Peritonitis bacteriana espontánea

Referencias

Artículos principales

Biggins SW, Angeli P, Garcia-Tsao G, et al. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome: 2021 practice guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2021 Aug;74(2):1014-48.Texto completo  Resumen

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2018 Aug;69(2):406-60.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Rimola A, Garcia-Tsao G, Navasa M, et al; International Ascites Club. Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a consensus document. J Hepatol. 2000 Jan;32(1):142-53.Texto completo  Resumen

2. Runyon BA, Hoefs JC. Culture-negative neutrocytic ascites: a variant of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology. 1984 Nov-Dec;4(6):1209-11. Resumen

3. Terg R, Levi D, Lopez P, et al. Analysis of clinical course and prognosis of culture-positive spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and neutrocytic ascites area: evidence of the same disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1992 Oct;37(10):1499-504. Resumen

4. Borzio M, Salerno F, Piantoni L, et al. Bacterial infection in patients with advanced cirrhosis: a multicentre prospective study. Dig Liver Dis. 2001 Jan-Feb;33(1):41-8. Resumen

5. Dhiman RK, Makharia JK, Jain S, et al. Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in fulminant hepatic failure. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Jan;95(1):233-8. Resumen

6. Blaise M, Pateron D, Trinchet JC, et al. Systemic antibiotic therapy prevents bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatology. 1994 Jul;20(1 Pt 1):34-8. Resumen

7. Bleichner G, Boulanger R, Squara P, et al. Frequency of infections in cirrhotic patients presenting with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Br J Surg. 1986 Sep;73(9):724-6. Resumen

8. Evans LT, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in asymptomatic outpatients with cirrhotic ascites. Hepatology. 2003 Apr;37(4):897-901.Texto completo  Resumen

9. Jeffries MA, Stern MA, Gunaratnam NT, et al. Unsuspected infection is infrequent in asymptomatic outpatients with refractory ascites undergoing therapeutic paracentesis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Oct;94(10):2972-6. Resumen

10. Cholongitas E, Papatheodoridis GV, Lahanas A, et al. Increasing frequency of Gram-positive bacteria in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2005 Feb;25(1):57-61. Resumen

11. Campillo B, Richardet JP, Kheo T, et al. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia in cirrhotic patients: impact of isolate type on prognosis and characteristics of infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jul 1;35(1):1-10.Texto completo  Resumen

12. Oliveira JC, Carrera E, Petry RC, et al. High prevalence of multidrug resistant bacteria in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: is it time to change the standard antimicrobial approach? Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;2019:6963910.Texto completo  Resumen

13. Al-Ghamdi H, Al-Harbi N, Mokhtar H, et al. Changes in the patterns and microbiology of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: analysis of 200 cirrhotic patients. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2019 Apr-Jun;82(2):261-6.Texto completo  Resumen

14. Parsi MA, Atreja A, Zein NN. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: recent data on incidence and treatment. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004 Jul;71(7):569-76. Resumen

15. Alexopoulou A, Papadopoulos N, Eliopoulos DG, et al. Increasing frequency of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2013 Aug;33(7):975-81. Resumen

16. Piano S, Romano A, Rosi S, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: the last therapeutic challenge. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Oct;24(10):1234-7. Resumen

17. Boixeda D, De Luis DA, Aller R, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: clinical and microbiological study of 233 episodes. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1996 Dec;23(4):275-9. Resumen

18. Singh N, Wagener MM, Gayowski T. Changing epidemiology and predictors of mortality in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis at a liver transplant unit. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003 Jun;9(6):531-7.Texto completo  Resumen

19. Kamani L, Mumtaz K, Ahmed US, et al. Outcomes in culture positive and culture negative ascitic fluid infections in patients with viral cirrhosis: cohort study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008 Dec 18;8:59. Resumen

20. Espinoza-Gómez F, Newton-Sánchez O, Melnikov V, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Listeria in a patient with cirrhosis: case report [in Spanish]. Rev Med Chil. 2006 Sep;134(9):1171-4.Texto completo  Resumen

21. Musher DM, Nichol AC, Rueda AM. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae as a cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Jun;44(6):2304-6.Texto completo  Resumen

22. Dimopoulou A, Dimopoulou D, Christianakis E, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in a previously healthy child. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Jun;32(6):704. Resumen

23. Brautbar A, Esayag Y, Breuer GS, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Isr Med Assoc J. 2007 Mar;9(3):175-6. Resumen

24. Nathanson L. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Neisseria meningitides serogroup Z. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1993 Aug;32(8):510. Resumen

25. Lecliere S, Di Fiore F, Hervé S, et al. Spontaneous infection of ascitic fluid due to Salmonella typhimurium in a cirrhotic patient undergoing selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin [in French]. Presse Med. 2003 Mar 29;32(12):550-2. Resumen

26. Adhikary R, Joshi S, Venugopa RV, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by S. paratyphi A. J Assoc Physicians India. 2013 Dec;61(12):930-31. Resumen

27. Kim HM, Chon CY, Ahn SH, et al. Fatal spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by Leclercia adecarboxylata in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Aug;62(8):1296-8. Resumen

28. Dalamaga M, Karmaniolas K, Pantelaki M, et al. Spontaneous peritonitis caused by Leminorella grimontii. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Sep;56(1):83-5. Resumen

29. Colakoglu S, Turunc T, Taskoparan M, et al. Three cases of serious infection caused by Aerococcus urinae: a patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and two patients with bacteremia. Infection. 2008 Jun;36(3):288-90. Resumen

30. Velayos Jiménez B, Fernández Salazar L, Aller Fuente R, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Gemella morbillorum in a patient under chronic treatment with norfloxacin [in Spanish]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;31(3):129. Resumen

31. Flores-Franco RA, Lachica-Rodriguez GN, Banuelos-Moreno L, et al. Spontaneous peritonitis attributed to actinomyces species. Ann Hepatol. 2007 Oct-Dec;6(4):276-8. Resumen

32. Gautam M, Chopra KB, Douglas DD, et al. Streptococcus salivarius bacteremia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver transplantation candidates. Liver Transpl. 2007 Nov;13(11):1582-8.Texto completo  Resumen

33. Wi YM, Sohn KM, Rhee JY, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Ochrobactrum anthropi: a case report. J Korean Med Sci. 2007 Apr;22(2):377-9.Texto completo  Resumen

34. Farmer AD, Bruckner Holt CE, Le Roux G, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. J Infect. 2007 May;54(5):516. Resumen

35. Singh DK, Tyagi I, Saran RK, et al. Fatal spontaneous Cryptococcal peritonitis in a woman with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Acta Cytol. 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):1087-9. Resumen

36. Bal CK, Bhatia V, Khillan V, et al. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis with fungemia in patients with decompensated cirrhosis: Report of two cases. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug;18(8):536-9.Texto completo  Resumen

37. Alavi K, Atla PR, Haq T, et al. Coccidioidomycosis masquerading as eosinophilic ascites. Case Rep Gastrointest Med. 2015;2015:891910.Texto completo  Resumen

38. Hwang SY, Yu SJ, Lee JH, et al. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: a severe complication in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;33(2):259-64. Resumen

39. Ferreira AO, Martins LN, Marinho RT, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by Brucella in a cirrhotic patient. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;2013:bcr2013008629.Texto completo  Resumen

40. Sim JS, Kim HS, Oh KJ, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with sepsis caused by Enterococcus hirae. J Korean Med Sci. 2012 Dec;27(12):1598-600.Texto completo  Resumen

41. Narciso-Schiavon JL, Borgonovo A, Marques PC, et al. Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum as causative agents of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Ann Hepatol. 2015 Mar-Apr;14(2):270-2Texto completo  Resumen

42. Dlamini NR, Bhamjee A, Levick P, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012 Jul 23;6(7):588-91.Texto completo  Resumen

43. Patel S, Gandhi D, Mehta V, et al. Plesiomonas shigelloides : an extremely rare cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2016 Mar;79(1):52-3. Resumen

44. Chinnock B, Fox C, Hendey GW. Gram's stain of peritoneal fluid is rarely helpful in the evaluation of the ascites patient. Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Jul;54(1):78-82. Resumen

45. Bert F, Valla D, Moreau R, et al. Viridans group streptococci causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Transpl. 2008 May;14(5):710-1.Texto completo  Resumen

46. Ricart E, Soriano G, Novella MT, et al. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefotaxime in the therapy of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients. J Hepatol. 2000 Apr;32(4):596-602. Resumen

47. Strauss E, Caly WR. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a therapeutic update. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006 Apr;4(2):249-60. Resumen

48. Fernandez J, Navasa M, Gomez J, et al. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: epidemiological changes with invasive procedures and norfloxacin prophylaxis. Hepatology. 2002 Jan;35(1):140-8. Resumen

49. Navasa M, Rimola A, Rodés J. Bacterial infections in liver disease. Semin Liver Dis. 1997;17(4):323-33. Resumen

50. Simberkoff MS, Moldover NH, Weiss G. Bactericidal and opsonic activity of cirrhotic ascites and nonascitic peritoneal fluid. J Lab Clin Med. 1978 May;91(5):831-9. Resumen

51. Terg R, Fassio E, Guevara M, et al. Ciprofloxacin in primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Hepatol. 2008 May;48(5):774-9. Resumen

52. Bruns T, Lutz P, Stallmach A, et al. Low ascitic fluid protein does not indicate an increased risk for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in current cohorts. J Hepatol. 2015 Aug;63(2):527-8.Texto completo  Resumen

53. Mo S, Bendtsen F, Wiese SS, et al. Low ascitic fluid total protein levels is not associated to the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a cohort of 274 patients with cirrhosis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2018 Feb;53(2):200-5.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Yildirim B, Sezgin N, Sari R, et al. Complement and immunoglobulin levels in serum and ascitic fluid of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, malignant ascites, and tuberculous peritonitis. South Med J. 2002 Oct;95(10):1158-62. Resumen

55. Saab S, Hernandez JC, Chi AC, et al. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis reduces spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurrence and improves short-term survival in cirrhosis: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Apr;104(4):993-1001. Resumen

56. Loomba R, Wesley R, Bain A, et al. Role of fluoroquinolones in the primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Apr;7(4):487-93. Resumen

57. Cohen MJ, Sahar T, Benenson S, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites, without gastro-intestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD004791.Texto completo  Resumen

58. Segarra-Newnham M, Henneman A. Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients without gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Dec;44(12):1946-54. Resumen

59. Biggins SW, Angeli P, Garcia-Tsao G, et al. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome: 2021 practice guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2021 Aug;74(2):1014-48.Texto completo  Resumen

60. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. March 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

61. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side effects. March 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

62. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

63. Komolafe O, Roberts D, Freeman SC, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in people with liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jan 16;1:CD013125.Texto completo  Resumen

64. Goel A, Rahim U, Nguyen LH, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: rifaximin for the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Dec;46(11-12):1029-36.Texto completo  Resumen

65. Sidhu GS, Go A, Attar BM, et al. Rifaximin versus norfloxacin for prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review. BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2017;4(1):e000154.Texto completo  Resumen

66. Facciorusso A, Papagiouvanni I, Cela M, et al. Comparative efficacy of long-term antibiotic treatments in the primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2019 Aug;39(8):1448-58.Texto completo  Resumen

67. Wang W, Yang J, Liu C, et al. Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and rifaximin for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a network meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Aug;31(8):905-10.Texto completo  Resumen

68. Senzolo M, Cholongitas E, Burra P, et al. Beta-blockers protect against spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis. Liver Int. 2009 Sep;29(8):1189-93. Resumen

69. Villanueva C, Albillos A, Genescà J, et al. β blockers to prevent decompensation of cirrhosis in patients with clinically significant portal hypertension (PREDESCI): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2019 Apr 20;393(10181):1597-608.Texto completo  Resumen

70. Mandorfer M, Bota S, Schwabl P, et al. Nonselective beta blockers increase risk for hepatorenal syndrome and death in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jun;146(7):1680-90.e1.Texto completo  Resumen

71. Trikudanathan G, Israel J, Cappa J, et al. Association between proton-pump inhibitors and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Pract. 2011 Jun;65(6):674-8. Resumen

72. Campbell MS, Obstein K, Reddy KR, et al. Association between proton pump inhibitor use and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Feb;53(2):394-8. Resumen

73. Terg R, Casciato P, Garbe C, et al; Study Group of Cirrhosis Complications of the Argentine Association for the Study of Liver Disease. Proton pump inhibitor therapy does not increase the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: a multicenter prospective study. J Hepatol. 2015 May;62(5):1056-60. Resumen

74. Makharia GK, Sharma BC, Bhasin DK, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a patient with gastric carcinoma. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998 Oct;27(3):269-70. Resumen

75. Chinnock B, Afarian H, Minnigan H, et al. Physician clinical impression does not rule out spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients undergoing emergency department paracentesis. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Sep;52(3):268-73. Resumen

76. Chinnock B, Hendey GW, Minnigan H, et al. Clinical impression and ascites appearance do not rule out bacterial peritonitis. J Emerg Med. 2013 May;44(5):903-9. Resumen

77. McGibbon A, Chen GI, Peltekian KM, et al. An evidence-based manual for abdominal paracentesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Dec;52(12):3307-15. Resumen

78. Nazeer SF, Dewbre H, Miller AH. Ultrasound-assisted paracentesis performed by emergency physicians versus the traditional technique: a prospective, randomized study. Am J Emerg Med. 2005 May;23(3):363-7. Resumen

79. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2018 Aug;69(2):406-60.Texto completo  Resumen

80. Moore KP, Aithal GP. Guidelines on the management of ascites in cirrhosis. Gut. 2006 Oct;55 Suppl 6:vi1-12.Texto completo  Resumen

81. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2010;53(3):397-417.Texto completo  Resumen

82. Kuiper JJ, van Buuren HR, de Man RA. Ascites in cirrhosis: a review of management and complications. Neth J Med. 2007;65(8):283-8.Texto completo  Resumen

83. Rimola A, Garcia-Tsao G, Navasa M, et al. Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a consensus document. International Ascites Club. J Hepatol. 2000;32(1):142-53. Resumen

84. Bernardi M, Carceni P, Navickis RJ, et al. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Hepatology. 2012 Apr;55(4):1172-81.Texto completo  Resumen

85. Rosenblatt R, Tafesh Z, Shen N, et al. Early Paracentesis in high-risk hospitalized patients: time for a new quality indicator. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Dec;114(12):1863-9.Texto completo  Resumen

86. Angeloni S, Nicolini G, Merli M, et al. Validation of automated blood cell counter for the determination of polymorphonuclear cell count in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Aug;98(8):1844-8. Resumen

87. Riggio O, Angeloni S, Parente A, et al. Accuracy of the automated cell counters for management of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Oct 7;14(37):5689-94.Texto completo  Resumen

88. Cereto F, Genesca J, Segura R. Validation of automated blood cell counters for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jul;99(7):1400. Resumen

89. Runyon BA, Canawati HN, Akriviadis EA. Optimization of ascitic fluid culture technique. Gastroenterology. 1988 Nov;95(5):1351-5.Texto completo  Resumen

90. Chinnock B, Hendey GW. Can clear ascitic fluid appearance rule out spontaneous bacterial peritonitis? Am J Emerg Med. 2007 Oct;25(8):934-7. Resumen

91. Wong CL, Holroyd-Leduc J, Thorpe KE, et al. Does this patient have bacterial peritonitis or portal hypertension? How do I perform a paracentesis and analyze the results? 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1166-78. Resumen

92. Thévenot T, Briot C, Macé V, et al; CFEHTP, ANGH and the PerDRISLA Study Group. The Periscreen strip is highly efficient for the exclusion of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic outpatients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct;111(10):1402-9. Resumen

93. Chinnock B, Woolard RE, Hendey GW, et al. Sensitivity of a bedside reagent strip for the detection of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in ED patients with ascites. Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Dec;37(12):2155-8.Texto completo  Resumen

94. Koulaouzidis A, Leontiadis GI, Abdullah M, et al. Leukocyte esterase reagent strips for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Nov;20(11):1055-60. Resumen

95. Parsi MA, Saadeh SN, Zein NN, et al. Ascitic fluid lactoferrin for diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 2008 Sep;135(3):803-7. Resumen

96. Yellapu RK, Rajekar H, Martin JD, et al. Pneumatosis intestinalis and mesenteric venous gas - a manifestation of bacterascites in a patient with cirrhosis. J Postgrad Med. 2011 Jan-Mar:57(1);42-3.Texto completo  Resumen

97. Koulaouzidis A, Bhat S, Saeed AA. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar 7;15(9):1042-9.Texto completo  Resumen

98. Lin CH, Shih FY, Ma MH, et al. Should bleeding tendency deter abdominal paracentesis? Dig Liver Dis. 2005 Dec;37(12):946-51. Resumen

99. Runyon BA, Hoefs JC. Ascitic fluid analysis in the differentiation of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from gastrointestinal tract perforation into ascitic fluid. Hepatology. 1984 May-Jun;4(3):447-50. Resumen

100. Zapater P, Frances R, Gonzalez-Navaja JM, et al. Serum and ascitic fluid bacterial DNA: a new independent prognostic factor in non-infected patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2008 Dec:48(6);1924-31.Texto completo  Resumen

101. Rogers GB, Russell LE, Preston PG, et al. Characterisation of bacteria in ascites -reporting the potential of culture-independent, molecular analysis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 May;29(5):533-41. Resumen

102. Appenrodt B, Lehmann LE, Thyssen L, et al. Is detection of bacterial DNA in ascitic fluid of clinical relevance? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Dec;22(12):1487-94. Resumen

103. Yuan LY, Ke ZQ, Wang M, et al. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in the diagnosis and prediction of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis associated with chronic severe hepatitis B. Ann Lab Med. 2013 Nov;33(6):449-54.Texto completo  Resumen

104. Cekin Y, Cekin AH, Duman A, et al. The role of serum procalcitonin levels in predicting ascitic fluid infection in hospitalized cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. Int J Med Sci. 2013 Aug 20;10(10):1367-74.Texto completo  Resumen

105. Su DH, Zhuo C, Liao K, et al. Value of serum procalcitonin levels in predicting spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2013 Jun;60(124):641-6. Resumen

106. Wu SS, Lin OS, Chin YY, et al. Ascitic fluid carcinoembryonic antigen and alkaline phosphatase levels for the differentiation of primary from secondary bacterial peritonitis with intestinal perforation. J Hepatol. 2001 Feb;34(2):215-21. Resumen

107. Runyon BA, Hoefs JC. Spontaneous versus secondary bacterial peritonitis: differentiation by response of ascitic fluid neutrophil count to antimicrobial therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1986 Aug;146(8):1563-5. Resumen

108. Uygur-Bayramicli O, Dabak G, Dabak R. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2003 May;9(5):1098-101.Texto completo  Resumen

109. Riquelme A, Calvo M, Salech F, et al. Value of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in ascitic fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculosis peritonitis: a meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 Sep;40(8):705-10. Resumen

110. Runyon BA. Amylase levels in ascitic fluid. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr;9(2):172-4. Resumen

111. Bracher GA, Manocha AP, DeBanto JR, et al. Endoscopic pancreatic duct stenting to treat pancreatic ascites. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999 Jun;49(6):710-15. Resumen

112. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Intensive Care Med. 2021 Nov;47(11):1181-247.Texto completo  Resumen

113. Felisart J, Rimola A, Arroyo V, et al. Cefotaxime is more effective than is ampicillin-tobramycin in cirrhotics with severe infections. Hepatology. 1985 May-Jun;5(3):457-62. Resumen

114. Rimola A, Salmeron JM, Clemente G. Two different dosages of cefotaxime in the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: results of a prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Hepatology. 1995 Mar;21(3):674-9. Resumen

115. Gomez-Jimenez J, Ribera E, Gasser I, et al. Randomized trial comparing ceftriaxone with cefonicid for treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993;37:1587-92.Texto completo  Resumen

116. Figueiredo FAF, Coelho HSM, Alvariz RG, et al. Randomized trial comparing intravenous ceftriaxone with oral cefixime for treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients: pilot study. Presented at: 5th United European Gastroenterology Week, Paris, 1996.

117. Navasa M, Follo A, Llovet JM, et al. Randomized, comparative study of oral ofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 1996 Oct;111(4):1011-7. Resumen

118. Tuncer I, Topcu N, Durmus A, et al. Oral ciprofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime and ceftriaxone in the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2003;50:1426-30. Resumen

119. Piano S, Fasolato S, Salinas F, et al. The empirical antibiotic treatment of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Hepatology. 2016 Apr;63(4):1299-309. Resumen

120. Jindal A, Kumar M, Bhadoria AS, et al. A randomized open label study of 'imipenem vs. cefepime' in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2016 May;36(5):677-87. Resumen

121. Sheikhbahaei S, Abdollahi A, Hafezi-Nejad N, et al. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in the causative organisms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a single centre, six-year experience of 1981 samples. Int J Hepatol. 2014;2014:917856.Texto completo  Resumen

122. Ariza X, Castellote J, Lora-Tamayo J, et al. Risk factors for resistance to ceftriaxone and its impact on mortality in community, healthcare and nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Hepatol. 2012 Apr;56(4):825-32. Resumen

123. Novovic S, Semb S, Olsen H, et al. First-line treatment with cephalosporins in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis provides poor antibiotic coverage. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012 Feb;47(2):212-6. Resumen

124. Reuken PA, Pletz MW, Baier M, et al. Emergence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to enterococci - risk factors and outcome in a 12-year retrospective study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 May;35(10):1199-208. Resumen

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