Criptosporidiose

Referências

Principais artigos

Hunter PR, Nichols G. Epidemiology and clinical features of Cryptosporidium infection in immunocompromised patients. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Jan;15(1):145-54.Texto completo  Resumo

Juranek DD. Cryptosporidiosis: sources of infection and guidelines for prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Aug;21(suppl 1):S57-61. Resumo

Farthing MJ. Clinical aspects of human cryptosporidiosis. In: Petry F, ed. Cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. Contributions in microbiology. Karger, Basel: 2000;6:50-74.

MacKenzie WR, Schell WL, Blair KA, et al. Massive outbreak of waterborne Cryptosporidium infection in Milwaukee, Wisconsin: recurrence of illness and risk of secondary transmission. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Jul;21(1):57-62. Resumo

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium spp.): 2012 case definition. February 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

Rossignol JF, Ayoub A, Ayers MS. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide. J Infect Dis. 2001 Jul 1;184(1):103-6. Resumo

Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. Feb 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Feb 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

Artigos de referência

1. Hunter PR, Nichols G. Epidemiology and clinical features of Cryptosporidium infection in immunocompromised patients. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002 Jan;15(1):145-54.Texto completo  Resumo

2. Chalmers RM, Davies AP. Mini-review: Clinical cryptosporidiosis. Exp Parasitol. 2010 Jan;121(1):138-46. Resumo

3. Barta JR, Thompson RC. What is Cryptosporidium? Reappraising its biology and phylogenetic affinities. Trends Parasitol. 2006 Oct;22(10):463-8. Resumo

4. Cavalier-Smith T. Gregarine site-heterogeneous 18S rDNA trees, revision of gregarine higher classification, and the evolutionary diversification of sporozoa. Eur J Protistol. 2014 Oct;50(5):472-95. Resumo

5. Fayer R. Taxonomy and species delimitation in Cryptosporidium. Exp Parasitol. 2010 Jan;124(1):90-7. Resumo

6. Chalmers RM, Robinson G, Elwin K, et al. Cryptosporidium sp. rabbit genotype, a newly identified human pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 May;15(5):829-30.Texto completo  Resumo

7. Cama VA, Bern C, Roberts J, et al. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and clinical manifestations in children, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Oct;14(10):1567-74.Texto completo  Resumo

8. Manabe YC, Clark DP, Moore RD, et al. Cryptosporidiosis in patients with AIDS: correlates of disease and survival. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Sep;27(3):536-42.Texto completo  Resumo

9. Pettoello-Mantovani M, Di Martino L, Dettori G, et al. Asymptomatic carriage of intestinal Cryptosporidium immunocompetent and immunodeficient children: a prospective study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1995 Dec;14(12):1042-7. Resumo

10. Isaacs D, Hunt GH, Phillpis AD, et al. Cryptosporidiosis in immunocompentent children. J Clin Pathol. 1985 Jan;38(1):76-81. Resumo

11. Baxby D, Hart CA. The incidence of cryptosporidiosis: a two-year prospective survey in a children's hospital. J Hyg (Lond). 1986 Feb;96(1):107-11. Resumo

12. Addiss DG, Stewart JM, Finton RJ, et al. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium infections in child day-care centers in Fulton County, Georgia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 Dec;10(12):907-11. Resumo

13. García-Rodríguez JA, Martín-Sánchez AM, Canut Blasco A, et al. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in children in day care centres and primary schools in Salamanca (Spain): an epidemiological study. Eur J Epidemiol. 1990 Dec;6(4):432-5. Resumo

14. Davies AP, Campbell B, Evans MR, et al. Asymptomatic carriage of protozoan parasites in children in day care centers in the United Kingdom. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Sep;28(9):838-40. Resumo

15. Lacroix C, Berthier M, Agius G, et al. Cryptosporidium oocysts in immunocompetent children: epidemiologic investigations in the day-care centers of Poitiers, France. Eur J Epidemiol. 1987 Dec;3(4):381-5. Resumo

16. Sallon S, Deckelbaum RJ, Schmid II, et al. Cryptosporidium, malnutrition, and chronic diarrhea in children. Am J Dis Child. 1988 Mar;142(3):312-5. Resumo

17. Sarabia-Arce S, Salazar-Lindo E, Gilman RH, et al. Case-control study of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in Peruvian children hospitalized for diarrhea: possible association with malnutrition and nosocomial infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1990 Sep;9(9):627-31. Resumo

18. Lima AA, Fang G, Schorling JB, et al. Persistent diarrhea in Northeast Brazil: etiologies and interactions with malnutrition. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1992 Sep;381:39-44. Resumo

19. Mølbak K, Andersen M, Aaby P, et al. Cryptosporidium infection in infancy as a cause of malnutrition: a community study from Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Jan;65(1):149-52. Resumo

20. Checkley W, Epstein LD, Gilman RH, et al. Effects of Cryptosporidium parvum in Peruvian children: growth faltering and subsequent catch-up growth. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Sep 1;148(5):497-506.Texto completo  Resumo

21. Adak GK, Long SM, O'Brien SJ. Trends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, England and Wales: 1992 to 2000. Gut. 2002 Dec;51(6):832-41. Resumo

22. Cacciò SM, Chalmers RM. Human cryptosporidiosis in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 May 10;22(6):471-80.Texto completo  Resumo

23. Painter JE, Hlavsa MC, Collier SA, et al; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis surveillance - United States, 2011-2012. MMWR Suppl. 2015 May 1;64(3):1-14. Resumo

24. Gharpure R, Perez A, Miller AD, et al. Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks - United States, 2009-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Jun 28;68(25):568-72.Texto completo  Resumo

25. Public Health England. Travel-associated Cryptosporidium infection: 2014. Feb 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

26. Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Blackwelder WC, et al. Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. Lancet. 2013 Jul 20;382(9888):209-22. Resumo

27. Hunter PR, Hughes S, Woodhouse S, et al. Sporadic cryptosporidiosis case-control study with genotyping. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Jul;10(7):1241-9.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Chalmers RM, Elwin K, Thomas AL, et al. Long-term Cryptosporidium typing reveals the aetiology and species-specific epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales, 2000 to 2003. Euro Surveill. 2009 Jan 15;14(2):19086. Resumo

29. Fayer R. General biology. In: Fayer R, Xiao L, eds. Cryptospsoridium and cryptosporidiosis. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2008:1-42.

30. Juranek DD. Cryptosporidiosis: sources of infection and guidelines for prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Aug;21(suppl 1):S57-61. Resumo

31. Clayton F, Heller T, Kotler DP. Variation in the enteric distribution of cryptosporidia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Clin Path. 1994 Oct;102(4):420-5. Resumo

32. Berk RN, Wall SD, McArdle CB, et al. Cryptosporidiosis of the stomach and small intestine in patients with AIDS. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1984 Sep;143(3):549-54.Texto completo  Resumo

33. Meisel JL, Perera DR, Meligro C, et al. Overwhelming watery diarrhea associated with a Cryptosporidium in an immunosuppressed patient. Gastroenterology. 1976 Jun;70(6):1156-60. Resumo

34. Farthing MJ. Clinical aspects of human cryptosporidiosis. In: Petry F, ed. Cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. Contributions in microbiology. Karger, Basel: 2000;6:50-74.

35. Guarino A, Canani RB, Pozio E, et al. Enterotoxic effect of stool supernatant of Cryptosporidium-infected calves on human jejunum. Gastroenterology. 1994 Jan;106(1):28-34. Resumo

36. Guarino A, Canani RB, Casola A, et al. Human intestinal cryptosporidiosis: secretory diarrhea and enterotoxic activity in Caco-2 cells. J Infect Dis. 1995 Apr;171(4):976-83. Resumo

37. Laurent F, Eckmann L, Savidge TC, et al. Cryptosporidium parvum infection of human intestinal epithelial cells induces the polarized secretion of C-X-C chemikines. Infect Immun. 1997 Dec;65(12):5067-73.Texto completo  Resumo

38. McDonald V, Smith R, Robinson H, et al. Host immune responses against Cryptosporidium. Contrib Microbiol. 2000;6:75-91. Resumo

39. Argenzio RA, Liacos JA, Levy ML, et al. Villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, cellular infiltration, and impaired glucose-Na absorption in enteric cryptosporidiosis of pigs. Gastroenterology. 1990 May;98(5 Pt 1):1129-40. Resumo

40. Kirkpatrick BD, Noel F, Rouzier PD, et al. Childhood cryptosporidiosis is associated with a persistent systemic inflammatory response. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 1;43(5):604-8. Resumo

41. Lumadue JA, Manabe YC, Moore RD, et al. A clinicopathologic analysis of AIDS-related cryptosporidiosis. AIDS. 1998 Dec 24;12(18):2459-66. Resumo

42. Bonacini M. Hepatobiliary complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med. 1992 Apr;92(4):404-11. Resumo

43. Benhamou Y, Caumes E, Gerosa Y, et al. AIDS-related cholangiopathy: critical analysis of a prospective series of 26 patients. Dig Dis Sci. 1993 Jun;38(6):1113-8. Resumo

44. Chen XM, Levine SA, Tietz P, et al. Cryptosporidium parvum is cytopathic for cultured human biliary epithelia via an apoptotic mechanism. Hepatology. 1998 Oct;28(4):906-13. Resumo

45. Chen XM, Gores GJ, Paya CV, et al. Cryptosporidium parvum induces apoptosis in biliary epithelia by a Fas/Fas ligand-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol. 1999 Sep;277(3):G599-608.Texto completo  Resumo

46. Davis JJ, Heyman MB, Ferrell L, et al. Sclerosing cholangitis associated with chronic cryptosporidiosis in a child with congenital immunodeficiency disorder. Am J Gastroenterol. 1987 Nov;82(11):1196-1202. Resumo

47. Dowsett JF, Miller R, Davidson R, et al. Sclerosing cholangitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case reports and review of the literature. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1988 Dec;23(10):1267-74. Resumo

48. Cello JP. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy: spectrum of disease. Am J Med. 1989 May;86(5):539-46. Resumo

49. Chen XM, LaRusso NF. Cryptosporidiosis and the pathogenesis of AIDS-cholangiopathy. Semin Liver Dis. 2002 Aug;22(3):277-89. Resumo

50. McLauchlin J, Amar CF, Pedraza-Díaz S, et al. Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of infection with Cryptosporidium in children with primary immunodeficiencies. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Apr;22(4):329-35. Resumo

51. Clavel A, Arnal AC, Sánchez EC, et al. Respiratory cryptosporidiosis: case series and review of the literature. Infection. 1996 Sep-Oct;24(5):341-6. Resumo

52. Dunand VA, Hammer SM, Rossi R, et al. Parasitic sinusitis and otitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: report of five cases and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Aug;25(2):267-72.Texto completo  Resumo

53. Robertson B, Sinclair MI, Forbes AB, et al. Case control studies of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia. Epidemiol Infect. 2002 Jun;28(3):419-31. Resumo

54. Pritchard GC, Fleetwood AJ. Cryptosporidiosis and farm visits. Vet Rec. 1995 Feb 18;136(7):179. Resumo

55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites - Cryptosporidium (also known as "Crypto"): Sources of infection and risk factors. April 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

56. Cordell RL, Addiss DG. Cryptosporidiosis in child care settings: a review of the literature and recommendations for prevention and control. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Apr;13(4):310-7. Resumo

57. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with recreational water use - five states, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Jul 27;56(29):729-32.Texto completo  Resumo

58. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a splash park - Idaho, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 Jun 12;58(22):615-8.Texto completo  Resumo

59. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Communitywide cryptosporidiosis outbreak - Utah, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Sep 12;57(36):989-93.Texto completo  Resumo

60. MacKenzie WR, Schell WL, Blair KA, et al. Massive outbreak of waterborne Cryptosporidium infection in Milwaukee, Wisconsin: recurrence of illness and risk of secondary transmission. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Jul;21(1):57-62. Resumo

61. Flanigan T, Whalen C, Turner J, et al. Cryptosporidium infection and CD4 counts. Ann Intern Med. 1992 May 15;116(10):840-2. Resumo

62. Blanshard C, Jackson AM, Shanson DC, et al. Cryptosporidiosis in HIV-seropositive patients. Q J Med. 1992 Nov-Dec;85(307-308):813-23. Resumo

63. Navin TR, Weber R, Vugia DJ, et al. Declining CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts are associated with increased risk of enteric parasitosis and chronic diarrhea: results of a 3-year longitudinal study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1999 Feb 1;20(2):154-9. Resumo

64. Guerrant RL, Van Gilder T, Steiner TS, et al. Practice guidelines for the management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Feb 1;32(3):331-51.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health information for international travel (Yellow Book). Chapter 3: infectious diseases related to travel - cryptosporidiosis. May 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

66. Garcia LS. Diagnostic medical parasitology. 5th ed. Washington DC: ASM Press; 2007.

67. Doing KM, Hamm JL, Jellison JA, et al. False-positive results obtained with the Alexon ProSpecT Cryptosporidium enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 May;37(5):1582-3.Texto completo  Resumo

68. Public Health Laboratory Service Study Group. Cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales: prevalence and clinical and epidemiological features. BMJ. 1990 Mar;300(6727):774-7.Texto completo  Resumo

69. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium spp.): 2012 case definition. February 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

70. Rossignol JF, Ayoub A, Ayers MS. Treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide. J Infect Dis. 2001 Jul 1;184(1):103-6. Resumo

71. Diaz E, Mondragon J, Ramirez E, et al. Epidemiology and control of intestinal parasites with nitazoxanide in children in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Apr;68(4):384-5.Texto completo  Resumo

72. Favennec L, Jave Ortiz J, Gargala G, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide in the treatment of fascioliasis in adults and children from northern Peru. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Jan;17(2):265-70.Texto completo  Resumo

73. Doumbo O, Rossignol JF, Pichard E, et al. Nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidial diarrhea and other intestinal parasitic infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in tropical Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Jun;56(5):637-9. Resumo

74. Hommer V, Eichholz J, Petry F. Effect of antiretroviral protease inhibitors alone, and in combination with paromomycin, on the excystation, invasion and in vitro development of Cryptosporidium parvum. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003 Sep;52(3):359-64.Texto completo  Resumo

75. Abdo A, Klassen J, Urbanski S, et al. Reversible sclerosing cholangitis secondary to cryptosporidiosis in a renal transplant patient. J Hepatol. 2003 May;38(5):688-91. Resumo

76. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. Feb 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

77. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Feb 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

78. Rossignol JF, Hidalgo H, Feregrino M, et al. A double-'blind' placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide in the treatment of cryptosporidial diarrhoea in AIDS patients in Mexico. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Nov-Dec;92(6):663-6. Resumo

79. White AC Jr, Chappell CL, Hayat CS, et al. Paromomycin for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS: a prospective, double-blind trial. J Infect Dis. 1994 Aug;170(2):419-24. Resumo

80. Bissuel F, Cotte L, Rabodonirina M, et al. Paromomycin: an effective treatment for cryptosporidial diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Mar;18(3):447-9. Resumo

81. Hewitt RG, Yiannoutsos CT, Higgs ES, et al. Paromomycin: no more effective than placebo for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Oct;31(4):1084-92.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Kadappu KK, Nagaraja MV, Rao PV, et al. Azithromycin as treatment for cryptosporidiosis in human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Postgrad Med. 2002 Jul-Sep;48(3):179-81.Texto completo  Resumo

83. Allam AF, Shehab AY. Efficacy of azithromycin, praziquantel and mirazid in treatment of cryptosporidiosis in school children. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2002 Dec;32(3):969-78. Resumo

84. Russell TS, Lynch J, Ottolini MG. Eradication of Cryptosporidium in a child undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for leukemia using high dose azithromycin therapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1998 Jan-Feb;20(1):83-5. Resumo

85. Blanshard C, Shanson DC, Gazzard BG. Pilot studies of azithromycin, letrazuril and paromomycin in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. Int J STD AIDS. 1997 Feb;8(2):124-9. Resumo

86. Palmieri F, Cicalini S, Froio N, et al. Pulmonary cryptosporidiosis in an AIDS patient: successful treatment with paromomycin plus azithromycin. Int J STD AIDS. 2005 Jul;16(7):515-7. Resumo

87. Smith NH, Cron NS, Valdez LM, et al. Combination drug therapy for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1998 Sep;178(3):900-3. Resumo

88. Hunter PR, Hughes S, Woodhouse S, et al. Health sequelae of human cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 15;39(4):504-10.Texto completo  Resumo

89. Hay EM, Winfield J, McKendrick MW. Reactive arthritis associated with Cryptosporidium enteritis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987 Jul 25;295(6592):248.Texto completo  Resumo

90. Ozgül A, Tanyüksel M, Yazicioglu K, et al. Sacroiliitis associated with Cryptosporidium parvum in an HLA-B27-negative patient. Rheumatology. 1999 Mar;38(3):288-9.Texto completo  Resumo

91. Cron RQ, Sherry DD. Reiter's syndrome associated with cryptosporidial gastroenteritis. J Rheumatol. 1995 Oct;22(10):1962-3. Resumo

92. Shepherd RC, Smail PJ, Sinha GP. Reactive arthritis complicating cryptosporidial infection. Arch Dis Child. 1989 May;64(5):743-4.Texto completo  Resumo

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