Demência vascular


Principais artigos

Bowler JV. Modern concept of vascular cognitive impairment. Br Med Bull. 2007;83:291-305. Resumo

Hachinski V, Iadecola C, Petersen RC, et al. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Canadian Stroke Network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards. Stroke. 2006 Sep;37(9):2220-41.Texto completo  Resumo

Perneczky R, Tene O, Attems J, et al. Is the time ripe for new diagnostic criteria of cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease? Consensus report of the International Congress on Vascular Dementia working group. BMC Med. 2016 Nov 3;14(1):162.Texto completo  Resumo

Kernan WN, Ovbiagele B, Black HR, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014 Jul;45(7):2160-236.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Bowler JV. Modern concept of vascular cognitive impairment. Br Med Bull. 2007;83:291-305. Resumo

2. Hachinski V, Iadecola C, Petersen RC, et al. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Canadian Stroke Network vascular cognitive impairment harmonization standards. Stroke. 2006 Sep;37(9):2220-41.Texto completo  Resumo

3. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed., text revision (DSM-5-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2022.

4. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-5-TR neurocognitive disorders supplement. Updated excerpts for delirium codes major and mild neurocognitive disorders. October 2022.Texto completo

5. GBD 2016 Dementia Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Jan;18(1):88-106.Texto completo  Resumo

6. World Health Organization. Fact sheet: dementia. September 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

7. Plassman BL, Langa KM, Fisher GG, et al. Prevalence of dementia in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. Neuroepidemiology. 2007;29(1-2):125-32. Resumo

8. Braffman BH, Zimmerman RA, Trojnowski JQ, et al. Brain MR: pathologic correlation with gross and histopathology. II. Hyperintense white matter foci in the elderly. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988 Sep;151(3):559-66.Texto completo  Resumo

9. De Reuck J, Deramecourt V, Cordonnier C, et al. The incidence of post-mortem neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathology in mixed dementia. J Neurol Sci. 2016 Jul 15;366:164-6. Resumo

10. Perneczky R, Tene O, Attems J, et al. Is the time ripe for new diagnostic criteria of cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease? Consensus report of the International Congress on Vascular Dementia working group. BMC Med. 2016 Nov 3;14(1):162.Texto completo  Resumo

11. Hagnell O, Franck A, Grasbeck A, et al. Vascular dementia in the Lunby study: 1. a prospective, epidemiological study of incidence and risk from 1957-1972. Neuropsychobiology. 1992;26(1-2):43-9. Resumo

12. Gorelick PB, Brody JA, Cohen DC, et al. Risk factors for dementia associated with multiple cerebral infarcts: a case-control analysis in predominantly African-American hospital-based patients. Arch Neurol. 1993 Jul;50(7):714-20. Resumo

13. Brundel M, de Bresser J, van Dillen JJ, et al. Cerebral microinfarcts: a systematic review of neuropathological studies. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2012 Mar;32(3):425-36. Resumo

14. Wardlaw JM, Smith C, Dichgans M. Small vessel disease: mechanisms and clinical implications. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Jul;18(7):684-96. Resumo

15. Kivipelto M, Helkala EL, Laakso MP, et al. Midlife vascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease in later life: longitudinal, population based study. BMJ. 2001 Jun 16;322(7300):1447-51.Texto completo  Resumo

16. Ott A, Stolk RP, van Harskamp F, et al. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of dementia: the Rotterdam study. Neurology. 1999 Dec 10;53(9):1937-42. Resumo

17. Wallin A, Milos V, Sjogren M, et al. Classification and subtypes of vascular dementia. International Psychogeriatrics. 2003;15 Suppl 1:27-37. Resumo

18. Horowitz DR, Tuhrim S, Weinberger JM, et al. Mechanisms in lacunar infarction. Stroke. 1992 Mar;23(3):325-7. Resumo

19. Bateman GA. Pulse-wave encephalopathy: a comparative study of the hydrodynamics of leukoaraiosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Neuroradiology. 2002 Sep;44(9):740-8. Resumo

20. Lee SH, Kim SM, Kim N, et al. Cortico-subcortical distribution of microbleeds is different between hypertension and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. J Neurol Sci. 2007 Jul 15;258(1-2):111-4. Resumo

21. Jellinger KA, Attems J. Neuropathological evaluation of mixed dementia. J Neurol Sci. 2007 Jun 15;257(1-2):80-7. Resumo

22. Tatemichi TK, Desmond DW, Paik M, et al. Clinical determinants of dementia related to stroke. Ann Neurol. 1993 Jun;33(6):568-75. Resumo

23. White L, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, et al. Prevalence of dementia in older Japanese American men in Hawaii: the Honolulu-Asia aging study. JAMA. 1996 Sep 25;276(12):955-60. Resumo

24. Whitmer RA, Gunderson EP, Quesenberry CP, et al. Body mass index in midlife and risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007 Apr;4(2):103-9. Resumo

25. Skoog I, Lernfelt B, Landahl S, et al. 15-year longitudinal study of blood pressure and dementia. Lancet. 1996 Apr 27;347(9009):1141-5. Resumo

26. Guo Z, Viitanen M, Fratiglioni L, et al. Low blood pressure and dementia in elderly people: the Kungsholmen project. BMJ. 1996 Mar 30;312(7034):805-8.Texto completo  Resumo

27. Livingston G, Huntley J, Sommerlad A, et al. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet. 2020 Aug 8;396(10248):413-46.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Pohjasvaara T, Erkinjuntti T, Ylikoski R, et al. Clinical determinants of post stroke dementia. Stroke. 1998 Jan;29(1):75-81. Resumo

29. Doney ASF, Bonney W, Jefferson E, et al. Investigating the relationship between type 2 diabetes and dementia using electronic medical records in the GoDARTS bioresource. Diabetes Care. 2019 Oct;42(10):1973-80.Texto completo  Resumo

30. Yoshitake T, Kiyohara Y, Kato I, et al. Incidence and risk factors of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a defined elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama study. Neurology. 1995 Jun;45(6):1161-8. Resumo

31. Langballe EM, Ask H, Holmen J, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia up to 27 years later in a large, population-based sample: the HUNT study, Norway. Eur J Epidemiol. 2015 Sep;30(9):1049-56.Texto completo  Resumo

32. Xu W, Wang H, Wan Y, et al. Alcohol consumption and dementia risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 Jan;32(1):31-42. Resumo

33. Gottesman RF, Albert MS, Alonso A, et al. Associations between midlife vascular risk factors and 25-year incident dementia in the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) cohort. JAMA Neurol. 2017 Oct 1;74(10):1246-54.Texto completo  Resumo

34. Song R, Xu H, Dintica CS, et al. Associations between cardiovascular risk, structural brain changes, and cognitive decline. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 May 26;75(20):2525-34.Texto completo  Resumo

35. Aarsland D, Sardahaee FS, Anderssen S, et al. Is physical activity a potential preventive factor for vascular dementia? A systematic review. Aging Ment Health. 2010 May;14(4):386-95. Resumo

36. Gallaway PJ, Miyake H, Buchowski MS, et al. Physical activity: a viable way to reduce the risks of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in older adults. Brain Sci. 2017 Feb 20;7(2):22.Texto completo  Resumo

37. Hansson O, Svensson M, Gustavsson AM, et al. Midlife physical activity is associated with lower incidence of vascular dementia but not Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2019 Oct 20;11(1):87.Texto completo  Resumo

38. Arvanitakis Z, Shah RC, Bennett DA. Diagnosis and management of dementia: review. JAMA. 2019 Oct 22;322(16):1589-99.Texto completo  Resumo

39. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers. June 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

40. Clarfield AM. The decreasing prevalence of reversible dementias: an updated meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Oct 13;163(18):2219-29.Texto completo  Resumo

41. Hejl AM, Hogh P, Waldemar G. Potentially reversible conditions in 1000 consecutive memory clinic patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002 Oct;73(4):390-4.Texto completo  Resumo

42. Roman GC, Tatemichi TK, Erkinjuntti T, et al. Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies; report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology. 1993 Feb;43(2):250-60. Resumo

43. Kernan WN, Ovbiagele B, Black HR, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014 Jul;45(7):2160-236.Texto completo  Resumo

44. Williams PS, Rands G, Orrel M, et al. Aspirin for vascular dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(4):CD001296.Texto completo  Resumo

45. Hankey GJ. Clinical update: Management of stroke. 2007 Apr 21;369(9570):1330-2. Resumo

46. ESPRIT Study Group; Halkes PH, van Gijn J, Kappelle LJ, et al. Aspirin plus dipyridamole versus aspirin alone after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin (ESPRIT): randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 May 20;367(9523):1665-73. Resumo

47. Bhatt DL, Fox KA, Hacke W, et al. Clopidogrel and asprin vs asprin alone for the protection of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 20;354(16):1706-17.Texto completo  Resumo

48. Hao Q, Tampi M, O'Donnell M, et al. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for acute minor ischaemic stroke or high risk transient ischaemic attack: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2018 Dec 18;363:k5108.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Rahman H, Khan SU, Nasir F, et al. Optimal duration of aspirin plus clopidogrel after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Stroke. 2019 Apr;50(4):947-53.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Prasad K, Siemieniuk R, Hao Q, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel for acute high risk transient ischaemic attack and minor ischaemic stroke: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 Dec 18;363:k5130.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Johnston SC, Elm JJ, Easton JD, et al. Time course for benefit and risk of clopidogrel and aspirin after acute transient ischemic attack and minor ischemic stroke. Circulation. 2019 Aug 20;140(8):658-64.Texto completo  Resumo

52. Demaerschalk BM, Wingerchuk DM. Treatment of vascular dementia and vascular cognitive impairment. Neurologist. 2007 Jan;13(1):37-41. Resumo

53. Kavirajan H, Schneider LS. Efficacy and adverse effects of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in vascular dementia: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Sep;6(9):782-92. Resumo

54. Korczyn AD. Drugs for vascular dementia. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Sep;6(9):749-51. Resumo

55. Black SE. Therapeutic issues in vascular dementia: studies, designs and approaches. Can J Neurol Sci. 2007 Mar;34 Suppl 1:S125-30. Resumo

56. Wilkinson D, Róman G, Salloway S, et al. The long-term efficacy and tolerability of donepezil in patients with vascular dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;25(3):305-13. Resumo

57. McShane R, Westby MJ, Roberts E, et al. Memantine for dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 20;(3):CD003154.Texto completo  Resumo

58. Birks J. Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD005593.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Holmes C, Cairns N, Lantos P, et al. Validity of current clinical criteria for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Br J Psychiatry. 1999 Jan;174:45-50. Resumo

60. Howard R, McShane R, Lindesay J, et al. Donepezil and memantine for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease. N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 8;366(10):893-903.Texto completo  Resumo

61. Hanon O, Forette F. Prevention of dementia: lessons from SYST-EUR and PROGRESS. J Neurol Sci. 2004 Nov 15;226(1-2):71-4. Resumo

62. López Arrieta J, Birks J. Nimodipine for primary degenerative, mixed and vascular dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD000147.Texto completo  Resumo

63. Shah K, Qureshi SU, Johnson M, et al. Does use of antihypertensive drugs affect the incidence or progression of dementia? A systematic review. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2009 Oct;7(5):250-61. Resumo

64. McGuinness B, Todd S, Passmore P, et al. Blood pressure lowering in patients without prior cerebrovascular disease for prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;2009(4):CD004034.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Zonneveld TP, Richard E, Vergouwen MD, et al. Blood pressure-lowering treatment for preventing recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jul 19;(7):CD007858.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Hughes D, Judge C, Murphy R, et al. Association of blood pressure lowering with incident dementia or cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2020 May 19;323(19):1934-44.Texto completo  Resumo

67. Etminan M, Gill S, Sammii A. The role of lipid-lowering drugs in cognitive function: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Jun;23(6):726-30. Resumo

68. Bernick C, Katz R, Smith NL, et al. Statins and cognitive function in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Neurology. 2005 Nov 8;65(9):1388-94. Resumo

69. McGuinness B, Craig D, Bullock R, et al. Statins for the prevention of dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jan 4;(1):CD003160.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Collins R, Reith C, Emberson J, et al. Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. Lancet. 2016 Nov 19;388(10059):2532-61.Texto completo  Resumo

71. Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. Circulation. 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-143.Texto completo  Resumo

72. Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ. 2000 Aug 12;321(7258):405-12.Texto completo  Resumo

73. Carrion C, Folkvord F, Anastasiadou D, et al. Cognitive therapy for dementia patients: a systematic review. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2018;46(1-2):1-26.Texto completo  Resumo

74. Bahar-Fuchs A, Martyr A, Goh AM, et al. Cognitive training for people with mild to moderate dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 25;(3):CD013069.Texto completo  Resumo

75. Möhler R, Renom A, Renom H, et al. Personally tailored activities for improving psychosocial outcomes for people with dementia in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 17;(8):CD010515.Texto completo  Resumo

76. Orgeta V, Qazi A, Spector A, et al. Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Oct;207(4):293-8.Texto completo  Resumo

77. Park JH, Lee SB, Lee JJ, et al. Depression in vascular dementia is quantitively and qualitatively different from depression in Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2007;23:67-73. Resumo

78. Dudas R, Malouf R, McCleery J, et al. Antidepressants for treating depression in dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 31;(8):CD003944.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Rabins PV, Rovner BW, Rummans T, et al. Guideline watch (October 2014): practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ). 2017 Jan;15(1):110-28.Texto completo  Resumo

80. Seitz DP, Adunuri N, Gill SS, et al. Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;(2):CD008191.Texto completo  Resumo

81. Zivkovic S, Koh CH, Kaza N, et al. Antipsychotic drug use and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry. 2019 Jun 20;19(1):189.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Huang KL, Fang CJ, Hsu CC, et al. Myocardial infarction risk and antipsychotics use revisited: a meta-analysis of 10 observational studies. J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Dec;31(12):1544-55. Resumo

83. Schneider-Thoma J, Efthimiou O, Huhn M, et al. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs and short-term mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomised controlled trials. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Aug;5(8):653-63. Resumo

84. Kheirbek RE, Fokar A, Little JT, et al. Association between antipsychotics and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 Nov 13;74(12):1916-21.Texto completo  Resumo

85. Chien LY, Chu H, Guo JL, et al. Caregiver support groups in patients with dementia: a meta-analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Oct;26(10):1089-98. Resumo

86. Graff MJ, Adang EM, Vernooij-Dassen MJ, et al. Community occupational therapy for older patients with dementia and their care givers: cost effectiveness study. BMJ. 2008 Jan 19;336(7636):134-8.Texto completo  Resumo

87. Chiong W, Tsou AY, Simmons Z, et al. Ethical considerations in dementia diagnosis and care: AAN position statement. Neurology. 2021 Jul 13;97(2):80-9.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Taylor LP, Besbris JM, Graf WD, et al. Clinical guidance in neuropalliative care: an AAN position statement. Neurology. 2022 Mar 8;98(10):409-16.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Davies N, Barrado-Martín Y, Vickerstaff V, et al. Enteral tube feeding for people with severe dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Aug 13;(8):CD013503.Texto completo  Resumo

90. Brott TG, Brown RD, Meyer FB, et al. Carotid revascularization for prevention of stroke: carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Sep;79(9):1197-208. Resumo

91. Barnett HJ, Taylor DW, Eliasziw M, et al. Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1998 Nov 12;339(20):1415-25.Texto completo  Resumo

92. Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan A 3rd, et al; The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) Investigators. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. 2006 Aug 10;355(6):549-59.Texto completo  Resumo

93. Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D, et al. 2016 ESC guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Eur Heart J. 2016 Oct 7;37(38):2893-962.Texto completo  Resumo

94. Kasper S, Schubert H. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in the treatment of dementia: evidence of efficacy and tolerability [in German]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2009 Sep;77(9):494-506. Resumo

95. Weinmann S, Roll S, Schwarzbach C, et al. Effects of ginkgo biloba in dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2010 Mar 17;10:14.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Hashiguchi M, Ohta Y, Shimizu M, et al. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of dementia. J Pharm Health Care Sci. 2015 Apr 10;1:14.Texto completo  Resumo

97. O'Brien J. Behavioral symptoms in vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2003;15(suppl 1):133-138. Resumo

98. Verghese J, Lipton RB, Hall CB. Abnormality of gait as a predictor of non-Alzheimer dementia. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1761-1768. Resumo

99. Ganesh A, Fraser JF, Gordon Perue GL, et al. Endovascular treatment and thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in patients with premorbid disability or dementia: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2022 May;53(5):e204-e217.Texto completo  Resumo

100. Iverson DJ, Gronseth GS, Reger MA, et al. Practice parameter update: evaluation and management of driving risk in dementia: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2010 Apr 20;74(16):1316-24.Texto completo  Resumo

101. Driving and Dementia Working Group. Driving with dementia or mild cognitive impairment: consensus guidelines for clinicians. 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

102. Vachon M, Veilleux MC, Macoir J. Promoting the maintenance of satisfactory communication: strategies used by caregivers and medical staff with people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 2017 Jun 1;15(2):185-95. Resumo

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