Diabetes de tipo 2 en niños

Referencias

Artículos principales

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2021. Diabetes Care. 2021; 44(suppl 1):S1-S232.

Springer SC, Silverstein J, Copeland K, et al; American Academy of Pediatrics. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2013 Feb;131(2):e648-64.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2021. Diabetes Care. 2021; 44(suppl 1):S1-S232.

2. Silverstein JH, Rosenbloom AL. Type 2 diabetes in children. Curr Diab Rep. 2001 Aug;1(1):19-27. Resumen

3. Kazlauskaite R, Evans AT, Mazzone T. Ethnic differences predicting ketonuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2005 Sep-Oct;19(5):284-90. Resumen

4. Kaufman FR, Shaw J. Type 2 diabetes in youth: rates, antecedents, treatment, problems and prevention. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007 Dec;8(suppl 9):4-6. Resumen

5. Diabetes Australia Guideline Development Consortium. National evidence based guideline for case detection and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Jun 2009 [internet publication].Texto completo

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report 2017: estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States. 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

7. Mayer-Davis EJ, Lawrence JM, Dabelea D, et al. Incidence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002-2012. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 13;376(15):1419-29.Texto completo  Resumen

8. Savage PJ, Bennett PH, Senter RG, et al. High prevalence of diabetes in young Pima Indians. Diabetes. 1979 Oct;28(10):937-42. Resumen

9. Lascar N, Brown J, Pattison H, et al. Type 2 diabetes in adolescents and young adults. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Aug 25;6(1):69-80.Texto completo  Resumen

10. Acton KJ, Burrows NR, Moore K, et al. Trends in diabetes prevalence among American Indian and Alaska native children, adolescents, and young adults. Am J Public Health. 2002 Sep;92(9):1485-90.Texto completo  Resumen

11. Gahagan S, Silverstein J. Prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children, with special emphasis on American Indian and Alaska Native children. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Native American Child Health. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):e328.Texto completo  Resumen

12. Matyka KA. Type 2 diabetes in childhood: epidemiological and clinical aspects. Br Med Bull. 2008 Jun;86(1):59-75.Texto completo  Resumen

13. Bhardwaj S, Misra A, Khurana L, et al. Childhood obesity in Asian Indians: a burgeoning cause of insulin resistance, diabetes and sub-clinical inflammation. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(suppl 1):172-5. Resumen

14. Glaser NS, Jones KL. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Mexican-American children. West J Med. 1998 Jan;168(1):11-6.Texto completo  Resumen

15. Neufeld ND, Raffel LF, Landon C, et al. Early presentation of type 2 diabetes in Mexican-American youth. Diabetes Care. 1998 Jan;21(1):80-6. Resumen

16. Pihoker C, Scott CR, Lensing SY. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in African-American youths of Arkansas. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1998 Feb;37(2):97-102. Resumen

17. Upchurch SL, Brosnan CA, Meininger JC, et al. Characteristics of 98 children and adolescents diagnosed with type 2 diabetes by their health care provider at initial presentation. Diabetes Care. 2003 Jul;26(7):2209.Texto completo  Resumen

18. Fazeli Farsani S, van der Aa MP, van der Vorst MM, et al. Global trends in the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents: a systematic review and evaluation of methodological approaches. Diabetologia. 2013 Jul;56(7):1471-88. Resumen

19. Khanolkar AR, Amin R, Taylor-Robinson D, et al. Ethnic minorities are at greater risk for childhood-onset type 2 diabetes and poorer glycemic control in England and Wales. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Sep;59(3):354-61. Resumen

20. Oester IM, Kloppenborg JT, Olsen BS, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Danish children and adolescents in 2014. Pediatr Diabetes. 2016 Aug;17(5):368-73. Resumen

21. Neu A, Feldhahn L, Ehehalt S, et al. No change in type 2 diabetes prevalence in children and adolescents over 10 years: update of a population-based survey in South Germany. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018 Jun;19(4):637-9. Resumen

22. Fagot-Campagna A, Pettitt DJ, Engelgau MM, et al. Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolescents: an epidemiological review and a public health perspective. J Pediatr. 2000 May;136(5):664-72. Resumen

23. Moussa MA, Alsaeid M, Abdella N, et al. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Kuwaiti children and adolescents. Med Princ Pract. 2008;17(4):270-5.Texto completo  Resumen

24. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. High body mass index for age among US children and adolescents, 2003-2006. JAMA. 2008 May 28;299(20):2401-5.Texto completo  Resumen

25. Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. The global spread of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2005 May;146(5):693-700. Resumen

26. Strauss RS, Pollack HA. Epidemic increase in childhood overweight, 1986-1998. JAMA. 2001 Dec 12;286(22):2845-8.Texto completo  Resumen

27. Haines L, Wan KC, Lynn R, et al. Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in children in the U.K. Diabetes Care. 2007 May;30(5):1097-101.Texto completo  Resumen

28. Miller J, Rosenbloom A, Silverstein J. Childhood obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;89(9):4211-8.Texto completo  Resumen

29. Nolan CJ, Damm P, Prentki M. Type 2 diabetes across generations: from pathophysiology to prevention and management. Lancet. 2011 Jul 9;378(9786):169-81. Resumen

30. Ornoy A. Prenatal origin of obesity and its complication: gestational diabetes, maternal overweight and the paradoxical effects of fetal growth restriction and macrosomia. Reprod Toxicol. 2011 Sep;32(2):205-12. Resumen

31. Drash AM. Relationship between diabetes mellitus and obesity in the child. Metabolism. 1973 Feb;22(2):337-44. Resumen

32. Caprio S, Tamborlane WV. Metabolic impact of obesity in childhood. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999 Dec;28(4):731-47. Resumen

33. Rosenbloom AL, Wheeler L, Bianchi R, et al. Age-adjusted analysis of insulin responses during normal and abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests in children and adolescents. Diabetes. 1975 Sep;24(9):820-8. Resumen

34. Hsueh WA, Quiñones MJ. Role of endothelial dysfunction in insulin resistance. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Aug 18;92(4A):10-17J. Resumen

35. Foster GD, Linder B, Baranowski T, et al; HEALTHY Study Group. A school-based intervention for diabetes risk reduction. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 29;363(5):443-53.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Dabelea D, Hanson RL, Lindsay RS, et al. Intrauterine exposure to diabetes conveys risks for type 2 diabetes and obesity: a study of discordant sibships. Diabetes. 2000 Dec;49(12):2208-11.Texto completo  Resumen

37. Ibáñez L, Suárez L, Lopez-Bermejo A, et al. Early development of visceral fat excess after spontaneous catch-up growth in children with low birth weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Mar;93(3):925-8. Resumen

38. Ibáñez L, Ong K, Dunger DB, et al. Early development of adiposity and insulin resistance after catch-up weight gain in small-for-gestational-age children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;91(6):2153-8. Resumen

39. Mericq V, Ong KK, Bazaes R, et al. Longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity and secretion from birth to age three years in small- and appropriate-for-gestational-age children. Diabetologia. 2005 Dec;48(12):2609-14. Resumen

40. Mayer-Davis EJ, Dabelea D, Lamichhane AP, et al. Breast-feeding and type 2 diabetes in the youth of three ethnic groups: the SEARCH for diabetes in youth case-control study. Diabetes Care. 2008 Mar;31(3):470-5.Texto completo  Resumen

41. Koletzko B. Long-term consequences of early feeding on later obesity risk. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2006;58:1-18. Resumen

42. Hanis CL, Boerwinkle E, Chakraborty R. A genome-wide search for human non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes genes reveals a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 2. Nat Genet. 1996 Jun;13(2):161-6. Resumen

43. Cox NJ, Frigge M, Nicolae DL, et al. Loci on chromosomes 2 (NIDDM1) and 15 interact to increase susceptibility to diabetes in Mexican Americans. Nat Genet. 1999 Feb;21(2):213-5. Resumen

44. Lee S, Bacha F, Gungor N, et al. Comparison of different definitions of pediatric metabolic syndrome: relation to abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, adiponectin, and inflammatory biomarkers. J Pediatr. 2008 Feb;152(2):177-84. Resumen

45. Hamdy O, Porramatikul S, Al-Ozairi E. Metabolic obesity: the paradox between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2006 Nov;2(4):367-73. Resumen

46. Straczkowski M, Kowalska I. The role of skeletal muscle sphingolipids in the development of insulin resistance. Rev Diabet Stud. 2008 Spring;5(1):13-24.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Vozarova B, Stefan N, Lindsay RS, et al. High alanine aminotransferase is associated with decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2002 Jun;51(6):1889-95.Texto completo  Resumen

48. Arslanian SA, Saad R, Lewy V, et al. Hyperinsulinemia in African-American children: decreased insulin clearance and increased insulin secretion and its relationship to insulin sensitivity. Diabetes. 2002 Oct;51(10):3014-9.Texto completo  Resumen

49. Ogata BN, Hayes D. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Aug;114(8):1257-76.Texto completo  Resumen

50. Mead E, Brown T, Rees K, et al. Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the age of 6 to 11 years. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jun 22;(6):CD012651.Texto completo  Resumen

51. Handelsman Y, Bloomgarden ZT, Grunberger G, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology: clinical practice guidelines for developing a diabetes mellitus comprehensive care plan - 2015. Endocr Pract. 2015 Apr;21(suppl 1):1-87.Texto completo  Resumen

52. Kleber M, deSousa G, Papcke S, et al. Impaired glucose tolerance in obese white children and adolescents: three to five year follow-up in untreated patients. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2011 Mar;119(3):172-6. Resumen

53. Weiss R, Taksali SE, Tamborlane WV, et al. Predictors of changes in glucose tolerance status in obese youth. Diabetes Care. 2005 Apr;28(4):902-9.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Azzopardi P, Brown AD, Zimmet P, et al. Type 2 diabetes in young Indigenous Australians in rural and remote areas: diagnosis, screening, management and prevention. Med J Aust. 2012 Jul 2;197(1):32-6. Resumen

55. Hadtstein C, Wühl E, Soergel M, et al; German Study Group for Pediatric Hypertension. Normative values for circadian and ultradian cardiovascular rhythms in childhood. Hypertension. 2004 Mar;43(3):547-54.Texto completo  Resumen

56. Brickman WJ, Huang J, Silverman BL, et al. Acanthosis nigricans identifies youth at high risk for metabolic abnormalities. J Pediatr. 2010 Jan;156(1):87-92. Resumen

57. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetes (type 1 and type 2) in children and young people: diagnosis and management. December 2021 [internet publication].

58. Zeitler P, Arslanian S, Fu J, et al. ISPAD clinical practice consensus guidelines 2018: type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018 Oct;19 (Suppl 27):28-46.Texto completo  Resumen

59. Viner R, White B, Christie D. Type 2 diabetes in adolescents: a severe phenotype posing major clinical challenges and public health burden. Lancet. 2017 Jun 3;389(10085):2252-60. Resumen

60. Cosentino F, Grant PJ, Aboyans V, et al. 2019 ESC guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the Task Force for diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 7;41(2):255-323.Texto completo  Resumen

61. Copeland KC, Silverstein J, Moore KR, et al. Management of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2013 Feb;131(2):364-82.Texto completo  Resumen

62. Simmons D, Voyle J, Rush E, et al. The New Zealand experience in peer support interventions among people with diabetes. Fam Pract. 2010 Jun;27(suppl 1):i53-61.Texto completo  Resumen

63. Dela F, von Linstow ME, Mikines KJ, et al. Physical training may enhance beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Nov;287(5):E1024-31.Texto completo  Resumen

64. Marwick TH, Hordern MD, Miller T, et al. Exercise training for type 2 diabetes mellitus: impact on cardiovascular risk: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009 Jun 30;119(25):3244-62.Texto completo  Resumen

65. McCall A, Raj R. Exercise for prevention of obesity and diabetes in children and adolescents. Clin Sports Med. 2009 Jul;28(3):393-421. Resumen

66. Christie D, Strange V, Allen E, et al. Maximising engagement, motivation and long term change in a structured intensive education programme in diabetes for children, young people and their families: Child and Adolescent Structured Competencies Approach to Diabetes Education (CASCADE). BMC Pediatr. 2009 Sep 15;9:57.Texto completo  Resumen

67. Misra A, Nigam P, Hills AP, et al. Consensus physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012 Jan;14(1):83-98. Resumen

68. Johnson ST, Newton AS, Chopra M, et al. In search of quality evidence for lifestyle management and glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. BMC Pediatr. 2010 Dec 23;10:97.Texto completo  Resumen

69. TODAY Study Group; Zeitler P, Hirst K, Pyle L, et al. A clinical trial to maintain glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jun 12;366(24):2247-56.Texto completo  Resumen

70. Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, et al. Medical management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy. A consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jan;32(1):193-203.Texto completo  Resumen

71. Akhlaghi F, Matson KL, Mohammadpour AH, et al. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antihyperglycemic medications in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2017 Jun;56(6):561-71.Texto completo  Resumen

72. International Diabetes Federation. Guideline for management of postmeal glucose in diabetes. 2011 [internet publication].Texto completo

73. Robertson C. Physiologic insulin replacement in type 2 diabetes: optimizing postprandial glucose control. Diabetes Educ. 2006 May-Jun;32(3):423-32. Resumen

74. TODAY Study Group. Safety and tolerability of the treatment of youth-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY experience. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jun;36(6):1765-71.Texto completo  Resumen

75. European Medicines Agency. Questions and answers on the suspension of rosiglitazone-containing medicines (Avandia, Avandamet and Avaglim). Sep 2010 [internet publication].Texto completo

76. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for the treatment of diabetes. Jul 2008 [internet publication].Texto completo

77. Adeyemi A, Rascati K, Strassels S. The need for oral antidiabetic treatment adherence studies in the pediatric population. Clin Ther. 2010 Jul;32(7):1306-7. Resumen

78. Kawahara R, Amemiya T, Yoshino M, et al. Dropout of young non-insulin-dependent diabetics from diabetic care. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994 Jul;24(3):181-5. Resumen

79. Rosenbloom AL. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state: an emerging pediatric problem. J Pediatr. 2010 Feb;156(2):180-4. Resumen

80. TODAY Study Group. Rapid rise in hypertension and nephropathy in youth with type 2 diabetes: the TODAY clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jun;36(6):1735-41.Texto completo  Resumen

81. Adler AI. Treating high blood pressure in diabetes: the evidence. Semin Vasc Med. 2002 May;2(2):127-37. Resumen

82. TODAY Study Group. Lipid and inflammatory cardiovascular risk worsens over 3 years in youth with type 2 diabetes: the TODAY clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jun;36(6):1758-64.Texto completo  Resumen

83. Haffner SM, Alexander CM, Cook TJ, et al. Reduced coronary events in simvastatin-treated patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose levels: subgroup analyses in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Dec 13-27;159(22):2661-7.Texto completo  Resumen

84. Svensson M, Sundkvist G, Arnqvist HJ, et al. Signs of nephropathy may occur early in young adults with diabetes despite modern diabetes management: results from the nationwide population-based Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS). Diabetes Care. 2003 Oct;26(10):2903-9.Texto completo  Resumen

85. Maahs DM, Snively BM, Bell RA, et al. Higher prevalence of elevated albumin excretion in youth with type 2 than type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Diabetes Care. 2007 Oct;30(10):2593-8.Texto completo  Resumen

86. International Diabetes Federation. IDF guideline on oral health for people with diabetes. 2009 [internet publication].Texto completo

87. Shaw JE, Punjabi NM, Wilding JP, et al. Sleep-disordered breathing and type 2 diabetes: a report from the International Diabetes Federation Taskforce on Epidemiology and Prevention. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Jul;81(1):2-12. Resumen

88. International Diabetes Federation. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes. 2009 [internet publication].Texto completo

89. Betts P, Brink SJ, Swift PG, et al. Management of children with diabetes requiring surgery. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007 Aug;8(4):242-7. Resumen

90. Springer SC, Silverstein J, Copeland K, et al; American Academy of Pediatrics. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2013 Feb;131(2):e648-64.Texto completo  Resumen

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