Doença associada ao Clostridioides difficile

Referências

Principais artigos

McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 19;66(7):e1-48.Texto completo  Resumo

Johnson S, Lavergne V, Skinner AM, et al. Clinical practice guideline by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA): 2021 focused update guidelines on management of Clostridioides difficile infection in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 24:ciab549.Texto completo  Resumo

van Prehn J, Reigadas E, Vogelzang EH, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: 2021 update on the treatment guidance document for Clostridioides difficile infection in adults. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Dec;27 Suppl 2:S1-S21.Texto completo  Resumo

Beinortas T, Burr NE, Wilcox MH, et al. Comparative efficacy of treatments for Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;18(9):1035-44. Resumo

Nelson RL, Suda KJ, Evans CT. Antibiotic treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(3):CD004610.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Lawson PA, Citron DM, Tyrrell KL, et al. Reclassification of Clostridium difficile as Clostridioides difficile (Hall and O'Toole 1935) Prévot 1938. Anaerobe. 2016 Aug;40:95-9. Resumo

2. McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 19;66(7):e1-48.Texto completo  Resumo

3. Poutanen SM, Simor AE. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults. CMAJ. 2004 Jul 6;171(1):51-8.Texto completo  Resumo

4. Balsells E, Shi T, Leese C, et al. Global burden of Clostridium difficile infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Health. 2019 Jun;9(1):010407.Texto completo  Resumo

5. Turner NA, Grambow SC, Woods CW, et al. Epidemiologic trends in Clostridioides difficile infections in a regional community hospital network. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Oct 2;2(10):e1914149.Texto completo  Resumo

6. Lessa FC, Mu Y, Bamberg WM, et al. Burden of Clostridium difficile infection in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 26;372(9):825-34.Texto completo  Resumo

7. Marra AR, Perencevich EN, Nelson RE, et al. Incidence and outcomes associated With Clostridium difficile infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jan 3;3(1):e1917597.Texto completo  Resumo

8. Abrahamian FM, Talan DA, Krishnadasan A, et al; EMERGEncy ID NET Study Group. Clostridium difficile infection among US emergency department patients with diarrhea and no vomiting. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Jul;70(1):19-27;e4. Resumo

9. Bartlett JG, Perl TM. The new Clostridium difficile - what does it mean? N Engl J Med. 2005 Dec 8;353(23):2503-5. Resumo

10. Loo VG, Poirier L, Miller MA, et al. A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med. 2005 Dec 8;353(23):2442-9.Texto completo  Resumo

11. McDonald LC, Killgore GE, Thompson A, et al. An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med. 2005 Dec 8;353(23):2433-41.Texto completo  Resumo

12. Bartlett JG. Narrative review: the new epidemic of Clostridium difficile-associated enteric disease. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Nov 21;145(10):758-64. Resumo

13. Sheitoyan-Pesant C, Abou Chakra CN, Pépin J, et al. Clinical and healthcare burden of multiple recurrences of Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 1;62(5):574-80.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Ma GK, Brensinger CM, Wu Q, et al. Increasing incidence of multiply recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in the United States: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Aug 1;167(3):152-8. Resumo

15. UK Health Security Agency. C. difficile infection: monthly data by prior trust exposure. Sept 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

16. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Healthcare-associated infections: Clostridium difficile infections - annual epidemiological report for 2016. Jun 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

17. Borren NZ, Ghadermarzi S, Hutfless S, et al. The emergence of Clostridium difficile infection in Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of incidence and impact. PLoS One. 2017 May 2;12(5):e0176797.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2011 Feb 21;53(1358):14-5. Resumo

19. Schroeder MS. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar 1;71(5):921-8.Texto completo  Resumo

20. Miller AC, Segre AM, Pemmaraju SV, et al. Association of household exposure to primary Clostridioides difficile infection with secondary infection in family members. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jun 1;3(6):e208925.Texto completo  Resumo

21. Teng C, Reveles KR, Obodozie-Ofoegbu OO, et al Clostridium difficile infection risk with important antibiotic classes: an analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Int J Med Sci. 2019 May 7;16(5):630-5.Texto completo  Resumo

22. Tariq R, Cho J, Kapoor S, et al. Low risk of primary Clostridium difficile infection with tetracyclines: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 1;66(4):514-22. Resumo

23. Dingle KE, Didelot X, Quan TP, et al. Effects of control interventions on Clostridium difficile infection in England: an observational study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Apr;17(4):411-21.Texto completo  Resumo

24. Baur D, Gladstone BP, Burkert F, et al. Effect of antibiotic stewardship on the incidence of infection and colonisation with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Sep;17(9):990-1001. Resumo

25. Blumenthal KG, Lu N, Zhang Y, et al. Risk of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in patients with a documented penicillin allergy: population based matched cohort study. BMJ. 2018 Jun 27;361:k2400.Texto completo  Resumo

26. Blixt T, Gradel KO, Homann C, et al. Asymptomatic carriers contribute to nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection: a cohort study of 4508 patients. Gastroenterology. 2017 Apr;152(5):1031-41;e2. Resumo

27. Miller AC, Segre AM, Pemmaraju SV, et al. Association of household exposure to primary Clostridioides difficile infection with secondary infection in family members. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jun 1;3(6):e208925.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Cunningham R, Dale B, Undy B, et al. Proton pump inhibitors as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. J Hosp Infect. 2003 Jul;54(3):243-5. Resumo

29. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea can be associated with stomach acid drugs known as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Feb 2012 [internet publication].Texto completo

30. Arriola V, Tischendorf J, Musuuza J, et al. Assessing the risk of hospital-acquired clostridium difficile infection with proton pump inhibitor use: a meta-analysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016 Dec;37(12):1408-17.Texto completo  Resumo

31. Oshima T, Wu L, Li M, et al. Magnitude and direction of the association between Clostridium difficile infection and proton pump inhibitors in adults and pediatric patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol. 2018 Jan;53(1):84-94. Resumo

32. Cao F, Chen CX, Wang M, et al. Updated meta-analysis of controlled observational studies: proton-pump inhibitors and risk of Clostridium difficile infection. J Hosp Infect. 2018 Jan;98(1):4-13. Resumo

33. Azab M, Doo L, Doo DH, et al. Comparison of the hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection risk of using proton pump inhibitors versus histamine-2 receptor antagonists for prophylaxis and treatment of stress ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gut Liver. 2017 Nov 15;11(6):781-8.Texto completo  Resumo

34. Nguyen GC, Kaplan GG, Harris ML, et al. A national survey of the prevalence and impact of Clostridium difficile infection among hospitalized inflammatory bowel disease patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jun;103(6):1443-50. Resumo

35. Razik R, Rumman A, Bahreini Z, et al. Recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection in ptients with inflammatory bowel disease: the RECIDIVISM study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Aug;111(8):1141-6. Resumo

36. Tariq R, Law CCY, Khanna S, et al. The impact of Clostridium difficile infection on mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2019 Feb;53(2):127-33. Resumo

37. Balram B, Battat R, Al-Khoury A, et al. Risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection in inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Jan 1;13(1):27-38.Texto completo  Resumo

38. Donnelly JP, Wang HE, Locke JE, et al. Hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection among solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2015 Nov;15(11):2970-7.Texto completo  Resumo

39. Paudel S, Zacharioudakis IM, Zervou FN, et al. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection among solid organ transplant recipients: a meta-analysis of published studies. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 17;10(4):e0124483.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Zacharioudakis IM, Ziakas PD, Mylonakis E. Clostridium difficile infection in the hematopoietic unit: a meta-analysis of published studies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2014 Oct;20(10):1650-4.Texto completo  Resumo

41. Phatharacharukul P, Thongprayoon C, Cheungpasitporn W, et al. The risks of incident and recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dig Dis Sci. 2015 Oct;60(10):2913-22. Resumo

42. Sanchez TH, Brooks JT, Sullivan PS, et al; Adult/Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease Study Group. Bacterial diarrhea in persons with HIV infection, United States, 1992-2002. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Dec 1;41(11):1621-7.Texto completo  Resumo

43. Anand A, Glatt AE. Clostridium difficile infection associated with antineoplastic chemotherapy: a review. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Jul;17(1):109-13. Resumo

44. Southern WN, Rahmani R, Aroniadis O, et al. Postoperative Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Surgery. 2010 Jul;148(1):24-30.Texto completo  Resumo

45. Khorasani S, Dossa F, McKechnie T, et al. Association between preoperative oral antibiotics and the incidence of postoperative Clostridium difficile infection in adults undergoing elective colorectal resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2020 Apr;63(4):545-61. Resumo

46. Harries RL, Ansell J, Codd RJ, et al. A systematic review of Clostridium difficile infection following reversal of ileostomy. Colorectal Dis. 2017 Oct;19(10):881-7. Resumo

47. Furuya-Kanamori L, Wangdi K, Yakob L, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and Clostridium difficile infection: a meta-analysis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2017 Jul;41(5):890-5. Resumo

48. Su GL, Ko CW, Bercik P, et al. AGA clinical practice guidelines on the role of probiotics in the management of gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterology. 2020 Aug;159(2):697-705.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Goldenberg JZ, Yap C, Lytvyn L, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 19;12:CD006095.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Shen NT, Maw A, Tmanova LL, et al. Timely use of probiotics in hospitalized adults prevents Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review with meta-regression analysis. Gastroenterology. 2017 Jun;152(8):1889-900;e9.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Kelly CR, Fischer M, Allegretti JR, et al. ACG clinical guidelines: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Clostridioides difficile infections. Am J Gastroenterol. 2021 Jun 1;116(6):1124-47. Resumo

52. Deschênes P, Chano F, Dionne LL, et al. Efficacy of the World Health Organization-recommended handwashing technique and a modified washing technique to remove Clostridium difficile from hands. Am J Infect Control. 2017 Aug 1;45(8):844-8. Resumo

53. Banach DB, Bearman G, Barnden M, et al. Duration of contact precautions for acute-care settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018 Feb;39(2):127-44.Texto completo  Resumo

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55. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Infection prevention and control. Apr 2014 [internet publication].Texto completo

56. Macleod-Glover N, Sadowski C. Efficacy of cleaning products for C. difficile: environmental strategies to reduce the spread of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in geriatric rehabilitation. Can Fam Physician. 2010 May;56(5):417-23.Texto completo  Resumo

57. Kundrapu S, Sunkesula V, Jury LA, et al. Daily disinfection of high-touch surfaces in isolation rooms to reduce contamination of healthcare workers' hands. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012 Oct;33(10):1039-42. Resumo

58. Louh IK, Greendyke WG, Hermann EA, et al. Clostridium difficile infection in acute care hospitals: systematic review and best practices for prevention. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 Apr;38(4):476-82.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Truitt CL, Runyan DA, Stern JJ, et al. Evaluation of an aerosolized hydrogen peroxide disinfection system for the reduction of Clostridioides difficile hospital infection rates over a 10 year period. Am J Infect Control. 2022 Apr;50(4):409-13. Resumo

60. Barbut F, Menuet D, Verachten M, et al. Comparison of the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist disinfection system and sodium hypochlorite solution for eradication of Clostridium difficile spores. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009 Jun;30(6):507-14. Resumo

61. Nerandzic MM, Cadnum JL, Pultz MJ, et al. Evaluation of an automated ultraviolet radiation device for decontamination of Clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens in hospital rooms. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 8;10:197.Texto completo  Resumo

62. Ray AJ, Deshpande A, Fertelli D, et al. A multicenter randomized trial to determine the effect of an environmental disinfection intervention on the incidence of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 Jul;38(7):777-83. Resumo

63. Lewis SR, Schofield-Robinson OJ, Rhodes S, et al. Chlorhexidine bathing of the critically ill for the prevention of hospital-acquired infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Aug 30;8(8):CD012248.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Tschudin-Sutter S, Kuijper EJ, Durovic A, et al. Guidance document for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in acute healthcare settings. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018 Oct;24(10):1051-4.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Arimoto J, Horita N, Kato S, et al. Diagnostic test accuracy of glutamate dehydrogenase for Clostridium difficile: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 15;6:29754.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Deshpande A, Pasupuleti V, Pant C, et al. Potential value of repeat stool testing for Clostridium difficile stool toxin using enzyme immunoassay? Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Nov;26(11):2635-41.Texto completo  Resumo

67. Johnson S, Lavergne V, Skinner AM, et al. Clinical practice guideline by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA): 2021 focused update guidelines on management of Clostridioides difficile infection in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 24:ciab549.Texto completo  Resumo

68. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Clostridioides difficile infection: antimicrobial prescribing NICE guideline [NG199]. 23 Jul 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

69. van Prehn J, Reigadas E, Vogelzang EH, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: 2021 update on the treatment guidance document for Clostridioides difficile infection in adults. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Dec;27 Suppl 2:S1-S21.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Beinortas T, Burr NE, Wilcox MH, et al. Comparative efficacy of treatments for Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;18(9):1035-44. Resumo

71. Okumura H, Fukushima A, Taieb V, et al. Fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin and metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection: a network meta-analysis. J Infect Chemother. 2020 Jan;26(1):43-50.Texto completo  Resumo

72. Nelson RL, Suda KJ, Evans CT. Antibiotic treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(3):CD004610.Texto completo  Resumo

73. Khanna S, Shin A, Kelly CP. Management of Clostridium difficile infection in inflammatory bowel disease: expert review from the Clinical Practice Updates Committee of the AGA Institute. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Feb;15(2):166-74.Texto completo  Resumo

74. D'Aoust J, Battat R, Bessissow T. Management of inflammatory bowel disease with Clostridium difficile infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Jul 21;23(27):4986-5003.Texto completo  Resumo

75. Cimolai N. Does oral vancomycin use necessitate therapeutic drug monitoring? Infection. 2020 Apr;48(2):173-82. Resumo

76. Ng QX, Loke W, Foo NX, et al. A systematic review of the use of rifaximin for Clostridium difficile infections. Anaerobe. 2019 Feb;55:35-9. Resumo

77. Jaber MR, Olafsson S, Fung WL, et al. Clinical review of the management of fulminant Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008 Dec;103(12):3195-203;quiz 3204. Resumo

78. Louie TJ, Miller MA, Mullane KM, et al. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb 3;364(5):422-31.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Stevens VW, Nelson RE, Schwab-Daugherty EM, et al. Comparative effectiveness of vancomycin and metronidazole for the prevention of recurrence and death in patients with Clostridium difficile infection. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Apr 1;177(4):546-53. Resumo

80. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Faecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection. Aug 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

81. van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, et al. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 31;368(5):407-15.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Lee CH, Steiner T, Petrof EO, et al. Frozen vs fresh fecal microbiota transplantation and clinical resolution of diarrhea in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016 Jan 12;315(2):142-9.Texto completo  Resumo

83. Hota SS, Sales V, Tomlinson G, et al. Oral vancomycin followed by fecal transplantation versus tapering oral vancomycin treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: an open-label, randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 1;64(3):265-71.Texto completo  Resumo

84. Lai CY, Sung J, Cheng F, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: review of donor features, procedures and outcomes in 168 clinical studies of faecal microbiota transplantation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Feb;49(4):354-63. Resumo

85. Du C, Luo Y, Walsh S, et al. Oral fecal microbiota transplant capsules are safe and effective for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2021 Apr 1;55(4):300-8. Resumo

86. Kelly CR, Yen EF, Grinspan AM, et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation Is highly effective in real-world practice: initial results from the FMT National Registry. Gastroenterology. 2021 Jan;160(1):183-92.e3.Texto completo  Resumo

87. Tariq R, Pardi DS, Bartlett MG, et al. Low cure rates in controlled trials of fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 8;68(8):1351-8.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Rokkas T, Gisbert JP, Gasbarrini A, et al. A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials exploring the role of fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. United European Gastroenterol J. 2019 Oct;7(8):1051-63.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Hui W, Li T, Liu W, et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection: an updated randomized controlled trial meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019 Jan 23;14(1):e0210016.Texto completo  Resumo

90. Baunwall SMD, Andreasen SE, Hansen MM, et al. Faecal microbiota transplantation for first or second Clostridioides difficile infection (EarlyFMT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2022 Sep 21:S2468-1253(22)00276-X. Resumo

91. Moayyedi P, Yuan Y, Baharith H, et al. Faecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Med J Aust. 2017 Aug 21;207(4):166-72.Texto completo  Resumo

92. Hvas CL, Dahl Jørgensen SM, Jørgensen SP, et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation is superior to fidaxomicin for treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterology. 2019 Apr;156(5):1324-32.e3.Texto completo  Resumo

93. Tang G, Yin W, Liu W. Is frozen fecal microbiota transplantation as effective as fresh fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection: a meta-analysis? Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Aug;88(4):322-9. Resumo

94. Furuya-Kanamori L, Doi SA, Paterson DL, et al. Upper versus lower gastrointestinal delivery for transplantation of fecal microbiota in recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection: a collaborative analysis of individual patient data from 14 studies. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017 Feb;51(2):145-50. Resumo

95. Wang S, Xu M, Wang W, et al. Systematic review: adverse events of fecal microbiota transplantation. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 16;11(8):e0161174.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Khoruts A, Rank KM, Newman KM, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease affects the outcome of fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Oct;14(10):1433-8.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Chen T, Zhou Q, Zhang D, et al. Effect of faecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Crohns Colitis. 2018 May 25;12(6):710-7.Texto completo  Resumo

98. Shogbesan O, Poudel DR, Victor S, et al. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplant for Clostridium difficile infection in immunocompromised patients. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Sep 2;2018:1394379.Texto completo  Resumo

99. US Food and Drug Administration. Important safety alert regarding use of fecal microbiota for transplantation and risk of serious adverse reactions due to transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

100. US Food and Drug Administration. Fecal microbiota for transplantation: safety alert - risk of serious adverse events likely due to transmission of pathogenic organisms. Apr 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

101. US Food and Drug Administration. Safety alert regarding use of fecal microbiota for transplantation and additional safety protections pertaining to monkeypox virus. Aug 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

102. Ianiro G, Murri R, Sciumè GD, et al. Incidence of bloodstream infections, length of hospital stay, and survival in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection treated with fecal microbiota transplantation or antibiotics: a prospective cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Nov 19;171(10):695-702.Texto completo  Resumo

103. Bafeta A, Yavchitz A, Riveros C, et al. Methods and reporting studies assessing fecal microbiota transplantation: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jul 4;167(1):34-9. Resumo

104. Wilcox MH, Gerding DN, Poxton IR, et al. Bezlotoxumab for prevention of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jan 26;376(4):305-17.Texto completo  Resumo

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106. Lee CH, Patino H, Stevens C, et al. Surotomycin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection: phase 2, randomized, controlled, double-blind, non-inferiority, multicentre trial. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Oct;71(10):2964-71.Texto completo  Resumo

107. McCoy RM, Klick A, Hill S, et al. Luminal toxin-binding agents for Clostridium difficile infection. J Pharm Pract. 2016 Aug;29(4):361-7. Resumo

108. Kokai-Kun JF, Roberts T, Coughlin O, et al. Use of ribaxamase (SYN-004), a β-lactamase, to prevent Clostridium difficile infection in β-lactam-treated patients: a double-blind, phase 2b, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 May;19(5):487-96. Resumo

109. Bézay N, Ayad A, Dubischar K, et al. Safety, immunogenicity and dose response of VLA84, a new vaccine candidate against Clostridium difficile, in healthy volunteers. Vaccine. 2016 May 17;34(23):2585-92. Resumo

110. ClinicalTrials.gov. Dose-confirmation, immunogenicity and safety study of the Clostridium difficile vaccine candidate VLA84 in healthy adults aged 50 years and older. Phase II study. Jun 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

111. de Bruyn G, Gordon DL, Steiner T, et al. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a Clostridioides difficile toxoid vaccine candidate: a phase 3 multicentre, observer-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;21(2):252-62. Resumo

112. Locher HH, Seiler P, Chen X, et al. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial evaluation of cadazolid, a new antibiotic for treatment of Clostridium difficile infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(2):892-900.Texto completo  Resumo

113. Guery B. Clostridium difficile infection trials: what is the primary endpoint? Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 Mar;19(3):219-20 Resumo

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