Obesidade em adultos


Principais artigos

Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for medical care of patients with obesity. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22 Suppl 3:1-203.Texto completo  Resumo

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obesity: identification, assessment and management. September 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

Artigos de referência

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46. Blüher M. Metabolically healthy obesity. Endocr Rev. 2020 May 1;41(3):bnaa004.Texto completo  Resumo

47. Commodore-Mensah Y, Lazo M, Tang O, et al. High burden of subclinical and cardiovascular disease risk in adults with metabolically healthy obesity: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jul;44(7):1657-63. Resumo

48. Opio J, Croker E, Odongo GS, et al. Metabolically healthy overweight/obesity are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adults, even in the absence of metabolic risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev. 2020 Dec;21(12):e13127. Resumo

49. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1549-55.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, et al. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998. JAMA. 1999 Oct 27;282(16):1519-22.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Astrup A. Physical activity and weight gain and fat distribution changes with menopause: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Nov;31(11 suppl):S564-7. Resumo

52. Kongnyuy EJ, Norman RJ, Flight IH, et al. Oestrogen and progestogen hormone replacement therapy for peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women: weight and body fat distribution. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001018.Texto completo  Resumo

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54. Rossner S, Ohlin A. Pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity: lessons from the Stockholm Pregnancy and Weight Development Study. Obes Res. 1995;3(suppl 2):S267-75. Resumo

55. Schmitt NM, Nicholson WK, Schmitt J. The association of pregnancy and the development of obesity - results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on the natural history of postpartum weight retention. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Nov;31(11):1642-51. Resumo

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59. Vioque J, Torres A, Quiles J. Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Dec;24(12):1683-8. Resumo

60. Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Boden-Albala B, et al. Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep. 2005 Oct;28(10):1289-96. Resumo

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63. Molarius A, Seidell JC, Sans S, et al. Educational level, relative body weight, and changes in their association over 10 years: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project. Am J Public Health. 2000 Aug;90(8):1260-8.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Drewnowski A, Darmon N. The economics of obesity: dietary energy density and energy cost. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1 suppl):265-73S.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Wareham NJ, van Sluijs EM, Ekelund U. Physical activity and obesity prevention: a review of the current evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. 2005 May;64(2):229-47. Resumo

66. Tremblay MS, Willms JD. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1100-5.Texto completo  Resumo

67. Ludwig DS. Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J Nutr. 2000 Feb;130(2S suppl):280-3S.Texto completo  Resumo

68. Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Golden JK, et al. Long-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: a 1-y randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1023-30.Texto completo  Resumo

69. Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, et al. Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007 May 16;297(19):2092-102.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Colditz GA, Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, et al. Alcohol intake in relation to diet and obesity in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jul;54(1):49-55. Resumo

71. Arif AA, Rohrer JE. Patterns of alcohol drinking and its association with obesity: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. BMC Public Health. 2005 Dec 5;5:126.Texto completo  Resumo

72. Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Jenkins AB, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption, dietary fat composition, and abdominal obesity in women: evidence for gene-environment interaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;88(11):5381-6.Texto completo  Resumo

73. Chou SY, Grossman M, Saffer H. An economic analysis of adult obesity: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. J Health Econ. 2004 May;23(3):565-87. Resumo

74. Wing RR, Goldstein MG, Acton KJ, et al. Behavioral science research in diabetes: lifestyle changes related to obesity, eating behavior, and physical activity. Diabetes Care. 2001 Jan;24(1):117-23.Texto completo  Resumo

75. Gluck ME, Geliebter A, Satov T. Night eating syndrome is associated with depression, low self-esteem, reduced daytime hunger, and less weight loss in obese outpatients. Obes Res. 2001 Apr;9(4):264-7. Resumo

76. Colles SL, Dixon JB, O'Brien PE. Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Nov;31(11):1722-30. Resumo

77. Zimmermann U, Kraus T, Himmerich H, et al. Epidemiology, implications and mechanisms underlying drug-induced weight gain in psychiatric patients. J Psychiatr Res. 2003 May-Jun;37(3):193-220. Resumo

78. McCloughen A, Foster K. Weight gain associated with taking psychotropic medication: an integrative review. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2011 Jun;20(3):202-22. Resumo

79. Sharma AM, Pischon T, Hardt S, et al. Hypothesis: beta-adrenergic receptor blockers and weight gain: a systematic analysis. Hypertension. 2001 Feb;37(2):250-4.Texto completo  Resumo

80. Shapiro CL, Recht A. Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jun 28;344(26):1997-2008. Resumo

81. Simon GE, Von Korff M, Saunders K, et al. Association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in the US adult population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;63(7):824-30.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Allison DB, Fontaine KR, Heo M, et al. The distribution of body mass index among individuals with and without schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999 Apr;60(4):215-20. Resumo

83. Van Horn L, Carson JA, Appel LJ, et al. Recommended dietary pattern to achieve adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) guidelines: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016 Nov 29;134(22):e505-29.Texto completo  Resumo

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85. Swinburn BA, Caterson I, Seidell JC, et al. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutr. 2004 Feb;7(1a):123-46. Resumo

86. Kirk SF, Penney TL, McHugh TL. Characterizing the obesogenic environment: the state of the evidence with directions for future research. Obes Rev. 2010 Feb;11(2):109-17. Resumo

87. Kwon J, Cameron AJ, Hammond D, et al. A multi-country survey of public support for food policies to promote healthy diets: findings from the International Food Policy Study. BMC Public Health. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):1205.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec;54(24):1451-62.Texto completo  Resumo

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90. World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist–hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation. 2011 [internet publication].Texto completo

91. Herbst KL, Kahn LA, Iker E, et al. Standard of care for lipedema in the United States. Phlebology. 2021 Dec;36(10):779-96.Texto completo  Resumo

92. Buso G, Depairon M, Tomson D, et al. Lipedema: a call to action! Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019 Oct;27(10):1567-76.Texto completo  Resumo

93. Buchwald H. Consensus conference statement bariatric surgery for morbid obesity: health implications for patients, health professionals, and third-party payers. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2005 May-Jun;1(3):371-81. Resumo

94. Regan JP, Inabnet WB, Gagner M, et al. Early experience with two-stage laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as an alternative in the super-super obese patient. Obes Surg. 2003 Dec;13(6):861-4. Resumo

95. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for and management of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Sep 4;157(5):373-8.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Garvey WT, Mechanick JI, Brett EM, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for medical care of patients with obesity. Endocr Pract. 2016 Jul;22 Suppl 3:1-203.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Brauer P, Gorber SC, Shaw E, et al. Recommendations for prevention of weight gain and use of behavioural and pharmacologic interventions to manage overweight and obesity in adults in primary care. CMAJ. 2015 Feb 17;187(3):184-95.Texto completo  Resumo

98. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obesity: identification, assessment and management. September 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

99. Shaw K, Gennat H, O'Rourke P, et al. Exercise for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD003817.Texto completo  Resumo

100. Franz MJ, VanWormer JJ, Crain AL, et al. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Oct;107(10):1755-67. Resumo

101. Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, et al. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 26;360(9):859-73.Texto completo  Resumo

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104. Thomas DE, Elliott E, Baur L. Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD005105.Texto completo  Resumo

105. Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2074-81.Texto completo  Resumo

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108. Johnston BC, Kanters S, Bandayrel K, et al. Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2014 Sep 3;312(9):923-33.Texto completo  Resumo

109. Ge L, Sadeghirad B, Ball GDC, et al. Comparison of dietary macronutrient patterns of 14 popular named dietary programmes for weight and cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2020 Apr 1;369:m696.Texto completo  Resumo

110. Wu T, Gao X, Chen M, et al. Long-term effectiveness of diet-plus-exercise interventions vs. diet-only interventions for weight loss: a meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2009 May;10(3):313-23.Texto completo  Resumo

111. Semlitsch T, Stigler FL, Jeitler K, et al. Management of overweight and obesity in primary care - a systematic overview of international evidence-based guidelines. Obes Rev. 2019 Sep;20(9):1218-30.Texto completo  Resumo

112. Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, et al. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA. 2018 Nov 20;320(19):2020-8. Resumo

113. Booth HP, Prevost TA, Wright AJ, et al. Effectiveness of behavioural weight loss interventions delivered in a primary care setting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2014 Dec;31(6):643-53.Texto completo  Resumo

114. Södlerlund A, Fischer A, Johansson T. Physical activity, diet and behaviour modification in the treatment of overweight and obese adults: a systematic review. Perspect Public Health. 2009 May;129(3):132-42. Resumo

115. Curry SJ, Krist AH, Owens DK, et al; US Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2018 Sep 18;320(11):1163-71.Texto completo  Resumo

116. Castelnuovo G, Pietrabissa G, Manzoni GM, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy to aid weight loss in obese patients: current perspectives. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2017;10:165-73.Texto completo  Resumo

117. Svetkey LP, Stevens VJ, Brantley PJ, et al; Weight Loss Maintenance Collaborative Research Group. Comparison of strategies for sustaining weight loss: the weight loss maintenance randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1139-48.Texto completo  Resumo

118. Vanwormer JJ, French SA, Pereira MA, et al. The impact of regular self-weighing on weight management: a systematic literature review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 Nov 4;5:54.Texto completo  Resumo

119. Manzoni GM, Pagnini F, Corti S, et al. Internet-based behavioral interventions for obesity: an updated systematic review. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2011 Mar 4;7:19-28.Texto completo  Resumo

120. Maon S, Edirippulige S, Ware R, et al. The use of web-based interventions to prevent excessive weight gain. J Telemed Telecare. 2012 Jan;18(1):37-41. Resumo

121. Crane MM, Lutes LD, Ward DS, et al. A randomized trial testing the efficacy of a novel approach to weight loss among men with overweight and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Dec;23(12):2398-405.Texto completo  Resumo

122. Petkovic J, Duench S, Trawin J, et al. Behavioural interventions delivered through interactive social media for health behaviour change, health outcomes, and health equity in the adult population. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 31;5:CD012932.Texto completo  Resumo

123. Baer HJ, Rozenblum R, De La Cruz BA, et al. Effect of an online weight management program integrated with population health management on weight change: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020 Nov 3;324(17):1737-46.Texto completo  Resumo

124. Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Progress in pharmacotherapy for obesity. JAMA. 2021 Jul 13;326(2):129-30. Resumo

125. Rubino D, Abrahamsson N, Davies M, et al. Effect of continued weekly subcutaneous semaglutide vs placebo on weight loss maintenance in adults with overweight or obesity: the STEP 4 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Apr 13;325(14):1414-25.Texto completo  Resumo

126. Wadden TA, Bailey TS, Billings LK, et al. Effect of subcutaneous semaglutide vs placebo as an adjunct to intensive behavioral therapy on body weight in adults with overweight or obesity: the STEP 3 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Apr 13;325(14):1403-13.Texto completo  Resumo

127. Isaacs D, Prasad-Reddy L, Srivastava SB. Role of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in management of obesity. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016 Oct 1;73(19):1493-507. Resumo

128. Davies MJ, Bergenstal R, Bode B, et al. Efficacy of liraglutide for weight loss among patients with type 2 diabetes: the SCALE diabetes randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Aug 18;314(7):687-99. Resumo

129. Pi-Sunyer X, Astrup A, Fujioka K, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of 3.0 mg of liraglutide in weight management. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 2;373(1):11-22.Texto completo  Resumo

130. Lundgren JR, Janus C, Jensen SBK, et al. Healthy weight loss maintenance with exercise, liraglutide, or both combined. N Engl J Med. 2021 May 6;384(18):1719-30.Texto completo  Resumo

131. Wadden TA, Hollander P, Klein S, et al. Weight maintenance and additional weight loss with liraglutide after low-calorie-diet-induced weight loss: the SCALE maintenance randomized study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Nov;37(11):1443-51. Resumo

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