Lesão crônica da medula espinhal


Principais artigos

Royal College of Physicians. Chronic spinal cord injury: management of patients in acute hospital settings. Feb 2008 [internet publication].Texto completo

Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine; Paralyzed Veterans of America. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for spinal cord injury. 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

Obstetric management of patients with spinal cord injuries: ACOG Committee opinion summary, number 808. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;135(5):1247-49.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Royal College of Physicians. Chronic spinal cord injury: management of patients in acute hospital settings. Feb 2008 [internet publication].Texto completo

2. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center. Spinal cord injury model system. 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

3. New PW, Biering-Sørensen F. Review of the history of non-traumatic spinal cord dysfunction. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2017 Fall;23(4):285-98.Texto completo  Resumo

4. Pang D, Wilberger JE Jr. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities in children. J Neurosurg. 2010 Dec;28(6):545-52. Resumo

5. Kang JD, Figgie MP, Bohlman HH. Sagittal measurements of the cervical spine in subaxial fractures and dislocations. An analysis of two hundred and eighty-eight patients with and without neurological deficits. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1994 Nov;76(11):1617-28. Resumo

6. Steeves JD, Jordan LM. Localization of a descending pathway in the spinal cord which is necessary for controlled treadmill locomotion. Neurosci Lett. 1980 Dec;20(3):283-8. Resumo

7. Lawrence DG, Kuypers HG. The functional organization of the motor system in the monkey. I. The effects of bilateral pyramidal lesions. Brain. 1968 Mar;91(1):1-14. Resumo

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9. Kobrine AI, Doyle TF, Rizzoli HV. Spinal cord blood flow as affected by changes in systemic arterial blood pressure. J Neurosurg. 1976 Jan;44(1):12-5. Resumo

10. Everaert K, de Waard WI, Van Hoof T, et al. Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology related to sexual dysfunction in male neurogenic patients with lesions to the spinal cord or peripheral nerves. Spinal Cord. 2010 Mar;48(3):182-91. Resumo

11. Bughi S, Shaw SJ, Mahmood G, et al. Amenorrhea, pregnancy, and pregnancy outcomes in women following spinal cord injury: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Endocr Pract. May-Jun 2008;14(4):437-41. Resumo

12. Jackson AB, Wadley V. A multicenter study of women's self-reported reproductive health after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999 Nov;80(11):1420-8. Resumo

13. Ditunno JF Jr, Formal CS. Chronic spinal cord injury. N Engl J Med. 1994 Feb 24;330(8):550-6 Resumo

14. Morawietz C, Moffat F. Effects of locomotor training after incomplete spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Nov;94(11):2297-308. Resumo

15. Fehlings MG, Vaccaro A, Wilson JR, et al. Early versus delayed decompression for traumatic cervical spinal cord injury: results of the Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (STASCIS). PLoS One. 2012 Feb 23;7(2):e32037Texto completo  Resumo

16. Orton E, Whitehead J, Mhizha-Murira J, et al. School-based education programmes for the prevention of unintentional injuries in children and young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 27;12:CD010246.Texto completo  Resumo

17. Tupetz A, Friedman K, Zhao D, et al. Prevention of childhood unintentional injuries in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0243464.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Foroutan A, Heydari ST, Karvar M, et al. Results of a campaign for motorcycle helmets advocacy in a city in southwest of Iran; a population-based intervention study. Bull Emerg Trauma. 2019 Oct;7(4):404-10.Texto completo  Resumo

19. Zimmerman K, Jinadasa D, Maegga B, et al. Road traffic injury on rural roads in Tanzania: measuring the effectiveness of a road safety program. Traffic Inj Prev. 2015;16(5):456-60. Resumo

20. Bajwa NS, Toy JO, Young EY, et al. Establishment of parameters for congenital stenosis of the cervical spine: an anatomic descriptive analysis of 1,066 cadaveric specimens. Eur Spine J. 2012 Dec;21(12):2467-74. Resumo

21. Ascherio A, Munger KL, Lünemann JD. The initiation and prevention of multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Neurol. 2012 Nov 5;8(11):602-12. Resumo

22. Barbhaiya M, Costenbader KH. Environmental exposures and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2016 Sep;28(5):497-505. Resumo

23. Arnson Y, Amital H, Shoenfeld Y. Vitamin D and autoimmunity: new aetiological and therapeutic considerations. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Sep;66(9):1137-42. Resumo

24. Canda E, Kalkan Uçar S, Çoker M. Biotinidase deficiency: prevalence, impact and management strategies. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2020;11:127-33.Texto completo  Resumo

25. McEntire CR, Dowd RS, Orru' E, et al. Acute myelopathy: vascular and infectious diseases. Neurol Clin. 2021 May;39(2):489-512. Resumo

26. Khan SA, Tomatsu SC. Mucolipidoses overview: past, present, and future. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 17;21(18):6812.Texto completo  Resumo

27. Keddie S, Adams A, Kelso ARC, et al. No laughing matter: subacute degeneration of the spinal cord due to nitrous oxide inhalation. J Neurol. 2018 May;265(5):1089-95.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Critchley E, Eisen A. Spinal cord disease: basic science, diagnosis and management. London: Springer Verlag London; 1997.

29. Snell RS. Clinical neuroanatomy. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.

30. ASIA and ISCoS International Standards Committee. The 2019 revision of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI)-What's new? Spinal Cord. 2019 Oct;57(10):815-17.Texto completo  Resumo

31. Hamid R, Averbeck MA, Chiang H, et al. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury. World J Urol. 2018 Oct;36(10):1517-27. Resumo

32. Rabadi MH, Aston C. Complications and urologic risks of neurogenic bladder in veterans with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2015 Mar;53(3):200-3.Texto completo  Resumo

33. de Miguel M, Kraychete DC. Pain in patients with spinal cord injury: a review. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2009 May-Jun;59(3):350-7. Resumo

34. Savic G, DeVivo MJ, Frankel HL, et al. Causes of death after traumatic spinal cord injury-a 70-year British study. Spinal Cord. 2017 Oct;55(10):891-7.Texto completo  Resumo

35. Haider IT, Lobos SM, Simonian N, et al. Bone fragility after spinal cord injury: reductions in stiffness and bone mineral at the distal femur and proximal tibia as a function of time. Osteoporos Int. 2018 Dec;29(12):2703-15. Resumo

36. Shams R, Drasites KP, Zaman V, et al. The pathophysiology of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar 17;22(6):3057.Texto completo  Resumo

37. Ibrahim E, Lynne CM, Brackett NL. Male fertility following spinal cord injury: an update. Andrology. 2016 Jan;4(1):13-26.Texto completo  Resumo

38. Stoffel JT, Van der Aa F, Wittmann D, et al. Fertility and sexuality in the spinal cord injury patient. World J Urol. 2018 Oct;36(10):1577-85. Resumo

39. DeForge D, Blackmer J, Garritty C, et al. Fertility following spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Spinal Cord. 2005 Dec;43(12):693-703.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Cao Y, Massaro JF, Krause JS, et al. Suicide mortality after spinal cord injury in the United States: injury cohorts analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Feb;95(2):230-5.Texto completo  Resumo

41. Bombardier CH, Azuero CB, Fann JR, et al. Management of mental health disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide in adults with spinal cord injury: clinical practice guideline for healthcare providers. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. Spring 2021;27(2):152-224.Texto completo  Resumo

42. Bohannon RW, Smith MB. Interrater reliability of a modified Ashworth scale of muscle spasticity. Phys Ther. 1987 Feb;67(2):206-7. Resumo

43. Cadotte DW, Wilson JR, Mikulis D, et al. Conventional MRI as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in spinal cord injury: a systemic review of its application to date and an overview on emerging MRI methods. Expert Opin Med Diagn. 2011 Mar;5(2):121-33. Resumo

44. Cameron AP, Rodriguez GM, Schomer KG. Systematic review of urological followup after spinal cord injury. J Urol. 2012 Feb;187(2):391-7. Resumo

45. Kreydin E, Welk B, Chung D, et al. Surveillance and management of urologic complications after spinal cord injury. World J Urol. 2018 Oct;36(10):1545-53. Resumo

46. Erol B, Kocak T, Kadioglu A, et al. The relationship between level of injury and bladder behavior in patients with post-traumatic spinal cord injury [in Turkish]. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2009 Jul;15(4):377-82. Resumo

47. Morse LR, Biering-Soerensen F, Carbone LD, et al. Bone mineral density testing in spinal cord injury: 2019 ISCD official position. J Clin Densitom. 2019 Oct-Dec;22(4):554-66. Resumo

48. Sadowsky CL, Mingioni N, Zinski J. A primary care provider's guide to bone health in spinal cord-related paralysis. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2020 Spring;26(2):128-33.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Ong B, Wilson JR, Henzel MK. Management of the patient with chronic spinal cord injury. Med Clin North Am. 2020 Mar;104(2):263-78. Resumo

50. Hamid S, Hayek R. Role of electrical stimulation for rehabilitation and regeneration after spinal cord injury: an overview. Eur Spine J. 2008 Sep;17(9):1256-69. Resumo

51. Dolbow DR, Gorgey AS, Recio AC, et al. Activity-based restorative therapies after spinal cord injury: inter-institutional conceptions and perceptions. Aging Dis. 2015 Aug;6(4):254-61.Texto completo  Resumo

52. Harvey L. Management of spinal cord injuries: a guide for physiotherapists. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2008.

53. Devillard X, Rimaud D, Roche F, et al. Effects of training programs for spinal cord injury. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2007 Jul;50(6):490-8, 480-9. Resumo

54. Lam T, Eng JJ, Wolfe DL, et al; SCIRE Research Team. A systematic review of the efficacy of gait rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2007 Summer;13(1):32-57.Texto completo  Resumo

55. Charmetant C, Phaner V, Condemine A, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in spinal cord injury patients: a literature review. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Dec;53(10):655-68. Resumo

56. Jones ML, Evans N, Tefertiller C, et al. Activity-based therapy for recovery of walking in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: results from a randomized clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Dec;95(12):2239-46.e2. Resumo

57. Sadowsky CL, Hammond ER, Strohl AB, et al. Lower extremity functional electrical stimulation cycling promotes physical and functional recovery in chronic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2013 Nov;36(6):623-31. Resumo

58. Behrman AL, Ardolino EM, Harkema SJ. Activity-based therapy: from basic science to clinical application for recovery after spinal cord injury. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2017 Jul;41(3 suppl):S39-45. Resumo

59. Quel de Oliveira C, Refshauge K, Middleton J, et al. Effects of activity-based therapy interventions on mobility, independence, and quality of life for people with spinal cord injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurotrauma. 2017 May 1;34(9):1726-43. Resumo

60. Duan R, Qu M, Yuan Y, et al. Clinical benefit of rehabilitation training in spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Mar 15;46(6):E398-410. Resumo

61. Boswell-Ruys CL, Harvey LA, Barker JJ, et al. Training unsupported sitting in people with chronic spinal cord injuries: a randomized controlled trial. Spinal Cord. 2010 Feb;48(2):138-43. Resumo

62. Flockhart EW, Miller WC, Campbell JA, et al. Evaluation of two power assist systems for manual wheelchairs for usability, performance and mobility: a pilot study. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2021 Nov 22:1-13. Resumo

63. Kloosterman MG, Snoek GJ, van der Woude LH, et al. A systematic review on the pros and cons of using a pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair. Clin Rehabil. 2013 Apr;27(4):299-313. Resumo

64. Mehrholz J, Harvey LA, Thomas S, et al. Is body-weight-supported treadmill training or robotic-assisted gait training superior to overground gait training and other forms of physiotherapy in people with spinal cord injury? A systematic review. Spinal Cord. 2017 Aug;55(8):722-9.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Holanda LJ, Silva PMM, Amorim TC, et al. Robotic assisted gait as a tool for rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury: a systematic review. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2017 Dec 4;14(1):126.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Musselman KE, Fouad K, Misiaszek JE, et al. Training of walking skills overground and on the treadmill: case series on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury. Phys Ther. 2010 Feb;48(2):138-43. Resumo

67. Inanici F, Brighton LN, Samejima S, et al. Transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation restores hand and arm function after spinal cord injury. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2021;29:310-9. Resumo

68. Lu X, Battistuzzo CR, Zoghi M, et al. Effects of training on upper limb function after cervical spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2015 Jan;29(1):3-13. Resumo

69. Zoghi M, Galea M. Brain motor control assessment post early intensive hand rehabilitation after spinal cord injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2018 Spring;24(2):157-66.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Beekhuizen KS, Field-Fote EC. Massed practice versus massed practice with stimulation: effects on upper extremity function and cortical plasticity in individuals with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2005 Mar;19(1):33-45.Texto completo  Resumo

71. Phillips AA, Cote AT, Warburton DE. A systematic review of exercise as a therapeutic intervention to improve arterial function in persons living with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2011 Jun;49(6):702-14. Resumo

72. Martin Ginis KA, van der Scheer JW, Latimer-Cheung AE, et al. Evidence-based scientific exercise guidelines for adults with spinal cord injury: an update and a new guideline. Spinal Cord. 2018 Apr;56(4):308-21. Resumo

73. Sandrow-Feinberg HR, Houlé JD. Exercise after spinal cord injury as an agent for neuroprotection, regeneration and rehabilitation. Brain Res. 2015 Sep 4;1619:12-21. Resumo

74. McKim DA, Road J, Avendano M, et al. Home mechanical ventilation: a Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Can Respir J. 2011 Jul-Aug;18(4):197-215.Texto completo  Resumo

75. Michael SM, Porter D, Pountney TE. Tilted seat position for non-ambulant individuals with neurological and neuromuscular impairment: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2007 Dec;21(12):1063-74.Texto completo  Resumo

76. Postma K, Haisma JA, Hopman MT, et al. Resistive inspiratory muscle training in people with spinal cord injury during inpatient rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2014 Dec;94(12):1709-19.Texto completo  Resumo

77. Srivastava A, Gupta A, Taly AB, et al. Surgical management of pressure ulcers during inpatient neurologic rehabilitation: outcomes for patients with spinal cord disease. J Spinal Cord Med. 2009 Apr;32(2):125-31.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Kahn SR, Lim W, Dunn AS, et al. Prevention of VTE in nonsurgical patients: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb;141(2 suppl):e195S-226S.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Bladder management for adults with spinal cord injury: a clinical practice guideline for health-care providers. J Spinal Cord Med. 2006;29(5):527-73.Texto completo  Resumo

80. de Groat WC, Griffiths D, Yoshimura N. Neural control of the lower urinary tract. Compr Physiol. 2015 Jan;5(1):327-96. Resumo

81. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine; Paralyzed Veterans of America. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for spinal cord injury. 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

82. Li L, Ye W, Ruan H, et al. Impact of hydrophilic catheters on urinary tract infections in people with spinal cord injury: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013 Apr;94(4):782-7. Resumo

83. Holston D, Stroope J, Cater M, et al. Implementing policy, systems, and environmental change through community coalitions and extension partnerships to address obesity in rural Louisiana. Prev Chronic Dis. 2020 Feb 27;17:E18.Texto completo  Resumo

84. del Popolo G, Mencarini M, Nelli F, et al. Controversy over the pharmacological treatments of storage symptoms in spinal cord injury patients: a literature overview. Spinal Cord. 2012 Jan;50(1):8-13.Texto completo  Resumo

85. Krassioukov A, Eng JJ, Claxton G, et al. Neurogenic bowel management after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the evidence. Spinal Cord. 2010 Oct;48(10):718-33.Texto completo  Resumo

86. Emmanuel A. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction. 2019 Oct 28;8:F1000 Faculty Rev-1800.Texto completo  Resumo

87. Johns J, Krogh K, Rodriguez GM, et al. Management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction in adults after spinal cord injury: clinical practice guideline for health care providers. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. Spring 2021;27(2):75-151. Resumo

88. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of chronic pain: a national clinical guideline. Aug 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

89. Wyndaele JJ. Pain in individuals who suffered a spinal cord injury. How does pain interfere? Hope for improved management. Spinal Cord. 2009 May;47(5):351. Resumo

90. Mehta S, McIntyre A, Janzen S, et al; Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence Team. Systematic review of pharmacologic treatments of pain after spinal cord injury: an update. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 Aug;97(8):1381-91. Resumo

91. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neuropathic pain in adults: pharmacological management in non-specialist settings. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

92. Mehta S, McIntyre A, Dijkers M, et al. Gabapentinoids are effective in decreasing neuropathic pain and other secondary outcomes after spinal cord injury: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Nov;95(11):2180-6. Resumo

93. Moore RA, Derry S, Aldington D, et al. Amitriptyline for neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 6;2015(7):CD008242.Texto completo  Resumo

94. Dowell D, Ragan KR, Jones CM, et al. CDC clinical practice guideline for prescribing opioids for pain - United States, 2022. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2022 Nov 4;71(3):1-95.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Mehta S, Janzen, S, Loh E, et al. Poster 96 Opioid treatment for chronic pain following spinal cord injury: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 2012 Oct 1;93(10):e42.Texto completo

96. Rekand T, Hagen EM, Grønning M. Chronic pain following spinal cord injury [in Norwegian]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2012 Apr 30;132(8):974-9.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Cruccu G, Garcia-Larrea L, Hansson P, et al. EAN guidelines on central neurostimulation therapy in chronic pain conditions. Eur J Neurol. 2016 Oct;23(10):1489-99.Texto completo  Resumo

98. O'Connell NE, Marston L, Spencer S, et al. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 16;3:CD008208.Texto completo  Resumo

99. Knotkova H, Hamani C, Sivanesan E, et al. Neuromodulation for chronic pain. Lancet. 2021 May 29;397(10289):2111-24. Resumo

100. Khan F, Amatya B, Bensmail D, et al. Non-pharmacological interventions for spasticity in adults: an overview of systematic reviews. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2019 Jul;62(4):265-73.Texto completo  Resumo

101. Bauman WA, Cardozo CP. Osteoporosis in individuals with spinal cord injury. PM R. 2015 Feb;7(2):188-201; quiz 201. Resumo

102. Gifre L, Vidal J, Carrasco J, et al. Incidence of skeletal fractures after traumatic spinal cord injury: a 10-year follow-up study. Clin Rehabil. 2014 Apr;28(4):361-9. Resumo

103. Morse LR, Battaglino RA, Stolzmann KL, et al. Osteoporotic fractures and hospitalization risk in chronic spinal cord injury. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Mar;20(3):385-92. Resumo

104. Kokorelis C, Gonzalez-Fernandez M, Morgan M, et al. Effects of drugs on bone metabolism in a cohort of individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2019;5:3.Texto completo  Resumo

105. Krassioukov A, Warburton DE, Teasell R, et al. A systematic review of the management of autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 Apr;90(4):682-95. Resumo

106. Prévinaire JG, Mathias CJ, El Masri W, et al. The isolated sympathetic spinal cord: cardiovascular and sudomotor assessment in spinal cord injury patients: a literature survey. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2010 Oct;53(8):520-32. Resumo

107. Courtois F, Rodrigue X, Côté I, et al. Sexual function and autonomic dysreflexia in men with spinal cord injuries: how should we treat? Spinal Cord. 2012 Dec;50(12):869-77. Resumo

108. Eldahan KC, Rabchevsky AG. Autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord injury: systemic pathophysiology and methods of management. Auton Neurosci. 2018 Jan;209:59-70. Resumo

109. Squair JW, Phillips AA, Harmon M, et al. Emergency management of autonomic dysreflexia with neurologic complications. CMAJ. 2016 Oct 18;188(15):1100-3.Texto completo  Resumo

110. Braddom RL, Rocco JF. Autonomic dysreflexia. A survey of current treatment. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Oct;70(5):234-41. Resumo

111. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Acute management of autonomic dysreflexia: individuals with spinal cord injury presenting to health-care facilities. J Spinal Cord Med. 2002 Spring;25(1 suppl):S67-88.Texto completo  Resumo

112. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine. Sexuality and reproductive health in adults with spinal cord injury: a clinical practice guideline for health-care professionals. J Spinal Cord Med. 2010;33(3):281-336. Resumo

113. Obstetric management of patients with spinal cord injuries: ACOG Committee opinion summary, number 808. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;135(5):1247-49.Texto completo  Resumo

114. Coggrave M, Norton C, Cody JD. Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jan 13;(1):CD002115.Texto completo  Resumo

115. Rossini PM, Burke D, Chen R, et al. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee. Clin Neurophysiol. 2015 Jun;126(6):1071-107.Texto completo  Resumo

116. Wagner FB, Mignardot JB, Le Goff-Mignardot CG, et al. Targeted neurotechnology restores walking in humans with spinal cord injury. Nature. 2018 Nov;563(7729):65-71. Resumo

117. Martin R. Utility and feasibility of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation for patients with incomplete SCI in therapeutic settings: a review of topic. Front. Rehabilit. Sci. 2021;2:724003.Texto completo

118. Hayes HB, Jayaraman A, Herrmann M, et al. Daily intermittent hypoxia enhances walking after chronic spinal cord injury: a randomized trial. Neurology. 2014 Jan 14;82(2):104-13.Texto completo  Resumo

119. Assinck P, Duncan GJ, Hilton BJ, et al. Cell transplantation therapy for spinal cord injury. Nat Neurosci. 2017 Apr 25;20(5):637-47. Resumo

120. Hu XC, Lu YB, Yang YN, et al. Progress in clinical trials of cell transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injury: how many questions remain unanswered? Neural Regen Res. 2021 Mar;16(3):405-13.Texto completo  Resumo

121. Garcia-Alias G, Barkhuysen S, Buckle M, et al. Chondroitinase ABC treatment opens a window of opportunity for task-specific rehabilitation. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Sep;12(9):1145-51. Resumo

122. Zhao RR, Fawcett JW. Combination treatment with chondroitinase ABC in spinal cord injury--breaking the barrier. Neurosci Bull. 2013 Aug;29(4):477-83. Resumo

123. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Functional electrical stimulation for children with spinal cord injuries or cerebral palsy: Update of review of clinical effectiveness. August 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

124. Sadowsky CL, Sayenko DG. Editorial: harnessing neuroplasticity in the injured central nervous system using spinal neuromodulation. Front. Rehabilit. Sci. 2022;3:841014.Texto completo

125. Angeli CA, Boakye M, Morton RA, et al. Recovery of over-ground walking after chronic motor complete spinal cord injury. N Engl J Med. 2018 Sep 27;379(13):1244-50. Resumo

126. van der Scheer JW, Goosey-Tolfrey VL, Valentino SE, et al. Functional electrical stimulation cycling exercise after spinal cord injury: a systematic review of health and fitness-related outcomes. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2021 Jun 12;18(1):99.Texto completo  Resumo

127. Tan G, Rintala DH, Jensen MP, et al. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase. J Spinal Cord Med. 2011;34(3):285-96.Texto completo  Resumo

128. Han ZA, Song DH, Oh HM, et al. Botulinum toxin type A for neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Ann Neurol. 2016 Apr;79(4):569-78.Texto completo  Resumo

129. Chun A, Levy I, Yang A, et al. Treatment of at-level spinal cord injury pain with botulinum toxin A. Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2019;5:77.Texto completo  Resumo

130. Ling HQ, Chen ZH, He L, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of 11 drugs as therapies for adults with neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a Bayesian network analysis based on 20 randomized controlled trials. Front Neurol. 2022;13:818522.Texto completo  Resumo

131. Craig A, Nicholson Perry K, Guest R, et al. Adjustment following chronic spinal cord injury: determining factors that contribute to social participation. Br J Health Psychol. 2015 Nov;20(4):807-23. Resumo

132. Müller R, Peter C, Cieza A, et al. The role of social support and social skills in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the literature. Spinal Cord. 2012 Feb;50(2):94-106. Resumo

133. Lidal IB, Huynh TK, Biering-Sørensen F. Return to work following spinal cord injury: a review. Disabil Rehabil. 2007 Sep 15;29(17):1341-75. Resumo

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