Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson e necrólise epidérmica tóxica

Referências

Principais artigos

Dodiuk-Gad RP, Chung WH, Valeyrie-Allanore L, et al. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: an update. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2015 Dec;16(6):475-93. Resumo

Mockenhaupt M. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: clinical patterns, diagnostic considerations, etiology, and therapeutic management. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2014 Mar;33(1):10-6. Resumo

Bastuji-Garin S, Rzany B, Stern RS, et al. Clinical classification of cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme. Arch Dermatol. 1993 Jan;129(1):92-6. Resumo

Schwartz RA, McDonough PH, Lee BW. Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Part I: introduction, history, classification, clinical features, systemic manifestations, etiology, and immunopathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Aug;69(2):173. Resumo

Schwartz RA, McDonough PH, Lee BW. Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Part II: prognosis, sequelae, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Aug;69(2):187. Resumo

Guegan S, Bastuji-Garin S, Poszepczynska-Guigne E, et al. Performance of the SCORTEN during the first five days of hospitalization to predict the prognosis of epidermal necrolysis. J Invest Dermatol. 2006 Feb;126(2):272-6.Texto completo  Resumo

Ng QX, De Deyn MLZQ, Venkatanarayanan N, et al. A meta-analysis of cyclosporine treatment for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Inflamm Res. 2018 Mar 28;11:135-42.Texto completo  Resumo

González-Herrada C, Rodríguez-Martín S, Cachafeiro L, et al. Cyclosporine use in epidermal necrolysis is associated with an important mortality reduction: evidence from three different approaches. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Oct;137(10):2092-100.Texto completo  Resumo

Roujeau JC, Mockenhaupt M, Guillaume JC, et al. New evidence supporting cyclosporine efficacy in epidermal necrolysis. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Oct;137(10):2047-9.Texto completo  Resumo

Gregory DG. New grading system and treatment guidelines for the acute ocular manifestations of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2016 Aug;123(8):1653-8. Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Stevens AM, Johnson FC. A new eruptive fever associated with stomatitis and ophthalmia. Am J Dis Child. 1922 Dec;24(6):526-33.

2. Dodiuk-Gad RP, Chung WH, Valeyrie-Allanore L, et al. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: an update. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2015 Dec;16(6):475-93. Resumo

3. Mockenhaupt M. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: clinical patterns, diagnostic considerations, etiology, and therapeutic management. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2014 Mar;33(1):10-6. Resumo

4. Roujeau JC, Stern RS. Severe adverse cutaneous reactions to drugs. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 10;331(19):1272-85. Resumo

5. Bastuji-Garin S, Rzany B, Stern RS, et al. Clinical classification of cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme. Arch Dermatol. 1993 Jan;129(1):92-6. Resumo

6. Auquier-Dunant A, Mockenhaupt M, Naldi L, et al. Correlations between clinical patterns and causes of erythema multiforme majus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis: results of an international prospective study. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Aug;138(8):1019-24. Resumo

7. Lyell A. Toxic epidermal necrolysis: an eruption resembling scalding of the skin. Br J Dermatol. 1956 Nov;68(11):355-61. Resumo

8. Schwartz RA, McDonough PH, Lee BW. Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Part I: introduction, history, classification, clinical features, systemic manifestations, etiology, and immunopathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Aug;69(2):173. Resumo

9. Schwartz RA, McDonough PH, Lee BW. Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Part II: prognosis, sequelae, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Aug;69(2):187. Resumo

10. Roujeau JC, Kelly JP, Naldi L, et al. Medication use and the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 14;333(24):1600-7.Texto completo  Resumo

11. Coopman SA, Johnson RA, Platt R, et al. Cutaneous disease and drug reactions in HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jun 10;328(23):1670-4.Texto completo  Resumo

12. Mittmann N, Knowles SR, Koo M, et al. Incidence of toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome in an HIV cohort: an observational, retrospective case series study. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2012 Feb 1;13(1):49-54. Resumo

13. Mockenhaupt M, Messenheimer J, Tennis P, et al. Risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in new users of antiepileptics. Neurology. 2005 Apr 12;64(7):1134-8. Resumo

14. Calabrese JR, Sullivan JR, Bowden CL, et al. Rash in multicenter trials of lamotrigine in mood disorders: clinical relevance and management. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;63(11):1012-9. Resumo

15. Yip VL, Alfirevic A, Pirmohamed M. Genetics of immune-mediated adverse drug reactions: a comprehensive and clinical review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Jun;48(2-3):165-75. Resumo

16. Chang CC, Too CL, Murad S, et al. Association of HLA-B*1502 allele with carbamazepine-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population. Int J Dermatol. 2011 Feb;50(2):221-4. Resumo

17. Chung WH, Hung SI. Genetic markers and danger signals in stevens-johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Allergol Int. 2010 Dec;59(4):325-32.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Leckband SG, Kelsoe JR, Dunnenberger HM, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for HLA-B genotype and carbamazepine dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Sep;94(3):324-8.Texto completo  Resumo

19. Ueta M, Sawai H, Sotozono C, et al. IKZF1, a new susceptibility gene for cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis with severe mucosal involvement. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jun;135(6):1538-45. Resumo

20. Hershfield MS, Callaghan JT, Tassaneeyakul W, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for human leukocyte antigen-B genotype and allopurinol dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Feb;93(2):153-8.Texto completo  Resumo

21. Kongpan T, Mahasirimongkol S, Konyoung P, et al. Candidate HLA genes for prediction of co-trimoxazole-induced severe cutaneous reactions. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 Aug;25(8):402-11. Resumo

22. Tangamornsuksan W, Lohitnavy O, Kongkaew C, et al. Association of HLA-B*5701 genotypes and abacavir-induced hypersensitivity reaction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015;18(1):68-76.Texto completo  Resumo

23. Nethercott JR, Choi BC. Erythema multiforme (Stevens Johnson syndrome) chart review of 123 hospitalized patients. Dermatologica. 1985;171(6):383-96. Resumo

24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smallpox: vaccine adverse events. 2016 [internet publication].Texto completo

25. Morantz C. CDC releases guidelines for treating adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Apr 15;67(8):1827, 1829-30.Texto completo  Resumo

26. Levi N, Bastuji-Garin S, Mockenhaupt M, et al. Medications as risk factors of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in children: a pooled analysis. Pediatrics. 2009 Feb;123(2):e297-304. Resumo

27. Rotunda A, Hirsch RJ, Scheinfeld N, et al. Severe cutaneous reactions associated with the use of human immunodeficiency virus medications. Acta Derm Venereol. 2003;83(1):1-9. Resumo

28. Borras-Blasco J, Navarro-Ruiz A, Borras C, et al. Adverse cutaneous reactions associated with the newest antiretroviral drugs in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Nov;62(5):879-88.Texto completo  Resumo

29. La Grenade L, Lee L, Weaver J, et al. Comparison of reporting of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in association with selective COX-2 inhibitors. Drug Saf. 2005;28(10):917-24. Resumo

30. Layton D, Marshall V, Boshier A, et al. Serious skin reactions and selective COX-2 inhibitors: a case series from prescription-event monitoring in England. Drug Saf. 2006;29(8):687-96. Resumo

31. Roujeau JC, Mockenhaupt M, Tahan SR, et al. Telaprevir-related dermatitis. JAMA Dermatol. 2013 Feb;149(2):152-8.Texto completo  Resumo

32. Mufaddel A, Osman OT, Almugaddam F. Adverse cutaneous effects of psychotropic medications. Exp Rev Dermatol. 2013;8(6):681-92.

33. Mockenhaupt M, Viboud C, Dunant A, et al. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: assessment of medication risks with emphasis on recently marketed drugs. J Invest Dermatol. 2008 Jan;128(1):35-44.Texto completo  Resumo

34. Irazabal MP, Martin LM, Gil LA, et al. Tranexamic acid-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ann Pharmacother. 2013 Mar;47(3):e16. Resumo

35. Tremblay L, de Chambrun GP, De Vroey B, et al. Stevens-Johnson syndrome with sulfasalazine treatment: report of two cases. J Crohns Colitis. 2011 Oct;5(5):457-60.Texto completo  Resumo

36. Rosen AC, Balagula Y, Raisch DW, et al. Life-threatening dermatologic adverse events in oncology. Anticancer Drugs. 2014 Feb;25(2):225-34.Texto completo  Resumo

37. Mawson AR, Eriator I, Karre S. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN): could retinoids play a causative role? Med Sci Monit. 2015 Jan 12;21:133-43.Texto completo  Resumo

38. Paul C, Wolkenstein PC, Adle H, et al. Apoptosis as a mechanism of keratinocyte death in toxic epidermal necrolysis. Br J Dermatol. 1996 Apr;134(4):710-4. Resumo

39. Le Cleach L, Delaire S, Boumsell L, et al. Blister fluid T lymphocytes during toxic epidermal necrolysis are functional cytotoxic cells which express human natural killer (NK) inhibitory receptors. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000 Jan;119(1):225-30.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Caproni M, Torchia D, Schincaglia E, et al. Expression of cytokines and chemokine receptors in the cutaneous lesions of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Br J Dermatol. 2006 Oct;155(4):722-8. Resumo

41. Viard I, Wehrli P, Bullani R, et al. Inhibition of toxic epidermal necrolysis by blockade of CD95 with human intravenous immunoglobulin. Science. 1998 Oct 16;282(5388):490-3. Resumo

42. Chung WH, Hung SI, Yang JY, et al. Granulysin is a key mediator for disseminated keratinocyte death in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Nat Med. 2008 Dec;14(12):1343-50. Resumo

43. Abe R, Shimizu T, Shibaki A, et al. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are induced by soluble Fas ligand. Am J Pathol. 2003 May;162(5):1515-20.Texto completo  Resumo

44. Ziemer M, Kardaun SH, Liss Y, et al. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in patients with lupus erythematosus: a descriptive study of 17 cases from a national registry and review of the literature. Br J Dermatol. 2012 Mar;166(3):575-600. Resumo

45. Vern-Gross TZ, Kowal-Vern A. Erythema multiforme, Stevens Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome in patients undergoing radiation therapy: a literature review. Am J Clin Oncol. 2014 Oct;37(5):506-13. Resumo

46. Demiral AN, Yerebakan O, Simsir V, et al. Amifostine-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis during radiotherapy: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2002 Nov;32(11):477-9.Texto completo  Resumo

47. de Prost N, Mekontso-Dessap A, Valeyrie-Allanore L, et al. Acute respiratory failure in patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis: clinical features and factors associated with mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2014 Jan;42(1):118-28. Resumo

48. Lund CC, Browder NC. The estimation of areas of burns. Surg Gynecol Obst. 1944;79:352-8.

49. Wachtel TL, Berry CC, Wachtel EE, et al. The inter-rater reliability of estimating the size of burns from various burn area chart drawings. Burns. 2000 Mar;26(2):156-70. Resumo

50. Cartotto R, Mayich M, Nickerson D, et al. SCORTEN accurately predicts mortality among toxic epidermal necrolysis patients treated in a burn center. J Burn Care Res. 2008 Jan-Feb;29(1):141-6. Resumo

51. Hettiaratchy S, Papini R. Initial management of a major burn: II - assessment and resuscitation. BMJ. 2004 Jul 10;329(7457):101-3.Texto completo  Resumo

52. Sekula P, Liss Y, Davidovici B, et al. Evaluation of SCORTEN on a cohort of patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis included in the RegiSCAR study. J Burn Care Res. 2011 Mar-Apr;32(2):237-45. Resumo

53. Guegan S, Bastuji-Garin S, Poszepczynska-Guigne E, et al. Performance of the SCORTEN during the first five days of hospitalization to predict the prognosis of epidermal necrolysis. J Invest Dermatol. 2006 Feb;126(2):272-6.Texto completo  Resumo

54. George SM, Harrison DA, Welch CA, et al. Dermatological conditions in intensive care: a secondary analysis of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) case mix programme database. Crit Care. 2008;12(suppl 1):S1.Texto completo  Resumo

55. Imahara SD, Holmes JH, Heimbach DM, et al. SCORTEN overestimates mortality in the setting of a standardized treatment protocol. J Burn Care Res. 2006 May-Jun;27(3):270-5. Resumo

56. de Prost N, Ingen-Housz-Oro S, Duong T, et al. Bacteremia in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: epidemiology, risk factors, and predictive value of skin cultures. Medicine (Baltimore). 2010 Jan;89(1):28-36. Resumo

57. Husain Z, Reddy BY, Schwartz RA. DRESS syndrome: Part I. Clinical perspectives. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 May;68(5):693. Resumo

58. Husain Z, Reddy BY, Schwartz RA. DRESS syndrome: Part II. Management and therapeutics. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 May;68(5):709. Resumo

59. Baba M, Karakas M, Aksunger VL, et al. The anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003 Jul;17(4):399-401. Resumo

60. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Toxic syndrome description: vesicant/blister agent poisoning. Apr 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

61. Sehgal V, Srivastava G. Fixed drug eruption (FDE): changing scenario of incriminating drugs. Int J Dermatol. 2006 Aug;45(8):897-908. Resumo

62. Lipowicz S, Sekula P, Ingen-Housz-Oro S, et al. Prognosis of generalized bullous fixed drug eruption: comparison with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Br J Dermatol. 2013 Apr;168(4):726-32. Resumo

63. Thienvibul C, Vachiramon V, Chanprapaph K. Five-year retrospective review of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Dermatol Res Pract. 2015;2015:260928.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Chung WH, Shih SR, Chang CF, et al. Clinicopathologic analysis of coxsackievirus A6 new variant induced widespread mucocutaneous bullous reactions mimicking severe cutaneous adverse reactions. J Infect Dis. 2013 Dec 15;208(12):1968-78.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Garg T, Sanke S, Ahmed R, et al. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis-like cutaneous presentation of chikungunya fever: a case series. Pediatr Dermatol. 2018 May;35(3):392-6. Resumo

66. Zimmermann S, Sekula P, Venhoff M, et al. Systemic immunomodulating therapies for Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2017 Jun 1;153(6):514-22.Texto completo  Resumo

67. Schneider JA, Cohen PR. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a concise review with a comprehensive summary of therapeutic interventions emphasizing supportive measures. Adv Ther. 2017 Jun;34(6):1235-44.Texto completo  Resumo

68. Herndon DN, ed. Total burn care. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012.

69. Shiga S, Cartotto R. What are the fluid requirements in toxic epidermal necrolysis? J Burn Care Res. 2010 Jan-Feb;31(1):100-4. Resumo

70. Barron SJ, Del Vecchio MT, Aronoff SC. Intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a meta-analysis with meta-regression of observational studies. Int J Dermatol. 2015 Jan;54(1):108-15. Resumo

71. Aires DJ, Fraga G, Korentager R, et al. Early treatment with nonsucrose intravenous immunoglobulin in a burn unit reduces toxic epidermal necrolysis mortality. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013 Jun 1;12(6):679-84. Resumo

72. Enk A, Hadaschik E, Eming R, et al. European guidelines (S1) on the use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in dermatology. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2017 Feb;15(2):228-41. Resumo

73. Kirchhof MG, Miliszewski MA, Sikora S, et al. Retrospective review of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis treatment comparing intravenous immunoglobulin with cyclosporine. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Nov;71(5):941-7. Resumo

74. Valeyrie-Allanore L, Wolkenstein P, Brochard L, et al. Open trial of ciclosporin treatment for Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Oct;163(4):847-53. Resumo

75. Ng QX, De Deyn MLZQ, Venkatanarayanan N, et al. A meta-analysis of cyclosporine treatment for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Inflamm Res. 2018 Mar 28;11:135-42.Texto completo  Resumo

76. González-Herrada C, Rodríguez-Martín S, Cachafeiro L, et al. Cyclosporine use in epidermal necrolysis is associated with an important mortality reduction: evidence from three different approaches. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Oct;137(10):2092-100.Texto completo  Resumo

77. Roujeau JC, Mockenhaupt M, Guillaume JC, et al. New evidence supporting cyclosporine efficacy in epidermal necrolysis. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Oct;137(10):2047-9.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Gregory DG. New grading system and treatment guidelines for the acute ocular manifestations of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2016 Aug;123(8):1653-8. Resumo

79. Creamer D, Walsh SA, Dziewulski P, et al. UK guidelines for the management of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis in adults 2016. Br J Dermatol. 2016 Jun;174(6):1194-227.Texto completo  Resumo

80. Saffle R, Hildreth M. Metabolic support of the burned patient. In: Herndon DN, ed. Total burn care. 2nd ed. New York: W.B. Saunders; 2002:271-87.

81. Gupta LK, Martin AM, Agarwal N, et al. Guidelines for the management of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: an Indian perspective. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2016 Nov-Dec;82(6):603-25.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Egan CA, Grant WJ, Morris SE, et al. Plasmapheresis as an adjunct treatment in toxic epidermal necrolysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Mar;40(3):458-61. Resumo

83. Bamichas G, Natse T, Christidou F, et al. Plasma exchange in patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis. Ther Apher. 2002 Jun;6(3):225-8. Resumo

84. Giudice G, Maggio G, Bufano L, et al. Management of toxic epidermal necrolysis with plasmapheresis and cyclosporine A: our 10 years' experience. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2017 Feb 22;5(2):e1221.Texto completo  Resumo

85. Heng MC, Allen SG. Efficacy of cyclophosphamide in toxic epidermal necrolysis. Clinical and pathophysiologic aspects. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991 Nov;25(5 Pt 1):778-86. Resumo

86. Satake Y, Higa K, Tsubota K, et al. Long-term outcome of cultivated oral mucosal epithelial sheet transplantation in treatment of total limbal stem cell deficiency. Ophthalmology. 2011 Aug;118(8):1524-30. Resumo

87. Sotozono C, Inatomi T, Nakamura T, et al. Cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation for persistent epithelial defect in severe ocular surface diseases with acute inflammatory activity. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014 Sep;92(6):e447-53.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Wojtkiewicz A, Wysocki M, Fortuna J, et al. Beneficial and rapid effect of infliximab on the course of toxic epidermal necrolysis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2008;88(4):420-1. Resumo

89. Scott-Lang V, Tidman M, McKay D. Toxic epidermal necrolysis in a child successfully treated with infliximab. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014 Jul-Aug;31(4):532-4. Resumo

90. Finkelstein Y, Soon GS, Acuna P, et al. Recurrence and outcomes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in children. Pediatrics. 2011 Oct;128(4):723-8. Resumo

91. Del Pozzo-Magaña BR, Lazo-Langner A. Stevens Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in children: a literature review of current treatments. EMJ Dermatol. 2016 Nov;4(1):83-9.Texto completo

92. Singalavanija S, Limpongsanurak W. Stevens-Johnson syndrome in Thai children: a 29-year study. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011 Aug;94(suppl 3):S85-90. Resumo

93. Palmieri TL, Greenhalgh DG, Saffle JR, et al. A multicenter review of toxic epidermal necrolysis treated in U.S. burn centers at the end of the twentieth century. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2002 Mar-Apr;23(2):87-96. Resumo

94. Wakamatsu TH, Ueta M, Tokunaga K, et al. Human leukocyte antigen class I genes associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and severe ocular complications following use of cold medicine in a Brazilian population. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2017 Apr 1;135(4):355-60.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Jeschke MG, Finnerty CC. The hepatic response to a thermal injury. In: Herndon DN, ed. Total burn care. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:301-12.

96. Goverman J, Fagan SP. Renal failure in association with thermal injuries. In: Herndon, DN, ed. Total burn care. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:369-76.

97. Kaser DJ, Reichman DE, Laufer MR. Prevention of vulvovaginal sequelae in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Summer;4(2):81-5.Texto completo  Resumo

98. Kamada N, Kinoshita K, Togawa Y, et al. Chronic pulmonary complications associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis: report of a severe case with anti-Ro/SS-A and a review of the published work. J Dermatol. 2006 Sep;33(9):616-22. Resumo

99. Baccaro LM, Sakharpe A, Miller A, et al. The first reported case of ureteral perforation in a patient with severe toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome. J Burn Care Res. 2014 Jul-Aug;35(4):e265-8. Resumo

100. Kamal T, Elnikety S, Mashaly H, et al. Acute compartment syndrome of the forearm as a rare complication of toxic epidermal necrolysis: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2012 Mar 20;6:84.Texto completo  Resumo

O uso deste conteúdo está sujeito ao nosso aviso legal