Lombalgia discogênica

Referências

Principais artigos

Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Farfan HF. Instability of the lumbar spine. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982 May;(165):110-23. Resumo

Glassman SD, Bridewell K, Dimar JR, et al. The impact of positive sagittal balance in adult spinal deformity. Spine. 2005 Sep 15;30(18):2024-9. Resumo

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

Modic MT, Steinberg PM, Ross JS, et al. Degenerative disk disease: assessment of changes in vertebral body marrow with MR imaging. Radiology. 1988 Jan;166(1 Pt 1):193-9. Resumo

Pfirrmann CW, Metzdorf A, Zanetti M, et al. Magnetic resonance classification of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 Sep 1;26(17):1873-8. Resumo

Chou R, Huffman LH. Medications for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 2;147(7):505-14.Texto completo  Resumo

Fritzell P, Hägg O, Wessberg P, et al. Chronic low back pain and fusion: a comparison of three surgical techniques: a prospective randomized study from the Swedish lumbar spine study group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002 Jun 1;27(11):1131-41. Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Olmarker K, Rydevik B. Disc herniation and sciatica; the basic science platform. In: Gunzburg R, Szpalski M, eds. Lumbar Disc Herniation. Philadelphia: Lippincott. Williams & Wilkins; 2002:31-7.

2. Postacchini F, Gumina S, Cinotti G, et al. Ligamenta flava in lumbar disc herniation and spinal stenosis. Light and electron microscopic morphology. Spine. 1994 Apr 15;19(8):917-22. Resumo

3. Kirkaldy-Willis WH, Farfan HF. Instability of the lumbar spine. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982 May;(165):110-23. Resumo

4. Andersson GB. Epidemiological features of chronic low back pain. Lancet. 1999 Aug 14;354(9178):581-5. Resumo

5. Carragee EJ, Hannibal M. Diagnostic evaluation of back pain. Orthop Clin North Am. 2004 Jan;35(1):7-16. Resumo

6. Papageorgiou AC, Croft PR, Thomas E, et al. Influence of previous pain experience on the episode incidence of low back pain: results from the South Manchester Back Pain Study. Pain. 1996 Aug;66(2-3):181-5.Texto completo  Resumo

7. Papageorgiou AC, Rigby AS. Review of UK data on the rheumatic diseases--7. Low back pain. Br J Rheumatol. 1991 Jun;30(3):208-10.Texto completo  Resumo

8. Deyo RA, Weinstein JN. Low back pain. N Engl J Med. 2001 Feb 1;344(5):363-70. Resumo

9. Mooney V. Where is the lumbar pain coming from? Ann Med. 1989 Oct;21(5):373-9. Resumo

10. Nachemson AL. The lumbar spine an orthopedic challenge. Spine. 1976;1:59-71.

11. Kuslich SD, Ulstrom CL, Michael CJ. The tissue origin of low back pain and sciatica: a report of pain response to tissue stimulation during operations in lumbar spine using local anaesthesia. Orthop Clin North Am. 1991 Apr;22(2):181-7. Resumo

12. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, et al. The relative contributions of the disc and zygapophyseal joint in chronic low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994 Apr 1;19(7):801-6. Resumo

13. Hassett G, Hart DJ, Manek NJ, et al. Risk factors for progression of lumbar spine disc degeneration: the Chingford study. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Nov;48(11):3112-7.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Hangai M, Kaneoka K, Kuno S, et al. Factors associated with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration in the elderly. Spine J. 2008 Sep-Oct;8(5):732-40. Resumo

15. McNally DS, Shackleford IM, Goodship AE, et al. In vivo stress measurement can predict pain on discography. Spine. 1996 Nov 15;21(22):2580-7. Resumo

16. Sachs BL, Vanharanta H, Spivey MA, et al. Dallas discogram description. A new classification of CT/discography in low-back disorders. Spine. 1987 Apr;12(3):287-94. Resumo

17. Vanharanta H, Sachs BL, Spivey MA, et al. The relationship of pain provocation to lumbar disc deterioration as seen by CT/discography. Spine. 1987 Apr;12(3):295-8. Resumo

18. Freemont AJ, Peacock TE, Goupille P, et al. Nerve ingrowth into diseased intervertebral disc in chronic back pain. Lancet. 1997 Jul 19;350(9072):178-81. Resumo

19. Heliovaara M. Risk factors for low back pain and sciatica. Ann Med. 1989 Aug;21(4):257-64. Resumo

20. Battie MC, Videman T, Kaprio J, et al. The twin spine study: contributions to a changing view of disc degeneration. Spine J. 2009 Jan-Feb;9(1):47-59. Resumo

21. Adams MA, Dolan P, Hutton WC, et al. Diurnal changes in spinal mechanics and their clinical significance. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1990 Mar;72(2):266-70.Texto completo  Resumo

22. Lyons G, Eisenstein SM, Sweet MB. Biochemical changes in intervertebral disc degeneration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 Apr 3;673(4):443-53. Resumo

23. Urban JP, McMullin JF. Swelling pressure of the lumbar intervertebral discs: influence of age, spinal level, composition and degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1988 Feb;13(2):179-87. Resumo

24. Frobin W, Brinckmann P, Kramer M, et al. Height of lumbar discs measured from radiographs compared with degeneration and height classified from MR images. Eur Radiol. 2001;11(2):263-9. Resumo

25. Adams MA, McNally DS, Dolan P. "Stress" distributions inside intervertebral discs. The effects of age and degeneration. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996 Nov;78(6):965-72.Texto completo  Resumo

26. Kang JD, Georgescu HI, McIntyre-Larkin L, et al. Herniated lumbar intervertebral discs spontaneously produced matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxide, interleukin-6, and prostaglandin E2. Spine. 1996 Feb 1;21(3):271-7. Resumo

27. Bogduk N, Tynan W, Wilson AS. The nerve supply to the human lumbar intervertebral discs. J Anat. 1981 Jan;132(Pt 1):39-56.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Hirsch C, Ingelmark B, Miller M. The anatomical basis for low back pain: studies on the presence of sensory nerve endings in ligamentous, capsular, and intervertebral disc structures in the human lumbar spine. Acta Orthop Scand. 1963;33:1-17. Resumo

29. Jackson HC, Winkelmann RK, Bickel WH. Nerve endings in the human lumbar spinal column and related structures. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1966 Oct;48(7):1272-81. Resumo

30. Ohtori S, Takahashi K, Chiba T, et al. Sensory innervation of the dorsal portion of the lumbar intervertebral discs in rats. Spine. 2001 Apr 15;26(8):946-50. Resumo

31. Ohtori S, Takahashi K, Chiba T, et al. Substance P and calcitonin gene- related peptide immunoreactive sensory DRG neurons innervating the lumbar intervertebral discs in rats. Ann Anat. 2002 May;184(3):235-40. Resumo

32. Ozawa T, Aoki Y, Ohtori S, et al. The dorsal portion of the lumbar inter-vertebral disc is innervated primarily by small peptide-containing dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jun 19;344(1):65-7. Resumo

33. Peng B, Hao J, Hou S, et al. Possible pathogenesis of painful intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Mar 1;31(5):560-6. Resumo

34. Peng B, Chen J, Kuang Z, et al. Expression and role of connective tissue growth factor in painful disc fibrosis and degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Mar 1;34(5):E178-82. Resumo

35. Freemond AJ. The cellular pathobiology of the degenerate intervertebral disc and discogenic back pain. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:5-10.

36. Kuisma M, Karppinen J, Haapen M, et al. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? BMC Musculoskeletal Disord. 2008 Apr 16;9:51.Texto completo  Resumo

37. Butler D, Trafimow JH, Andersson GB, et al. Discs degenerate before facets. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1990 Feb;15(2):111-3. Resumo

38. Adams MA, Hutton WC. The relevance of torsion to the mechanical derangement of the lumbar spine. Spine. 1981 May-Jun;6(3):241-8. Resumo

39. Livshits G, Popham M, Malkin I, et al. Lumbar disc degeneration and genetic factors are the main risk factors for back pain in women: the Twin Spine Study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Oct;70(10):1740-5.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Kalichman L, Hunter DJ. The genetics of intervertebral disc degeneration. Associated genes. Joint Bone Spine. 2008 Jul;75(4):388-96. Resumo

41. Kalichman L, Hunter DJ. The genetics of intervertebral disc degeneration. Familial disposition and heritability estimation. Joint Bone Spine. 2008 Jul;75(4):383-7. Resumo

42. Cheung KM. The relationship between disc degeneration, low back pain and human pain genetics. Spine J. 2010 Nov;10(11):958-60. Resumo

43. Luoma K, Riihimaki H, Raininko R, et al. Lumbar disc degeneration in relation to occupation. Scan J Work Environ Health. 1998 Oct;24(5):358-66.Texto completo  Resumo

44. Riihimaki H, Mattsen T, Zitling A, et al. Radiologically detectable degenerative changes of the lumbar spine among concrete reinforcement workers and house painters. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1990 Feb;15(2):114-9. Resumo

45. Vo N, Wang D, Sowa G, et al. Differential effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke condensate on human annulus fibrosus cell metabolism. J Orthop Res. 2011 Oct;29(10):1585-91. Resumo

46. Akmal M, Kesani A, Anand B, et al. Effect of nicotine on spinal disc cells: a cellular mechanism for disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Mar 1;29(5):568-75. Resumo

47. Fogelholm RR, Alho AV. Smoking and intervertebral disc degeneration. Med Hypotheses. 2001 Apr;56(4):537-9. Resumo

48. Uei H, Matsuzaki H, Oda H, et al. Gene expression changes in an early stage of intervertebral disc degeneration induced by passive cigarette smoking. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Mar 1;31(5):510-4. Resumo

49. Sandén B, Försth P, Michaëlsson K. Smokers show less improvement than non-smokers two years after surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis: a study of 4555 patients from the Swedish Spine Registry. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Jun;36(13):1059-64. Resumo

50. Wang J, Yang X. Age-related changes in the orientation of lumbar facet joints. Spine. 2009 Aug 1;34(17):E596-8. Resumo

51. Kalichman L, Li L, Kim DH, et al. Facet joint osteoarthritis and low back pain in the community-based population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Nov 1;33(23):2560-5.Texto completo  Resumo

52. Cyron BM, Hutton WC. Articular tropism and stability of the lumbar spine. Spine. 1980 Mar-Apr;5(2):168-72. Resumo

53. Park JB, Chen H, Kim KW, et al. Facet tropism: a comparison between far lateral and posterolateral lumbar disc herniation. Spine. 2001 Mar 15;26(6):677-9. Resumo

54. Schwab F, Patel A, Ungar B, et al. Adult spinal deformity-postoperative standing balance: how much can you tolerate? An overview of key parameters in assessing alignment and planning corrective surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Dec 1;35(25):2224-31. Resumo

55. Glassman SD, Bridewell K, Dimar JR, et al. The impact of positive sagittal balance in adult spinal deformity. Spine. 2005 Sep 15;30(18):2024-9. Resumo

56. Linke M, Solovieva S, Lamminen A, et al. Disc degeneration of the lumbar spine in relation of overweight. Int J Obest. 2005 Aug;29(8):903-8.Texto completo  Resumo

57. Won HY, Park JB, Riew KD. Effect of hyperglycemia on apoptosis of notochordal cells and intervertebral disc degeneration in diabetic rats. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009 Dec;11(6):741-8. Resumo

58. Anekstein Y, Smorgick Y, Lotan R, et al. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis. Isr Med Assoc J. 2010 Jan;12(1):16-20.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Videman T, Battie MC, Gibbons LE, et al. Disc degeneration and bone density in monozygotic twins discordant for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Orthop Res. 2000 Sep;18(5):768-72. Resumo

60. Leino-Arjas P, Kaila-Kangas L, Solvieva S, et al. Serum lipids and low back pain: an association? A follow-up study of working population sample. Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr 20;31(9):1032-7. Resumo

61. Kurunlahti M, Tervonen O, Vanharanta H, et al. Association of atherosclerosis with low back pain and the degree of disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999 Oct 15;24(20):2080-4. Resumo

62. Schwarzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R, et al. The prevalence and clinical features of internal disc disruption in patients with chronic low back pain. Spine. 1995;20:1878-83.

63. Vanharanta H. The intervertebral disc: a biologically active tissue challenging therapy. Ann Med. 1994 Dec;26(6):395-9. Resumo

64. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

65. Expert Panel on Neurological Imaging, Hutchins TA, Peckham M, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Low Back Pain: 2021 Update. J Am Coll Radiol. 2021 Nov;18(11s):S361-S379.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Braithwaite I, White J, Saifuddin A, et al. Vertebral end-plate (Modic) changes on lumbar spine MRI: correlation with pain reproduction at lumbar discography. Eur Spine J. 1998;7(5):363-8. Resumo

67. Modic MT, Masaryk TJ, Ross JS, et al. Imaging of degenerative disk disease. Radiology. 1988 Jul;168(1):177-86. Resumo

68. Boden SD, Davis DO, Dina TS, et al. Abnormal magnetic-resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects: a prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990 Mar;72(3):403-8. Resumo

69. Borenstein DG, O'Mara JW Jr, Boden SD, et al. The value of magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine to predict low-back pain in asymptomatic subjects: a seven-year follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2001 Sep;83-A(9):1306-11. Resumo

70. Jensen MC, Brant-Zawadzki MN, Obuchowski N, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine in people without back pain. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jul 14;331(2):69-73.Texto completo  Resumo

71. Jarvik JJ, Hollingworth W, Heagerty P, et al. The Longitudinal Assessment of Imaging and Disability of the Back (LAIDBack) Study: baseline data. Spine. 2001 May 15;26(10):1158-66. Resumo

72. Jarvik JG, Hollingworth W, Heagerty PJ, et al. Three-year incidence of low back pain in an initially asymptomatic cohort: Clinical and imaging risk factors. Spine. 2005 Jul 1;30(13):1541-8; discussion 1549. Resumo

73. Nachemson A. The load on lumbar disks in different positions of the body. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1966 Mar-Apr;45:107-22. Resumo

74. Modic MT, Steinberg PM, Ross JS, et al. Degenerative disk disease: assessment of changes in vertebral body marrow with MR imaging. Radiology. 1988 Jan;166(1 Pt 1):193-9. Resumo

75. Kuisma M, Karppinen J, Niinimaki J, et al. A three-year follow-up of lumbar spine endplate (Modic) changes. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Jul 1;31(15):1714-8. Resumo

76. Kjaer P, Korsholm L, Bendix T, et al. Modic changes and their associations with clinical findings. Eur Spine J. 2006 Sep;15(9):1312-9.Texto completo  Resumo

77. Kjaer P, Leboeuf-Yde C, Sorensen JS, et al. An epidemiologic study of MRI and low back pain in 13-year-old children. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Apr 1;30(7):798-806. Resumo

78. Fayad F, Lefevre-Colau MM, Rannou F, et al. Relation of inflammatory modic changes to intradiscal steroid injection outcome in chronic low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2007 Jul;16(7):925-31.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Vital JM, Gille O, Pointillart V, et al. Course of Modic 1 six months after lumbar posterior osteosynthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Apr 1;28(7):715-20; discussion 721. Resumo

80. Arana E, Kovacs FM, Royuela A, et al. Modic changes and associated features in southern European chronic back pain patients. Spine J. 2011 May;11(5):402-11. Resumo

81. Aprill C, Bogduk N. High-intensity zone: a diagnostic sign of painful lumbar disc on magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol. 1992 May;65(773):361-9. Resumo

82. Wolfer LR, Derby R, Lee JE, et al. Systematic review of lumbar provocation discography in asymptomatic subjects with a meta analysis of false-positive rates. Pain Physician. 2008 Jul-Aug;11(4):513-3. Resumo

83. Ricketson R, Simmons JW, Hauser BO. The prolapsed intervertebral disc: The high- intensity zone with discography correlation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996 Dec 1;21(23):2758-62. Resumo

84. Schellhas KP, Pollei SR, Gundry CR, et al. Lumbar disc high-intensity zone. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and discography. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996 Jan 1;21(1):79-86. Resumo

85. Yu SW, Haughton VM, Sether LA, et al. Comparison of MR and diskography in detecting radial tears of the anulus: a postmortem study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Sep-Oct;10(5):1077-81. Resumo

86. Pfirrmann CW, Metzdorf A, Zanetti M, et al. Magnetic resonance classification of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 Sep 1;26(17):1873-8. Resumo

87. Weishaupt D, Zanetti M, Hodler J, et al. Painful lumbar disk derangement: relevance of endplate abnormalities at MR imaging. Radiology. 2001 Feb;218(2):420-7. Resumo

88. Bogduk N. Provocation discography: Lumbar disc stimulation. In: ISIS, ed. Practice guidelines for spinal diagnostic and treatment procedures. Seattle, WA: International Spine Intervention Society;2004:20-46.

89. Saboeiro GR. Lumbar discography. Radiol Clin North Am. 2009 May;47(3):421-33. Resumo

90. Moore RJ, Crotti TN, Osti OL, et al. Osteoarthrosis of the facet joints resulting from anular rim lesions. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999 Mar 15;24(6):519-25. Resumo

91. Jaikumar S, Kim DH, Kam AC. History of minimally invasive spine surgery. Neurosurgery. 2002 Nov;51(5 Suppl):S1-14. Resumo

92. Carragee EJ, Lincoln T, Parmar VS, et al. A gold standard evaluation of the "discogenic pain" diagnosis as determined by provocative discography. Spine. 2006 Aug 15;31(18):2115-23. Resumo

93. Pathria M, Sartoris DJ, Resnick D. Osteoarthritis of the facet joints: accuracy of oblique radiographic assessment. Radiology. 1987 Jul;164(1):227-30. Resumo

94. Rajasekharan S, Venkatadass K, Naresh Babu J, et al. Pharmacological enhancement of disc diffusion and differentiation of healthy, ageing and degenerate discs. Eur Spine J. 2008 May;17(5):626-43.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Vroomen PC, de Krom MC, Knottnerus JA. Predicting the outcome of sciatica at short-term follow-up. Br J Gen Pract. 2002 Feb;52(475):119-23.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Koes BW, van Tulder MW, Thomas S. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain. BMJ. 2006 Jun 17;332(7555):1430-4.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Jorge LL, Feres CC, Teles VE. Topical preparations for pain relief: efficacy and patient adherence. J Pain Res. 2010;4:11-24.Texto completo  Resumo

98. Anand P, Bley K. Topical capsaicin for pain management: therapeutic potential and mechanisms of action of the new high-concentration capsaicin 8% patch. Br J Anaesth. 2011;107:490-502.Texto completo  Resumo

99. Derry S, Moore RA, Gaskell H, et al. Topical NSAIDs for acute musculoskeletal pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(6):CD007402.Texto completo  Resumo

100. Chou R, Huffman LH. Medications for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 2;147(7):505-14.Texto completo  Resumo

101. van der Gaag WH, Roelofs PD, Enthoven WT, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for acute low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Apr 16;4:CD013581.Texto completo  Resumo

102. Roelofs PD, Deyo RA, Koes BW, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD000396.Texto completo  Resumo

103. Krebs EE, Gravely A, Nugent S, et al. Effect of opioid vs nonopioid medications on pain-related function in patients with chronic back pain or hip or knee osteoarthritis pain: the SPACE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2018 Mar 6;319(9):872-82.Texto completo  Resumo

104. van Tulder MW, Touray T, Fulan AD, et al. Muscle relaxants for nonspecific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD004252.Texto completo  Resumo

105. Staiger TO, Gaster B, Sullivan MD, et al. Systematic review of antidepressants in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Nov 15;28(22):2540-5. Resumo

106. Yildirim K, Deniz O, Gureser G, et al. Gabapentin monotherapy in patients with chronic radiculopathy: the efficacy and impact on life quality. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2009;22(1):17-20. Resumo

107. Gilron I. Gabapentin and pregabalin for chronic neuropathic and early postsurgical pain: current evidence and future directions. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2007 Oct;20(5):456-72. Resumo

108. Enke O, New HA, New CH, et al. Anticonvulsants in the treatment of low back pain and lumbar radicular pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2018 Jul 3;190(26):E786-93.Texto completo  Resumo

109. Hagen KB, Jamtvedt G, Hilde G, et al. The updated Cochrane review of bed rest for low back pain and sciatica. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Mar 1;30(5):542-6. Resumo

110. Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Malmivaara A, et al. Exercise therapy for the treatment of non-specific low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD000335.Texto completo  Resumo

111. Heymans MW, van Tulder MW, Esmail R, et al. Back schools for nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Oct 1;30(19):2153-63. Resumo

112. Heymans MW, de Vet HC, Bongers PM, et al. The effectiveness of high-intensity versus low-intensity back schools in an occupational setting: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 May 1;31(10):1075-82. Resumo

113. Dickerman RD, Zigler JE. Disocgenic back pain. In: Spivak JM, Connolly PJ, eds. Orthopaedic Knowledge Update: Spine. 3rd ed. Rosemont, IL: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2006:319-30.

114. Clare HA, Adams R, Maher CG. A systematic review of efficacy of McKenzie therapy for spinal pain. Aust J Physiother. 2004;50(4):209-16.Texto completo  Resumo

115. May S, Donelson R. Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with the McKenzie method. Spine J. 2008 Jan-Feb;8(1):134-41. Resumo

116. Cherkin DC, Deyo RA, Battié M, et al. A comparison of physical therapy, chiropractic manipulation, and provision of an educational booklet for the treatment of patients with low back pain. N Engl J Med. 1998 Oct 8;339(15):1021-9.Texto completo  Resumo

117. Rubinstein SM, Terwee CB, Assendelft WJ, et al. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD008880.Texto completo  Resumo

118. Chou R, Huffman LH. Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 2;147(7):492-504.Texto completo  Resumo

119. Hurley DA, McDonough SM, Dempster M, et al. A randomized clinical trial of manipulative therapy and interferential therapy for acute low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004 Oct 15;29(20):2207-16. Resumo

120. Jellema P, van Tulder MW, van Poppel MN, et al. Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Back Review Group. Spine. 2001 Feb 15;26(4):377-86. Resumo

121. Luijsterburg PA, Verhagen AP, Ostelo RW, et al. Physical therapy plus general practitioners' care versus general practitioners' care alone for sciatica: a randomised clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up. Eur Spine J. 2008 Apr;17(4):509-17.Texto completo  Resumo

122. Luijsterburg PA, Verhagen AP, Ostelo RW, et al. Effectiveness of conservative treatments for the lumbosacral radicular syndrome: a systematic review. Eur Spin J. 2007 Jul;16(7):881-99.Texto completo  Resumo

123. Saper RB, Lemaster C, Delitto A, et al. Yoga, physical therapy, or education for chronic low back pain: a randomized noninferiority trial. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jul 18;167(2):85-94. Resumo

124. Parr AT, Manchikanti L, Hameed H, et al. Caudal epidural injections in the management of chronic low back pain: a systematic appraisal of the literature. Pain Physician. 2012 May-Jun;15(3):E159-98. Resumo

125. Benyamin RM, Manchikanti L, Parr AT, et al. The effectiveness of lumbar interlaminar epidural injections in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain. Pain Physician. 2012 Jul-Aug;15(4):E363-404. Resumo

126. Benoist M, Boulu P, Hayem G. Epidural steroid injections in the management of low-back pain with radiculopathy: an update of their efficacy and safety. Eur Spine J. 2012 Feb;21(2):204-13. Resumo

127. Bicket MC, Horowitz JM, Benzon HT, et al. Epidural injections in prevention of surgery for spinal pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Spine J. 2015 Feb 1;15(2):348-62. Resumo

128. Chou R, Hashimoto R, Friedly J, et al. Epidural corticosteroid injections for radiculopathy and spinal stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Sep 1;163(5):373-81. Resumo

129. Manchikanti L, Benyamin RM, Falco FJ, et al. Do epidural injections provide short- and long-term relief for lumbar disc herniation? a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Jun;473(6):1940-56.Texto completo  Resumo

130. Spijker-Huiges A, Vermeulen K, Winters JC, et al. Costs and cost-effectiveness of epidural steroids for acute lumbosacral radicular syndrome in general practice: an economic evaluation alongside a pragmatic randomized control trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Nov 15;39(24):2007-12. Resumo

131. Oliveira CB, Maher CG, Ferreira ML, et al. Epidural corticosteroid injections for lumbosacral radicular pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Apr 9;4:CD013577.Texto completo  Resumo

132. Cohen SP, Hanling S, Bicket MC, et al. Epidural steroid injections compared with gabapentin for lumbosacral radicular pain: multicenter randomized double blind comparative efficacy study. BMJ. 2015 Apr 16;350:h1748.Texto completo  Resumo

133. Kainer MA, Reagan DR, Nguyen DB, et al; Tennessee Fungal Meningitis Investigation Team. Fungal infections associated with contaminated methylprednisolone in Tennessee. N Engl J Med. 2012 Dec 6;367(23):2194-203.Texto completo  Resumo

134. Getting It Right First Time. Spinal surgery report may bring benefits for tens of thousands of back pain patients. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

135. Leggett LE, Soril LJ, Lorenzetti DL, et al. Radiofrequency ablation for chronic low back pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Pain Res Manag. 2014 Sep-Oct;19(5):e146-53.Texto completo  Resumo

136. Juch JNS, Maas ET, Ostelo RWJG, et al. Effect of radiofrequency denervation on pain intensity among patients with chronic low back pain: the Mint randomized clinical trials. JAMA. 2017 Jul 4;318(1):68-81.Texto completo  Resumo

137. Andersson GB, Shen FH. Operative management of the degenerative disc: posterior and posterolateral procedures. In: Herkowitz HN, Dvorak J, Bell G, et al, eds. The Lumbar Spine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004;317-23.

138. Sidhu KS, Herkowitz HN. Spinal instrumentation in the management of degenerative disorders of the lumbar spine. Clin Orthop Rel Res. 1997 Feb;(335):39-53. Resumo

139. Fritzell P, Hagg O, Wessberg P, et al. 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 Dec 1;26(23):2521-32; discussion 2532-4. Resumo

140. Rihn JA, Hilibrand AS, Radcliff K, et al. Duration of symptoms resulting from lumbar disc herniation: effect on treatment outcomes: analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011 Oct 19;93(20):1906-14. Resumo

141. Radcliff KE, Rihn J, Hilibrand A, et al. Does the duration of symptoms in patients with spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis affect outcomes?: analysis of the Spine Outcomes Research Trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Dec 1;36(25):2197-210. Resumo

142. Drazin D, Shirzadi A, Jeswani S, et al. Direct surgical repair of spondylolysis in athletes: indications, techniques, and outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 2011 Nov;31(5):E9.Texto completo  Resumo

143. Waddell G, McCulloch JA, Kummel E, et al. Nonorganic physical signs in low-back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1980 Mar-Apr;5(2):117-25. Resumo

144. Main CJ, Waddell G. Behavioral responses to examination. A reappraisal of the interpretation of "nonorganic signs". Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998;23:2367-2371. Resumo

145. Hanley EN Jr, David SM. Lumbar arthrodesis for the treatment of back pain. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999 May;81(5):716-30. Resumo

146. Kishen TJ, Diwan AD. Fusion versus disk replacement for degenerative conditions of the lumbar and cervical spine: quid est testimonium? Orthop Clin North Am. 2010 Apr;41(2):167-81. Resumo

147. Fritzell P, Hägg O, Wessberg P, et al. Chronic low back pain and fusion: a comparison of three surgical techniques: a prospective randomized study from the Swedish lumbar spine study group. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002 Jun 1;27(11):1131-41. Resumo

148. Lee GW, Lee SM, Ahn MW, et al. Comparison of posterolateral lumbar fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion for patients younger than 60 years with isthmic spondylolisthesis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Nov 15;39(24):E1475-80. Resumo

149. Liu XY, Qiu GX, Weng XS, et al. What is the optimum fusion technique for adult spondylolisthesis-PLIF or PLF or PLIF plus PLF? A meta-analysis from 17 comparative studies. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Oct 15;39(22):1887-98. Resumo

150. Fekete TF, Porchet F. Overview of disc arthroplasty-past, present and future. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010 Mar;152(3):393-404. Resumo

151. Lin EL, Wang JC. Total disk arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2006 Dec;14(13):705-14. Resumo

152. Delamarter RB, Fribourg DM, Kanim LE, et al. ProDisc artificial total lumbar disc replacement: introduction and early results from the United States clinical trial. Spine. 2003 Oct 15;28(20):S167-75. Resumo

153. Zigler JE. Clinical results with ProDisc: European experience and U.S. investigation device exemption study. Spine. 2003 Oct 15;28(20):S163-6. Resumo

154. Putzier M, Funk JF, Schneider SV, et al. Charité total disc replacement -clinical and radiographical results after an average follow-up of 17 years. Eur Spine J. 2006 Feb;15(2):183-95. Resumo

155. Jacobs WC, van der Gaag NA, Kruyt MC, et al. Total disc replacement for chronic discogenic low back pain: a Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Jan 1;38(1):24-36. Resumo

156. Resnick DK, Watters WC. Lumbar disc arthroplasty: a critical review. Clin Neurosurg. 2007;54:83-7. Resumo

157. Jacobs W, Van der Gaag NA, Tuschel A, et al. Total disc replacement for chronic back pain in the presence of disc degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD008326.Texto completo  Resumo

158. Guzmán J, Esmail R, Karjalainen K, et al. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: systematic review. BMJ. 2001 Jun 23;322(7301):1511-6.Texto completo  Resumo

159. Brox JL, Sorensen R, Karjalainen K, et al. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: systematic review. BMJ. 2001;26:377-86.

160. Waddell G, Burton AK, Kendall NAS. Vocational rehabilitation: what works, for whom, and when? [internet publication].Texto completo

161. Verbeek J, Martimo KP, Karppinen J, et al. Manual material handling advice and assistive devices for preventing and treating back pain in workers: a Cochrane Systematic Review. Occup Environ Med. 2012 Jan;69(1):79-80. Resumo

162. MacVicar J, King W, Landers MH, et al. The effectiveness of lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids: a comprehensive review with systematic analysis of the published data. Pain Med. 2013 Jan;14(1):14-28.Texto completo  Resumo

163. Falco FJ, Manchikanti L, Datta S, et al. An update of the systematic assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of lumbar facet joint nerve blocks. Pain Physician. 2012 Nov-Dec;15(6):E869-907. Resumo

164. Phillips FM, Slosar PJ, Youssef JA, et al. Lumbar spine fusion for chronic low back pain due to degenerative disc disease: a systematic review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Apr 1;38(7):E409-22. Resumo

165. Markman JD, Bolash RB, McAlindon TE, et al. Tanezumab for chronic low back pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, phase 3 study of efficacy and safety. Pain. 2020 Sep 1;161(9):2068-2078.Texto completo  Resumo

166. Kivitz AJ, Gimbel JS, Bramson C, et al. Efficacy and safety of tanezumab versus naproxen in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Pain. 2013 Jul;154(7):1009-21. Resumo

167. Pengel LH, Herbert RD, Maher CG, et al. Acute low back pain: systematic review of its prognosis. BMJ. 2003 Aug 9;327(7410):323.Texto completo  Resumo

168. DeBerard MS, Masters KS, Colledge AL, et al. Outcomes of posterolateral lumbar fusion in Utah patients receiving workers' compensation: A retrospective cohort study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001 Apr 1;26(7):738-46; discussion 747. Resumo

169. Franklin GM, Haug J, Heyer NJ, et al. Outcome of lumbar fusion in Washington State workers' compensation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994 Sep 1;19(17):1897-903; discussion 1904. Resumo

170. LaCaille RA, DeBerard MS, Masters KS, et al. Presurgical biopsychosocial factors predict multidimensional patient: outcomes of interbody cage lumbar fusion. Spine J. 2005 Jan-Feb;5(1):71-8. Resumo

171. Gibson JN, Grant IC, Waddell G. The Cochrane review of surgery for lumbar disc prolapse and degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1999 Sep 1;24(17):1820-32. Resumo

172. Mirza SK, Deyo RA. Systematic review of randomized trials comparing lumbar fusion surgery to nonoperative care for treatment of chronic back pain. Spine. 2007 Apr 1;32(7):816-23. Resumo

173. Iwamoto J, Sato Y, Takeda T, et al. The return to sports activity after conservative or surgical treatment in athletes with lumbar disc herniation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010 Dec;89(12):1030-5. Resumo

174. Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, et al. Surgical vs nonoperative treatment for lumbar disk herniation: the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): a randomized trial. JAMA. 2006 Nov 22;296(20):2441-50.Texto completo  Resumo

175. Gillet P. The fate of the adjacent motion segments after lumbar fusion. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2003 Aug;16(4):338-45. Resumo

176. Okuda S, Iwasaki M, Miyauchi A, et al. Risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration after PLIF. Spine. 2004 Jul 15;29(14):1535-40. Resumo

177. Park P, Garton HJ, Gala VC, et al. Adjacent segment disease after lumbar or lumbosacral fusion: review of the literature. Spine. 2004 Sep 1;29(17):1938-44. Resumo

178. Levin DA, Hale JJ, Bendo JA. Adjacent segment degeneration following spinal fusion for degenerative disc disease. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis. 2007;65(1):29-36. Resumo

179. Harrop JS, Youssef JA, Maltenfort M, et al. Lumbar adjacent segment degeneration and disease after arthrodesis and total disc arthroplasty. Spine. 2008 Jul 1;33(15):1701-7. Resumo

180. Ghiselli G, Wang JC, Bhatia NN, et al. Adjacent segment degeneration in the lumbar spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Jul;86-A(7):1497-503. Resumo

181. Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C, et al. Chapter 4. European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2006 Mar;15(suppl 2):S192-300. Resumo

182. Burton AK, Balagué F, Cardon G, et al. Chapter 2. European guidelines for prevention in low back pain: November 2004. Eur Spine J. 2006 Mar;15 Suppl 2:S136-68. Resumo

O uso deste conteúdo está sujeito ao nosso aviso legal