systematic review and descriptive analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018 Sep;41(9):1019-1028.Texto completo  Resumo

39. Mizokami T, Wu Li A, El-Kaissi S, Wall JR. Stress and thyroid autoimmunity. Thyroid. 2004 Dec;14(12):1047-55. Resumo

40. Pearce EN. Diagnosis and management of thyrotoxicosis. BMJ. 2006 Jun 10;332(7554):1369-73. Resumo

41. Kakuno Y, Amino N, Kanoh M, et al. Menstrual disturbances in various thyroid diseases. Endocr J. 2010;57(12):1017-22.Texto completo  Resumo

42. Gabrielson AT, Sartor RA, Hellstrom WJG. The impact of thyroid disease on sexual dysfunction in men and women. Sex Med Rev. 2019 Jan;7(1):57-70.Texto completo  Resumo

43. Kahaly GJ, Bartalena L, Hegedüs L, et al. 2018 European Thyroid Association Guideline for the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism. Eur Thyroid J. 2018 Jul 25;7(4):167-86.Texto completo  Resumo

44. Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid Association guidelines for diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016 Oct;26(10):1343-421.Texto completo  Resumo

45. Bano A, Gan E, Addison C, et al. Age may influence the impact of TRAbs on thyroid function and relapse-risk in patients with Graves disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 May 1;104(5):1378-85. Resumo

46. Bojarska-Szmygin A, Janicki K, Pietura R, et al. Changes in TSH receptor antibody levels (TRAb) as markers of effectiveness of various therapies in Graves-Basedow's disease. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2003;58(1):248-53. Resumo

47. Orgiazzi J. Anti-TSH receptor antibodies in clinical practice. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2000 Jun;29(2):339-55. Resumo

48. Rubello D, et al. Prognostic value of anti-TSH receptor antibodies assay in 85 patients treated for Graves' disease. The thyroid gland, environment and autoimmunity: proceedings of the International Symposium on Thyroid Gland, Environment & Autoimmunity, 1989. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers; 1990:263-8.

49. Amino N, Yabu Y, Miki T, et al. Serum ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine, and thyroxine-binding globulin and calcitonin concentration in Graves' disease and destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Jul;53(1):113-6. Resumo

50. Yoshimura Noh J, Momotani N, Fukada S, et al. Ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine in Graves' hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis. Endocr J. 2005 Oct;52(5):537-42.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Sriphrapradang C, Bhasipol A. Differentiating Graves' disease from subacute thyroiditis using ratio of serum free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2016 Aug 8;10:69-72.Texto completo  Resumo

52. Bogazzi F, Vitti P. Could improved ultrasound and power Doppler replace thyroidal radioiodine uptake to assess thyroid disease? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb;4(2):70-1. Resumo

53. Bartalena L, Kahaly GJ, Baldeschi L, et al. The 2021 European Group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) clinical practice guidelines for the medical management of Graves' orbitopathy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2021 Aug 27;185(4):G43-G67.Texto completo  Resumo

54. Schwartz KM, Fatourechi V, Ahmed DD, et al. Dermopathy of Graves' disease (pretibial myxedema): long-term outcome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;87(2):438-46. Resumo

55. Fatourechi V, Ahmed DDF, Schwartz KM. Thyroid acropachy: report of 40 patients treated at a single institution in a 26-year period. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;87(12):5435-41. Resumo

56. Anagnostis P, Boboridis K, Adamidou F, et al. Natural course of mild Graves' orbitopathy: is it a chronic remitting or a transient disease? J Endocrinol Invest. 2017 Mar;40(3):257-61. Resumo

57. Mitchell AL, Goss L, Mathiopoulou L, et al. Diagnosis of Graves' orbitopathy (DiaGO): results of a pilot study to assess the utility of an office tool for practicing endocrinologists. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar;100(3):E458-62. Resumo

58. Bartalena L. Graves' disease: complications. Thyroid Disease Manager. February 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

59. Jabbour SA. Cutaneous manifestations of endocrine disorders: a guide for dermatologists. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2003;4(5):315-31. Resumo

60. Baskin HJ, Cobin RH, Duick DS, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002 Nov-Dec;8(6):457-69. Resumo

61. British Thyroid Association. UK guidelines for the use of thyroid function tests. June 2006 [internet publication].Texto completo

62. Refetoff S, Dumitrescu AM. Syndromes of reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone: genetic defects in hormone receptors, cell transporters and deiodination. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun;21(2):277-305. Resumo

63. Lazarus JH. Thyroid disorders associated with pregnancy: etiology, diagnosis, and management. Treatment Endocrinol. 2005;4(1):31-41. Resumo

64. Hershman JM. The role of human chorionic gonadotropin as a thyroid stimulator in normal pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep;93(9):3305-6. Resumo

65. Izumi Y, Hidaka Y, Tada H, et al. Simple and practical parameters for differentiation between destruction-induced thyrotoxicosis and Graves' thyrotoxicosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002 Jul;57(1):51-8. Resumo

66. Losa M, Giovanelli M, Persani L, et al. Criteria of cure and follow-up of central hyperthyroidism due to thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Aug;81(8):3084-90. Resumo

67. Beck-Peccoz P, Persani L, Mantovani S, et al. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Metab Clin Exp. 1996 Aug;45(8 Suppl 1):75-9. Resumo

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69. Elston MS, Sehgal S, Du Toit S, et al. Factitious Graves' disease due to biotin immunoassay interference - a case and review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Sep;101(9):3251-5.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Mariotti S, Martino E, Cupini C, et al. Low serum thyroglobulin as a clue to the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis factitia. N Engl J Med. 1982 Aug 12;307(7):410-2. Resumo

71. Helfand M. Subclinical hyperthyroidism detected by screening: look before you treat. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Feb 1;65(3):389-90.Texto completo  Resumo

72. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Final recommendation statement: thyroid dysfunction - screening. March 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

73. Cooper DS. Antithyroid drugs in the management of patients with Graves' disease: an evidence-based approach to therapeutic controversies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Aug;88(8):3474-81. Resumo

74. Kahaly GJ. Management of Graves thyroidal and extrathyroidal disease: an update. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Dec 1;105(12):3704-20Texto completo  Resumo

75. Weber KJ, Solorzano CC, Lee JK, et al. Thyroidectomy remains an effective treatment option for Graves' disease. Am J Surg. 2006 Mar;191(3):400-5. Resumo

76. Hegedüs L. Treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism: evidence-based and emerging modalities. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;38(2):355-71. Resumo

77. Sherman SI, Simonson L, Ladenson PW. Clinical and socioeconomic predispositions to complicated thyrotoxicosis: a predictable and preventable syndrome? Am J Med. 1996 Aug;101(2):192-8. Resumo

78. Vennard K, Gilbert MP. Thyroid Storm and Complete Heart Block after Treatment with Radioactive Iodine. Case Rep Endocrinol. 2018;2018:8214169.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Chiha M, Samarasinghe S, Kabaker AS. Thyroid storm: an updated review. J Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar;30(3):131-40. Resumo

80. Turner BC. Thyroid emergencies part 1: Thyroid storm. CPD J Acute Med. 2004;3:93-5.

81. Vijayakumar V, Nusynowitz ML, Ali S. Is it safe to treat hyperthyroid patients with I-131 without fear of thyroid storm? Ann Nucl Med. 2006 Jul;20(6):383-5. Resumo

82. Cooper DS. Approach to the patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;92(1):3-9. Resumo

83. Burch HB, Burman KD, Cooper DS. A 2011 survey of clinical practice patterns in the management of Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4549-58.Texto completo  Resumo

84. Committee on Pharmaceutical Affairs, Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Thyroid Disease Committee, Japan Thyroid Association (Taskforce for the Revision of the Guidelines for the Treatment of Childhood-Onset Graves’ Disease)., Minamitani K, Sato H, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of childhood-onset Graves' disease in Japan, 2016. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017;26(2):29-62.Texto completo  Resumo

85. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Thyroid disease: assessment and management. Nov 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

86. Abraham-Nordling M, Torring O, Hamberger B, et al. Graves' disease: a long-term quality-of-life follow up of patients randomized to treatment with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine, or surgery. Thyroid. 2005 Nov;15(11):1279-86. Resumo

87. Abraham P, Avenell A, McGeoch SC, et al. Antithyroid drug regimen for treating Graves' hyperthyroidism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD003420.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Razvi S, Vaidya B, Perros P, et al. What is the evidence behind the evidence-base? The premature death of block-replace antithyroid drug regimens for Graves' disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;154(6):783-6.Texto completo  Resumo

89. European Medicines Agency. Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) recommendations on signals. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

90. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Drug safety alert. Carbimazole: risk of acute pancreatitis. Feb 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

91. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Drug safety alert. Carbimazole: increased risk of congenital malformations; strengthened advice on contraception. Feb 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

92. US Food and Drug Administration. Drug safety communication: New Boxed Warning on severe liver injury with propylthiouracil. April 2010 [internet publication].Texto completo

93. Abraham P, Avenel A, Park CM, et al. A systematic review of drug therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Oct;153(4):489-98. Resumo

94. Azizi F. The safety and efficacy of antithyroid drugs. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006 Jan;5(1):107-16. Resumo

95. Glaser NS, Styne DM; Organization of Pediatric Endocrinologists of Northern California Collaborative Graves' Disease Study Group. Predicting the likelihood of remission in children with Graves' disease: a prospective, multicenter study. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar;121(3):e481-8. Resumo

96. Leger J, Gelwane G, Kaguelidou F, et al; French Childhood Graves' Disease Study Group. Positive impact of long-term antithyroid drug treatment on the outcome of children with Graves' disease: national long-term cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jan;97(1):110-9. Resumo

97. Kaguelidou F, Carel JC, Léger J. Graves' disease in childhood: advances in management with antithyroid drug therapy. Horm Res. 2009;71(6):310-7. Resumo

98. Otsuka F, Noh JY, Chino T, et al. Hepatotoxicity and cutaneous reactions after antithyroid drug administration. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Aug;77(2):310-5. Resumo

99. Nakamura H, Miyauchi A, Miyawaki N, et al. Analysis of 754 cases of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis over 30 years in Japan. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Dec;98(12):4776-83. Resumo

100. Robinson J, Richardson M, Hickey J, et al. Patient knowledge of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis. Eur Thyroid J. 2014 Dec;3(4):245-51.Texto completo  Resumo

101. Balavoine AS, Glinoer D, Dubucquoi S, et al. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive small-vessel vasculitis associated with antithyroid drug therapy: how significant is the clinical problem? Thyroid. 2015 Dec;25(12):1273-81. Resumo

102. Ma C, Xie J, Wang H, et al. Radioiodine therapy versus antithyroid medications for Graves' disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Feb 18;(2):CD010094.Texto completo  Resumo

103. Fatourechi V. Medical treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2000;13:683-91.

104. Tallstedt L, Lundell G, Blomgren H, et al. Does early administration of thyroxine reduce the development of Graves' ophthalmopathy after radioiodine treatment? Eur J Endocrinol. 1994 May;130(5):494-7. Resumo

105. Tallstedt L, Lundell G, Torring O, et al. Occurance of ophthalmopathy after treatment for Graves’ hyperthyroidism: the Thyroid Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jun 25;326(26):1733-8.Texto completo  Resumo

106. Bartalena L, Tanda ML, Piantanida E, et al. Relationship between management of hyperthyroidism and course of the ophthalmopathy. J Endocrinol Invest. 2004 Mar;27(3):288-94. Resumo

107. Li HX, Xiang N, Hu WK, et al. Relation between therapy options for Graves' disease and the course of Graves' ophthalmopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2016 Nov;39(11):1225-33. Resumo

108. Bartalena L. The dilemma of how to manage Graves' hyperthyroidism in patients with associated orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):592-9. Resumo

109. Perros P, Kendall-Taylor P, Neoh C, et al. A prospective study of the effects of radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism in patients with minimally active graves' ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Sep;90(9):5321-3.Texto completo  Resumo

110. Sisson JC, Freitas J, McDougall IR, et al; American Thyroid Association Taskforce on Radioiodine Safety. Radiation safety in the treatment of patients with thyroid diseases by radioiodine 131I: practice recommendations of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2011 Apr;21(4):335-46.Texto completo  Resumo

111. Whalen G, Sullivan M, Maranda L, et al. Randomized trial of a short course of preoperative potassium iodide in patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. Am J Surg. 2017 Apr;213(4):805-9. Resumo

112. Roher HD, Goretzki PE, Hellmann P, et al. Complications in thyroid surgery: incidence and therapy [in German]. Chirurg. 1999 Sep;70(9):999-1010. Resumo

113. Barczynski M, Konturek A, Stopa M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of visualization versus neuromonitoring of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy. World J Surg. 2012 Jun;36(6):1340-7.Texto completo  Resumo

114. Cavicchi O, Caliceti U, Fernandez IJ, et al. Laryngeal neuromonitoring and neurostimulation versus neurostimulation alone in thyroid surgery: a randomized clinical trial. Head Neck. 2012 Feb;34(2):141-5. Resumo

115. Zhang Y, Dong Z, Li J, et al. Comparison of endoscopic and conventional open thyroidectomy for Graves' disease: a meta-analysis. Int J Surg. 2017 Apr;40:52-9. Resumo

116. Miccoli P, Fregoli L, Rossi L, et al. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT). Gland Surg. 2020 Jan;9(suppl 1):S1-S5.Texto completo  Resumo

117. Stålberg P, Svensson A, Hessman O, et al. Surgical treatment of Graves' disease: evidence-based approach. World J Surg. 2008 Jul;32(7):1269-77. Resumo

118. Barczynski M, Konturek A, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, et al. Randomized clinical trial of bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy versus total thyroidectomy for Graves' disease with a 5-year follow-up. Br J Surg. 2012 Apr;99(4):515-22. Resumo

119. Wiersinga WM, Perros P, Kahaly GJ, et al; European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO). Clinical assessment of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy: the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy recommendations to generalists, specialists and clinical researchers. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006 Sep;155(3):387-9. Resumo

120. Perros P, Dayan CM, Dickinson AJ, et al. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways. Clin Med (Lond). 2015 Apr;15(2):173-8.Texto completo  Resumo

121. Burch HB, Perros P, Bednarczuk T, et al. Management of thyroid eye disease: a consensus statement by the American Thyroid Association and the European Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2022 Dec;32(12):1439-70.Texto completo  Resumo

122. Marcocci C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas GE, et al. Selenium and the course of mild Graves' orbitopathy. N Engl J Med. 2011 May 19;364(20):1920-31.Texto completo  Resumo

123. Bednarczuk T, Schomburg L. Challenges and perspectives of selenium supplementation in Graves' disease and orbitopathy. Hormones (Athens). 2020 Mar;19(1):31-9.Texto completo  Resumo

124. Zang S, Ponto KA, Kahaly GJ. Clinical review: intravenous glucocorticoids for Graves' orbitopathy: efficacy and morbidity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):320-32. Resumo

125. Bartalena L, Krassas GE, Wiersinga W, et al. Efficacy and safety of three different cumulative doses of intravenous methylprednisolone for moderate to severe and active Graves' orbitopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4454-63.Texto completo  Resumo

126. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Thyroid Eye Disease. July 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

127. Men CJ, Kossler AL, Wester ST. Updates on the understanding and management of thyroid eye disease. Ther Adv Ophthalmol. 2021 Jan-Dec;13:25158414211027760.Texto completo  Resumo

128. Chundury RV, Weber AC, Perry JD. Orbital radiation therapy in thyroid eye disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Mar-Apr;32(2):83-9. Resumo

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