Pneumonia atípica (não-COVID-19)


Principais artigos

Cunha BA, Burillo A, Bouza E. Legionnaires' disease. Lancet. 2016 Jan 23;387(10016):376-85. Resumo

Lim WS, Baudouin SV, George RC, et al; Pneumonia Guidelines Committee of the BTS Standards of Care Committee. BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009. Thorax. 2009 Oct;64 Suppl 3:iii1-55.Texto completo  Resumo

Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 23;336(4):243-50.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Marchello C, Dale AP, Thai TN, et al. Prevalence of atypical pathogens in patients with cough and community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Ann Fam Med. 2016 Nov;14(6):552-66.Texto completo  Resumo

2. Arnold FW, Summersgill JT, Ramirez JA. Role of atypical pathogens in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec;37(6):819-28. Resumo

3. Jain S, Williams DJ, Arnold SR, et al; CDC EPIC Study Team. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among US children. N Engl J Med. 2015 Feb 26;372(9):835-45.Texto completo  Resumo

4. Kutty PK, Jain S, Taylor TH, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Jan 1;68(1):5-12.Texto completo  Resumo

5. Waites KB, Talkington DF. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its role as a human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004 Oct;17(4):697-728.Texto completo  Resumo

6. File TM. Community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet. 2003 Dec 13;362(9400):1991-2001. Resumo

7. Klement E, Talkington DF, Wasserzug O, et al. Identification of risk factors for infection in an outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory tract disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Nov 15;43(10):1239-45.Texto completo  Resumo

8. Feikin DR, Moroney JF, Talkington DF, et al. An outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and adenovirus at a federal service training academy: new implications from an old scenario. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;29(6):1545-50.Texto completo  Resumo

9. File TM Jr, Tan JS. Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia. Semin Respir Critical Care Med. 2000;21(4):285-94. Resumo

10. Conklin L, Adjemian J, Loo J, et al. Investigation of a Chlamydia pneumoniae outbreak in a Federal correctional facility in Texas. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Sep;57(5):639-47.Texto completo  Resumo

11. Spoorenberg SM, Bos WJ, van Hannen EJ, et al. Chlamydia psittaci: a relevant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in two Dutch hospitals. Neth J Med. 2016 Feb;74(2):75-81.Texto completo  Resumo

12. Lanternier F, Tubach F, Ravaud P, et al. Incidence and risk factors of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia during anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: a prospective French study. Chest. 2013 Sep;144(3):990-8. Resumo

13. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Nov 8;164(20):2206-16.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Den Boer JW, Nijhof J, Friesema I. Risk factors for sporadic community-acquired Legionnaires' disease. A 3-year national case-control study. Public Health. 2006 Jun;120(6):566-71. Resumo

15. England AC III, Fraser DW, Plikaytis BD, et al. Sporadic legionellosis in the United States: the first thousand cases. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Feb;94(2):164-70. Resumo

16. von Baum H, Schweiger B, Welte T, et al; the THE CAPNETZ STUDY GROUP. How deadly is seasonal influenza associated pneumonia? The German Competence Network for Community-acquired pneumonia (CAPNETZ). Eur Respir J. 2011 May;37(5):1151-7.Texto completo  Resumo

17. Niederman MS. Viral community-acquired pneumonia: if we do not diagnose it and do not treat it, can it still hurt us? Chest. 2010 Oct;138(4):767-9.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. An official clinical practice guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct 1;200(7):e45-67.Texto completo  Resumo

19. Lieberman D, Shimoni A, Shemer-Avni Y, et al. Respiratory viruses in adults with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2010 Oct;138(4):811-6.Texto completo  Resumo

20. Alimi Y, Lim WS, Lansbury L, et al. Systematic review of respiratory viral pathogens identified in adults with community-acquired pneumonia in Europe. J Clin Virol. 2017 Oct;95:26-35. Resumo

21. Marrie TJ. Coxiella burnetii pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2003 Apr;21(4):713-9.Texto completo  Resumo

22. Gadsby NJ, Russell CD, McHugh MP, et al. Comprehensive molecular testing for respiratory pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 1;62(7):817-23.Texto completo  Resumo

23. Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, et al; CDC EPIC Study Team. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among US adults. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 30;373(5):415-27.Texto completo  Resumo

24. Dumke R, Schnee C, Pletz MW, et al; Capnetz Study Group. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Mar;21(3):426-34.Texto completo  Resumo

25. Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE. Legionella and Legionnaires' disease: 25 years of investigation. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Jul;15(3):506-26. Resumo

26. Kannan TR, Baseman JB. ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae represents unique virulence determinant among bacterial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006 Apr 25;103(17):6724-9.Texto completo  Resumo

27. Johnston SL, Martin RJ. Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a role in asthma pathogenesis? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Nov 1;172(9):1078-89. Resumo

28. Correia AM, Ferreira JS, Borges V, et al. Probable person-to-person transmission of legionnaires' disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Feb 4;374(5):497-8. Resumo

29. Cunha BA, Burillo A, Bouza E. Legionnaires' disease. Lancet. 2016 Jan 23;387(10016):376-85. Resumo

30. Nakashima K, Tanaka T, Kramer MH, et al. Outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a Japanese nursing home, 1999-2000. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006 Nov;27(11):1171-7. Resumo

31. Sopena N, Force L, Pedro-Botet ML, et al. Sporadic and epidemic community legionellosis: two faces of the same illness. Eur Respir J. 2007 Jan;29(1):138-42.Texto completo  Resumo

32. Yu VL. A clinical solution to antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia: narrowing the spectrum of antimicrobial therapy: comment on "Current and potential usefulness of pneumococcal urinary antigen detection in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia to guide antimicrobial therapy". Arch Intern Med. 2011 Jan 24;171(2):172-3. Resumo

33. Blasi F, Tarsia P, Aliberti S. Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009 Jan;15(1):29-35. Resumo

34. Spuesens EBM, Fraaij PLA, Visser EG, et al. Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic children: an observational study. PLoS Med. 2013;10(5):e1001444.Texto completo  Resumo

35. Harvey JJ, Chester S, Burke SA, et al. Comparative analytical evaluation of the respiratory TaqMan Array Card with real-time PCR and commercial multi-pathogen assays. J Virol Methods. 2016 Feb;228:151-7.Texto completo  Resumo

36. Keijmel SP, Krijger E, Delsing CE, et al. Differentiation of acute Q fever from other infections in patients presenting to hospitals, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Aug;21(8):1348-56.Texto completo  Resumo

37. World Health Organization. Laboratory testing for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in suspected human cases. 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

38. Yin YD, Zhao F, Ren LL, et al. Evaluation of the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines for the identification of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Respirology. 2012 Oct;17(7):1131-6. Resumo

39. Watanabe A, Goto H, Kohno S, et al. Nationwide survey on the 2005 guidelines for the management of community-acquired adult pneumonia: validation of differentiation between bacterial pneumonia and atypical pneumonia. Respir Investig. 2012 Mar;50(1):23-32. Resumo

40. Lim WS, Baudouin SV, George RC, et al; Pneumonia Guidelines Committee of the BTS Standards of Care Committee. BTS guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults: update 2009. Thorax. 2009 Oct;64 Suppl 3:iii1-55.Texto completo  Resumo

41. Eliakim-Raz N, Robenshtok E, Shefet D, et al. Empiric antibiotic coverage of atypical pathogens for community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;2012(9):CD004418.Texto completo  Resumo

42. Sligl WI, Asadi L, Eurich DT, et al. Macrolides and mortality in critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2014 Feb;42(2):420-32. Resumo

43. König R, Cao X, Oswald M, et al. Macrolide combination therapy for hospitalised CAP patients? An individualised approach supported by machine learning. Eur Respir J. 2019 Dec 12;54(6):1900824. Resumo

44. Postma DF, van Werkhoven CH, Oosterheert JJ. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: rational decision making and interpretation of guidelines. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2017 May;23(3):204-10. Resumo

45. Naucler P, Strålin K. Routine atypical antibiotic coverage is not necessary in hospitalised patients with non-severe community-acquired pneumonia. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2016 Aug;48(2):224-5. Resumo

46. File TM Jr, Marrie TJ. Does empiric therapy for atypical pathogens improve outcomes for patients with CAP? Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2013 Mar;27(1):99-114. Resumo

47. File TM Jr, Eckburg PB, Talbot GH, et al. Macrolide therapy for community-acquired pneumonia due to atypical pathogens: outcome assessment at an early time point. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 Aug;50(2):247-51. Resumo

48. Eljaaly K, Alshehri S, Aljabri A, et al. Clinical failure with and without empiric atypical bacteria coverage in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 2;17(1):385.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Chen YC, Hsu WY, Chang TH. Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;26(7):1382-91.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Averbuch D, Hidalgo-Grass C, Moses AE, et al. Macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Israel, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Jun; 17(6):1079-82.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Peuchant O, Ménard A, Renaudin H, et al. Increased macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France directly detected in clinical specimens by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Jul;64(1):52-8.Texto completo  Resumo

52. Spuesens EB, Meijer A, Bierschenk D, et al. Macrolide resistance determination and molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in respiratory specimens collected between 1997 and 2008 in the Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jun;50(6):1999-2004.Texto completo  Resumo

53. Uldum SA, Bangsborg JM, Gahrn-Hansen B, et al. Epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Denmark, 2010 and 2011. Euro Surveill. 2012 Feb 2;17(5):20073.Texto completo  Resumo

54. Wolff BJ, Thacker WL, Schwartz SB, et al. Detection of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time PCR and high-resolution melt analysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Oct;52(10):3542-9.Texto completo  Resumo

55. Cao B, Qu JX, Yin YD, et al. Overview of antimicrobial options for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: focus on macrolide resistance. Clin Respir J. 2017 Jul;11(4):419-29.Texto completo  Resumo

56. Waites KB, Xiao L, Liu Y, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae from the respiratory tract and beyond. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017 Jul;30(3):747-809.Texto completo  Resumo

57. Gershengorn HB, Keene A, Dzierba AL, et al. The association of antibiotic treatment regimen and hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with Legionella pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 1;60(11):e66-79.Texto completo  Resumo

58. Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct 12;10(10):CD007498.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections: a patient level meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;18(1):95-107.Texto completo  Resumo

60. Lam SW, Bauer SR, Fowler R, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of procalcitonin-guidance versus usual care for antimicrobial management in critically ill patients: focus on subgroups based on antibiotic initiation, cessation, or mixed strategies. Crit Care Med. 2018 May;46(5):684-90. Resumo

61. Huang DT, Yealy DM, Filbin MR, et al. Procalcitonin-guided use of antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 19;379(3):236-49.Texto completo  Resumo

62. Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 23;336(4):243-50.Texto completo  Resumo

63. Yandiola PP, Capelastegui A, Quintana J, et al. Prospective comparison of severity scores for predicting clinically relevant outcomes for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2009 Jun;135(6):1572-9.Texto completo  Resumo

64. España PP, Capelastegui A, Gorordo I, et al. Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Dec 1;174(11):1249-56. Resumo

65. Charles PG, Wolfe R, Whitby M, et al; Australian Community-Acquired Pneumonia Study Collaboration. SMART-COP: a tool for predicting the need for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support in community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Aug 1;47(3):375-84.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Ewig S, Woodhead M, Torres A. Towards a sensible comprehension of severe community-acquired pneumonia. Intensive Care Med. 2011 Feb;37(2):214-23. Resumo

67. Majumdar SR, Eurich DT, Gamble JM, et al. Oxygen saturations less than 92% are associated with major adverse events in outpatients with pneumonia: a population-based cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 1;52(3):325-31.Texto completo  Resumo

68. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021;49(11):e1063-e1143Texto completo  Resumo

69. Siemieniuk RA, Meade MO, Alonso-Coello P, et al. Corticosteroid therapy for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Oct 6;163(7):519-28. Resumo

70. Bi J, Yang J, Wang Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy for severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0165942.Texto completo  Resumo

71. Briel M, Spoorenberg SMC, Snijders D, et al. Corticosteroids in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 18;66(3):346-54. Resumo

72. Stern A, Skalsky K, Avni T, et al. Corticosteroids for pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 13;(12):CD007720.Texto completo  Resumo

73. Wu WF, Fang Q, He GJ. Efficacy of corticosteroid treatment for severe community-acquired pneumonia: A meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2018 Feb;36(2):179-84. Resumo

74. Huang J, Guo J, Li H, et al. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Mar;98(13):e14636. Resumo

75. Jiang S, Liu T, Hu Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jun;98(26):e16239.Texto completo  Resumo

76. Okubo Y, Michihata N, Morisaki N, et al. Recent trends in practice patterns and impact of corticosteroid use on pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related respiratory infections. Respir Investig. 2018 Mar;56(2):158-65. Resumo

77. Kim HS, Sol IS, Li D, et al. Efficacy of glucocorticoids for the treatment of macrolide refractory mycoplasma pneumonia in children: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Pulm Med. 2019 Dec 18;19(1):251.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Food and Drug Administration. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. July 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

79. Food and Drug Administration. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. December 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

80. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. March 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

81. Soar J, Böttiger BW, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:115-51.Texto completo  Resumo

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84. Dillon C, Guarascio AJ, Covvey JR. Lefamulin: a promising new pleuromutilin antibiotic in the pipeline. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2019 Jan;17(1):5-15. Resumo

85. Paukner S, Gelone SP, Arends SJR, et al. Antibacterial activity of lefamulin against pathogens most commonly causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (2015-2016). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Mar 27;63(4).Texto completo  Resumo

86. Veve MP, Wagner JL. Lefamulin: review of a promising novel pleuromutilin antibiotic. Pharmacotherapy. 2018 Sep;38(9):935-46. Resumo

87. File TM, Goldberg L, Das A, et al. Efficacy and safety of intravenous-to-oral lefamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic, for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: the phase III lefamulin evaluation against pneumonia (LEAP 1) trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 13;69(11):1856-67.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Alexander E, Goldberg L, Das AF, et al. Oral lefamulin vs moxifloxacin for early clinical response among adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: the LEAP 2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Sep 27;322(17):1661-71.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Study to compare delafloxacin to moxifloxacin for the treatment of adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (DEFINE-CABP). February 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

90. Stets R, Popescu M, Gonong JR, et al. Omadacycline for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 7;380(6):517-27.Texto completo  Resumo

91. Barrera CM, Mykietiuk A, Metev H, et al; SOLITAIRE-ORAL Pneumonia Team. Efficacy and safety of oral solithromycin versus oral moxifloxacin for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: a global, double-blind, multicentre, randomised, active-controlled, non-inferiority trial (SOLITAIRE-ORAL). Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Apr;16(4):421-30. Resumo

92. Zhanel GG, Hartel E, Adam H, et al. Solithromycin: a novel fluoroketolide for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Drugs. 2016 Dec;76(18):1737-57. Resumo

93. Viasus D, Ramos O, Ramos L, et al. Solithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2017 Jan;11(1):5-12. Resumo

94. Hastings DL, Harrington KJ, Kutty PK, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae outbreak in a long-term care facility - Nebraska, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Mar 27;64(11):296-9.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Light RW. Parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006;3(1):75-80. Resumo

96. Shuvy M, Rav-Acha M, Izhar U, et al. Massive empyema caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in an adult: a case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 1;6:18.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Martínez-Pérez M, Imbernón-Moya A, Lobato-Berezo A, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced mucocutaneous rash: a new syndrome distinct from erythema multiforme? Report of a new case and review of the literature. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2016 Sep;107(7):e47-51. Resumo

98. Scerpella EG, Whimbey EE, Champlin RE, et al. Pericarditis associated with Legionnaires' disease in a bone marrow transplant recipient. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Dec;19(6):1168-70. Resumo

99. Ieven MM, Hoymans VY. Involvement of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerosis: more evidence for lack of evidence. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jan;43(1):19-24.Texto completo  Resumo

100. Grayston JT. Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 15;40(8):1131-2.Texto completo  Resumo

101. Arcari CM, Gaydos CA, Nieto FJ, et al. Association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute myocardial infarction in young men in the United States military: the importance of timing of exposure measurement. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 15;40(8):1123-30.Texto completo  Resumo

102. Mentasti M, Afshar B, Collins S, et al. Rapid investigation of cases and clusters of legionnaires' disease in England and Wales using direct molecular typing. J Med Microbiol. 2016 Jun;65(6):484-93.Texto completo  Resumo

103. Bartley PB, Ben Zakour NL, Stanton-Cook M, et al. Hospital-wide eradication of a nosocomial Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 1;62(3):273-9.Texto completo  Resumo

104. Demirjian A, Lucas CE, Garrison LE, et al. The importance of clinical surveillance in detecting legionnaires' disease outbreaks: a large outbreak in a hospital with a Legionella disinfection system-Pennsylvania, 2011-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 1;60(11):1596-602.Texto completo  Resumo

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