Ambliopia

Referências

Principais artigos

American Academy of Ophthalmology. Amblyopia Preferred Practice Pattern. Nov 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

Cotter SA, Edwards AR, Wallace DK, et al. Treatment of anisometropic amblyopia in children with refractive correction. Ophthalmology. 2006 Jun;113(6):895-903.Texto completo  Resumo

Wallace DK, Chandler DL, Beck RW, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children three to less than 10 years of age. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Oct;144(4):487-96.Texto completo  Resumo

Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of atropine vs. patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Mar;120(3):268-78. Resumo

Repka MX, Beck RW, Holmes JM, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of patching regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 May;121(5):603-11. Resumo

Wallace DK, Edwards AR, Cotter SA, et al. A randomized trial to evaluate 2 hours of daily patching for strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2006 Jun;113(6):904-12.Texto completo  Resumo

Stewart CE, Stephens DA, Fielder AR, et al. Objectively monitored patching regimens for treatment of amblyopia: randomised trial. BMJ. 2007 Oct 6;335(7622):707.Texto completo  Resumo

Holmes JM, Kraker RT, Beck RW, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of prescribed patching regimens for treatment of severe amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2003 Nov;110(11):2075-87. Resumo

Wallace DK, Lazar EL, Holmes JM, et al; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of increasing patching for amblyopia. Ophthalmology. 2013 Nov;120(11):2270-7.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Amblyopia Preferred Practice Pattern. Nov 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

2. Wiesel TN, Hubel DH. Single-cell responses in striate cortex of kittens deprived of vision in one eye. J Neurophysiol. 1963 Nov;26:1003-17.Texto completo  Resumo

3. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN. The period of susceptibility to the physiological effects of unilateral eye closure in kittens. J Physiol. 1970 Feb;206(2):419-36.Texto completo  Resumo

4. Ip JM, Robaei D, Rochtchina E, et al. Prevalence of eye disorders in young children with eyestrain complaints. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep;142(3):495-7. Resumo

5. Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study Group. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in African American and Hispanic children ages 6 to 72 months: the multi-ethnic pediatric eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2008 Jul;115(7):1229-36.e1. Resumo

6. Attebo K, Mitchell P, Cumming R, et al. Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in an adult population. Ophthalmology. 1998 Jan;105(1):154-9. Resumo

7. Shaw DE, Fielder AR, Minshull C, et al. Amblyopia: factors influencing age of presentation. Lancet. 1988 Jul 23;2(8604):207-9. Resumo

8. Tailor V, Bossi M, Greenwood JA, et al. Childhood amblyopia: current management and new trends. Br Med Bull. 2016 Sep;119(1):75-86.Texto completo  Resumo

9. Carlton J, Karnon J, Czoski-Murray C, et al. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes for amblyopia and strabismus in children up to the age of 4-5 years: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2008 Jun;12(25):iii, xi-194.Texto completo  Resumo

10. Powell C, Hatt SR. Vision screening for amblyopia in childhood. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul 8;(3):CD005020. Resumo

11. Harrington S, Breslin K, O'Dwyer V, et al. Comparison of amblyopia in schoolchildren in Ireland and Northern Ireland: a population-based observational cross-sectional analysis of a treatable childhood visual deficit. BMJ Open. 2019 Aug 10;9(8):e031066.Texto completo  Resumo

12. Preslan MW, Novak A. Baltimore Vision Screening Project. Ophthalmology. 1996 Jan;103(1):105-9. Resumo

13. Williams C, Northstone K, Howard M, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for common vision problems in children: data from the ALSPAC study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008 Jul;92(7):959-64. Resumo

14. Lai YH, Hsu HT, Wang HZ, et al. The visual status of children ages 3 to 6 years in the vision screening program in Taiwan. J AAPOS. 2009 Feb;13(1):58-62. Resumo

15. Drover JR, Kean PG, Courage ML, et al. Prevalence of amblyopia and other vision disorders in young Newfoundland and Labrador children. Can J Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb;43(1):89-94. Resumo

16. Robaei D, Rose KA, Ojaimi E, et al. Causes and associations of amblyopia in a population-based sample of 6-year-old Australian children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Jun;124(6):878-84.Texto completo  Resumo

17. Matsuo T, Matsuo C. Comparison of prevalence rates of strabismus and amblyopia in Japanese elementary school children between the years 2003 and 2005. Acta Med Okayama. 2007 Dec;61(6):329-34. Resumo

18. Jamali P, Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, et al. Refractive errors and amblyopia in children entering school: Shahrood, Iran. Optom Vis Sci. 2009 Apr;86(4):364-9. Resumo

19. Donnelly UM, Stewart NM, Hollinger M. Prevalence and outcomes of childhood visual disorders. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2005 Aug;12(4):243-50. Resumo

20. Rahi JS, Logan S, Borja MC, et al. Prediction of improved vision in the amblyopic eye after visual loss in the non-amblyopic eye. Lancet. 2002 Aug 24;360(9333):621-2. Resumo

21. Wilson ME. Adult amblyopia reversed by contralateral cataract formation. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1992 Mar-Apr;29(2):100-2. Resumo

22. Larsson EK, Rydberg AC, Holmstrom GE. A population-based study on the visual outcome in 10-year-old preterm and full-term children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Jun;123(6):825-32. Resumo

23. O'Connor AR, Wilson CM, Fielder AR. Ophthalmological problems associated with preterm birth. Eye. 2007 Oct;21(10):1254-60. Resumo

24. Connolly BP, Ng EY, McNamara JA, et al. A comparison of laser photocoagulation with cryotherapy for threshold retinopathy of prematurity at 10 years: part 2. Refractive outcome. Ophthalmology. 2002 May;109(5):936-41. Resumo

25. Quinn GE, Dobson V, Davitt BV, et al. Progression of myopia and high myopia in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study: findings to 3 years of age. Ophthalmology. 2008 Jun;115(6):1058-64.e1. Resumo

26. Quinn GE, Dobson V, Kivlin J, et al. Prevalence of myopia between 3 months and 5 1/2 years in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Ophthalmology. 1998 Jul;105(7):1292-300. Resumo

27. Chen TC, Tsai TH, Shih YF, et al. Long-term evaluation of refractive status and optical components in eyes of children born prematurely. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;51(12):6140-8.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Shah S, Torner J, Mehta A. Prevalence of amblyogenic risk factors in siblings of patients with accommodative esotropia. J AAPOS. 2008 Oct;12(5):487-9. Resumo

29. Abrahamsson M, Magnusson G, Sjostrand J. Inheritance of strabismus and the gain of using heredity to determine populations at risk of developing strabismus. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999 Dec;77(6):653-7. Resumo

30. Choi J, Kim JH, Kim SJ, et al. Clinical characteristics, course, and visual prognosis of partial cataracts that seem to be visually insignificant in children. J AAPOS. 2012 Apr;16(2):161-7. Resumo

31. Arkin M, Azar D, Fraioli A. Infantile cataracts. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1992 Winter;32(1):107-20. Resumo

32. GOV.UK. UK national screening committee recommendation on vision defects screening in children. August 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

33. Public Health England. Child vision screening resources. March 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

34. Public Health England. Vision screening for 4 to 5 year olds: information for parents. Oct 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

35. Public Health England. Guidance, screening competencies. April 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

36. Toufeeq A, Oram AJ. School-entry vision screening in the United Kingdom: practical aspects and outcomes. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2014 Aug;21(4):210-6.Texto completo  Resumo

37. Solebo AL, Cumberland PM, Rahi JS. Whole-population vision screening in children aged 4-5 years to detect amblyopia. Lancet. 2015 Jun 6;385(9984):2308-19. Resumo

38. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Pediatric eye evaluations preferred practice pattern. Nov 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

39. McCullough S, Saunders K. Visual profile of children who passed or failed the UK school vision screening protocol. Br Ir Orthopt J. 2019 Mar 26;15(1):36-46.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Sondhi N, Archer SM, Helveston EM. Development of normal ocular alignment. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1988 Sep-Oct;25(5):210-1. Resumo

41. Yap TP, Luu CD, Suttle CM, et al. Characterising the orientation-specific pattern-onset visual evoked potentials in children with bilateral refractive amblyopia and non-amblyopic controls. Doc Ophthalmol. 2021 Apr;142(2):197-211. Resumo

42. Zheng X, Xu G, Zhi Y, et al. Objective and quantitative assessment of interocular suppression in strabismic amblyopia based on steady-state motion visual evoked potentials. Vision Res. 2019 Nov;164:44-52.Texto completo  Resumo

43. Jang J, Kyung SE. Assessing amblyopia treatment using multifocal visual evoked potentials. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018 Aug 13;18(1):196.Texto completo  Resumo

44. Chung W, Hong S, Lee JB, et al. Pattern visual evoked potential as a predictor of occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2008 Dec;22(4):251-4.Texto completo  Resumo

45. Ridder WH 3rd, Rouse MW. Predicting potential acuities in amblyopes: predicting post-therapy acuity in amblyopes. Doc Ophthalmol. 2007 May;114(3):135-45. Resumo

46. Mathers M, Keyes M, Wright M. A review of the evidence on the effectiveness of children's vision screening. Child Care Health Dev. 2010 Nov;36(6):756-80. Resumo

47. Chou R, Dana T, Bougatsos C. Screening for visual impairment in children ages 1-5 years: systematic review to update the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2011: 11-05151-EF-1.Texto completo  Resumo

48. Eibschitz-Tsimhoni M, Friedman T, Naor J, et al. Early screening for amblyogenic risk factors lowers the prevalence and severity of amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2000 Aug;4(4):194-9. Resumo

49. Williams C, Northstone K, Harrad RA, et al. Amblyopia treatment outcomes after preschool screening v school entry screening: observational data from a prospective cohort study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003 Aug;87(8):988-93.Texto completo  Resumo

50. Oscar A, Cherninkova S, Haykin V, et al. Amblyopia screening in Bulgaria. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2014 Sep-Oct;51(5):284-8. Resumo

51. Williams C, Northstone K, Harrad RA, et al. Amblyopia treatment outcomes after screening before or at age 3 years: follow up from randomised trial. BMJ. 2002 Jun 29;324(7353):1549.Texto completo  Resumo

52. Thorisdottir RL, Faxén T, Blohmé J, et al. The impact of vision screening in preschool children on visual function in the Swedish adult population. Acta Ophthalmol. 2019 Dec;97(8):793-97.Texto completo  Resumo

53. de Koning HJ, Groenewoud JH, Lantau VK, et al. Effectiveness of screening for amblyopia and other eye disorders in a prospective birth cohort study. J Med Screen. 2013 Jun;20(2):66-72.Texto completo  Resumo

54. Donaldson LA, Karas M, O'Brien D, et al. Findings from an opt-in eye examination service in English special schools. Is vision screening effective for this population? PLoS One. 2019 Mar 11;14(3):e0212733.Texto completo  Resumo

55. Woodhouse JM, Davies N, McAvinchey A, et al. Ocular and visual status among children in special schools in Wales: the burden of unrecognised visual impairment. Arch Dis Child. 2014 Jun;99(6):500-4. Texto completo  Resumo

56. Das M, Spowart K, Crossley S, et al. Evidence that children with special needs all require visual assessment. Arch Dis Child. 2010 Nov;95(11):888-92. Resumo

57. Rahi JS, Cumberland PM, Peckham CS; British Childhood Visual Impairment Interest Group. Improving detection of blindness in childhood: the British Childhood Vision Impairment study. Pediatrics. 2010 Oct;126(4):e895-903. Resumo

58. Solebo AL, Rahi J. Epidemiology, aetiology and management of visual impairment in children. Arch Dis Child. 2014 Apr;99(4):375-9.Texto completo  Resumo

59. US Preventive Services Task Force, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, et al. Vision screening in children aged 6 months to 5 years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2017 Sep 5;318(9):836-44. Resumo

60. Donahue SP, Arthur B, Neely DE, et al. Guidelines for automated preschool vision screening: a 10-year, evidence-based update. J AAPOS. 2013 Feb;17(1):4-8.Texto completo  Resumo

61. Public Health England. Child vision screening. Jan 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

62. Chen PL, Chen JT, Tai MC, et al. Anisometropic amblyopia treated with spectacle correction alone: possible factors predicting success and time to start patching. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Jan;143(1):54-60. Resumo

63. Cotter SA, Edwards AR, Wallace DK, et al. Treatment of anisometropic amblyopia in children with refractive correction. Ophthalmology. 2006 Jun;113(6):895-903.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Wallace DK, Chandler DL, Beck RW, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Treatment of bilateral refractive amblyopia in children three to less than 10 years of age. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007 Oct;144(4):487-96.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of atropine vs. patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Mar;120(3):268-78. Resumo

66. Repka MX, Beck RW, Holmes JM, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of patching regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 May;121(5):603-11. Resumo

67. Wallace DK, Edwards AR, Cotter SA, et al. A randomized trial to evaluate 2 hours of daily patching for strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2006 Jun;113(6):904-12.Texto completo  Resumo

68. Stewart CE, Stephens DA, Fielder AR, et al. Objectively monitored patching regimens for treatment of amblyopia: randomised trial. BMJ. 2007 Oct 6;335(7622):707.Texto completo  Resumo

69. Menon V, Shailesh G, Sharma P, et al. Clinical trial of patching versus atropine penalization for the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia in older children. J AAPOS. 2008 Oct;12(5):493-7. Resumo

70. Holmes JM, Kraker RT, Beck RW, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of prescribed patching regimens for treatment of severe amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2003 Nov;110(11):2075-87. Resumo

71. Repka MX, Kraker RT, Beck RW, et al. A randomized trial of atropine vs patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia: follow-up at age 10 years. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug;126(8):1039-44. Resumo

72. Scheiman MM, Hertle RW, Kraker RT, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Patching vs atropine to treat amblyopia in children aged 7 to 12 years: a randomized trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Dec;126(12):1634-42. Resumo

73. Holmes JM, Lazar EL, Melia BM, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Effect of age on response to amblyopia treatment in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 Nov;129(11):1451-7.Texto completo  Resumo

74. Maconachie GD, Farooq S, Bush G, et al. Association between adherence to glasses wearing during amblyopia treatment and improvement in visual acuity. J AMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Dec 1;134(12):1347-53. Resumo

75. Stewart CE, Moseley MJ, Fielder AR, et al; MOTAS Cooperative. Refractive adaptation in amblyopia: quantification of effect and implications for practice. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Dec;88(12):1552-6.Texto completo  Resumo

76. Writing Committee for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group, Cotter SA, Foster NC, et al. Optical treatment of strabismic and combined strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia. Ophthalmology. 2012 Jan;119(1):150-8.Texto completo  Resumo

77. Clarke MP, Wright CM, Hrisos S, et al. Randomised controlled trial of treatment of unilateral visual impairment detected at preschool vision screening. BMJ. 2003 Nov 29;327(7426):1251.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Awan M, Proudlock FA, Gottlob I. A randomized controlled trial of unilateral strabismic and mixed amblyopia using occlusion dose monitors to record compliance. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Apr;46(4):1435-9.Texto completo  Resumo

79. Stewart CE, Moseley MJ, Stephens DA, et al. Treatment dose-response in amblyopia therapy: the Monitored Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study (MOTAS). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Sep;45(9):3048-54.Texto completo  Resumo

80. Wallace DK, Lazar EL, Holmes JM, et al; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of increasing patching for amblyopia. Ophthalmology. 2013 Nov;120(11):2270-7.Texto completo  Resumo

81. Tjiam AM, Holtslag G, Van Minderhout HM, et al. Randomised comparison of three tools for improving compliance with occlusion therapy: an educational cartoon story, a reward calendar, and an information leaflet for parents. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013 Jan;251(1):321-9. Resumo

82. Pradeep A, Proudlock FA, Awan M, et al. An educational intervention to improve adherence to high-dosage patching regimen for amblyopia: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Jul;98(7):865-70. Resumo

83. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Pharmacological plus optical penalization treatment for amblyopia: results of a randomized trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Jan;127(1):22-30. Resumo

84. Tejedor J, Ogallar C. Comparative efficacy of penalization methods in moderate to mild amblyopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Mar;145(3):562-9. Resumo

85. Repka MX, Kraker RT, Beck RW, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Treatment of severe amblyopia with weekend atropine: results from two randomized clinical trials. J AAPOS. 2009 Jun;13(3):258-63. Resumo

86. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of near versus distance activities while patching for amblyopia in children aged 3 to less than 7 years. Ophthalmology. 2008 Nov;115(11):2071-8. Resumo

87. Birch EE, Cheng C, Stager DR Jr, et al. The critical period for surgical treatment of dense congenital bilateral cataracts. J AAPOS. 2009 Feb;13(1):67-71. Resumo

88. Birch EE, Stager DR. The critical period for surgical treatment of dense congenital unilateral cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996 Jul;37(8):1532-8.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Hakim, OM, Gaber El-Hag Y, Samir A. Silicone-eyelid closure to improve vision in deeply amblyopic eyes. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2010;47(3):157-62. Resumo

90. Arnold RW, Armitage MD, Limstrom SA. Sutured protective occluder for severe amblyopia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Jul;126(7):891-5. Resumo

91. Scheiman MM, Hertle RW, Beck RW, et al. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Randomized trial of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Apr;123(4):437-47. Resumo

92. Hertle RW, Scheiman MM, Beck RW, et al; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Stability of visual acuity improvement following discontinuation of amblyopia treatment in children aged 7 to 12 years. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 May;125(5):655-9.Texto completo  Resumo

93. American Optometric Association. Care of the patient with amblyopia. 2004 [internet publication].Texto completo

94. Chen PL, Chen JT, Fu JJ, et al. A pilot study of anisometropic amblyopia improved in adults and children by perceptual learning: an alternative treatment to patching. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008 Sep;28(5):422-8. Resumo

95. Herbison N, Cobb S, Gregson R, et al. Interactive binocular treatment (I-BiT) for amblyopia: results of a pilot study of 3D shutter glasses system. Eye (Lond). 2013 Sep;27(9):1077-83.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Li SL, Jost RM, Morale SE, et al. A binocular iPad treatment for amblyopic children. Eye (Lond). 2014 Oct;28(10):1246-53. Resumo

97. Holmes JM, Manh VM, Lazar EL, et al. Effect of a binocular iPad game vs part-time patching in children aged 5 to 12 years with amblyopia: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Dec 1;134(12):1391-400. Resumo

98. Manh VM, Holmes JM, Lazar EL, et al. A randomized trial of a binocular iPad game versus part-time patching in children aged 13 to 16 years with amblyopia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2018 Feb;186:104-15. Resumo

99. Gao TY, Guo CX, Babu RJ, et al. Effectiveness of a binocular video game vs placebo video game for improving visual functions in older children, teenagers, and adults with amblyopia: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018 Feb 1;136(2):172-81. Resumo

100. Tailor V, Bossi M, Bunce C, et al. Binocular versus standard occlusion or blurring treatment for unilateral amblyopia in children aged three to eight years. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Aug 11;2015(8):CD011347.Texto completo  Resumo

101. Gottlob I, Stangler-Zuschrott E. Effect of levodopa on contrast sensitivity and scotomas in human amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990 Apr;31(4):776-80. Resumo

102. Gottlob I, Charlier J, Reinecke RD. Visual acuities and scotomas after one week levodopa administration in human amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992 Aug;33(9):2722-8. Resumo

103. Bhartiya P, Sharma P, Biswas NR, et al. Levodopa-carbidopa with occlusion in older children with amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2002 Dec;6(6):368-72. Resumo

104. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. A randomized trial of levodopa as treatment for residual amblyopia in older children. Ophthalmology. 2015 May;122(5):874-81.Texto completo  Resumo

105. Spierer A, Raz J, Benezra O, et al. Treating amblyopia with liquid crystal glasses: a pilot study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jul;51(7):3395-8. Resumo

106. Erbağcı I, Okumuş S, Öner V, et al. Using liquid crystal glasses to treat ambyopia in children. J AAPOS. 2015 Jun;19(3):257-9. Resumo

107. Wang J, Neely DE, Galli J, et al. A pilot randomized clinical trial of intermittent occlusion therapy liquid crystal glasses versus traditional patching for treatment of moderate unilateral amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2016 Aug;20(4):326-31. Resumo

108. Fresina M, Dickmann A, Salerni A, et al. Effect of oral CDP-choline on visual function in young amblyopic patients. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008 Jan;246(1):143-50. Resumo

109. Thompson B, Mansouri B, Koski L, et al. Brain plasticity in the adult: modulation of function in amblyopia with rTMS. Curr Biol. 2008 Jul 22;18(14):1067-71. Resumo

110. Lam DS, Zhao J, Chen LJ, et al. Adjunctive effect of acupuncture to refractive correction on anisometropic amblyopia: one-year results of a randomized crossover trial. Ophthalmology. 2011 Aug;118(8):1501-11. Resumo

111. Zhao J, Lam DS, Chen LJ, et al. Randomized controlled trial of patching vs acupuncture for anisometropic amblyopia in children aged 7 to 12 years. Arch Opthalmol. 2010 Dec;128(12):1510-7. Resumo

112. Tychsen L, Hoekel J, Ghasia F, et al. Phakic intraocular lens correction of high ametropia in children with neurobehavioral disorders. J AAPOS. 2008 Jun;12(3):282-9. Resumo

113. Ali A, Packwood E, Lueder G, et al. Unilateral lens extraction for high anisometropic myopia in children and adolescents. J AAPOS. 2007 Apr;11(2):153-8. Resumo

114. Paysse EA, Coats DK, Hussein MA, et al. Long-term outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy for anisometropic amblyopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2006 Feb;113(2):169-76. Resumo

115. Daoud YJ, Hutchinson A, Wallace DK, et al. Refractive surgery in children: treatment options, outcomes, and controversies. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Apr;147(4):573-82. Resumo

116. Simons K, Preslan M. Natural history of amblyopia untreated owing to lack of compliance. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999 May;83(5):582-7.Texto completo  Resumo

117. Pirouzian A, Ip KC. Anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation in children to treat severe anisometropic myopia and amblyopia: 3-year clinical results. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010 Sep;36(9):1486-93. Resumo

118. Alió JL, Wolter NV, Piñero DP, et al. Pediatric refractive surgery and its role in the treatment of amblyopia: meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature. J Refract Surg. 2011 May;27(5):364-74. Resumo

119. Tommila V, Tarkkanen A. Incidence of loss of vision in the healthy eye in amblyopia. Br J Ophthalmol. 1981 Aug;65(8):575-7.Texto completo  Resumo

120. van Leeuwen R, Eijkemans MJ, Vingerling JR, et al. Risk of bilateral visual impairment in individuals with amblyopia: the Rotterdam study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Nov;91(11):1450-1. Resumo

121. Wallace DK, Lazar EL, Melia M, et al; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Stereoacuity in children with anisometropic amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2011 Oct;15(5):455-61.Texto completo  Resumo

122. Repka MX, Wallace DK, Beck RW, et al. Two-year follow-up of a 6-month randomized trial of atropine vs patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Feb;123(2):149-57. Resumo

123. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Pediatric ophthalmology/strabismus summary benchmarks - 2020. December 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

124. Holmes JM, Beck RW, Kraker RT, et al; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Risk of amblyopia recurrence after cessation of treatment. J AAPOS. 2004 Oct;8(5):420-8. Resumo

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