Faringitis aguda

Referencias

Artículos principales

Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15;55(10):e86-102.Texto completo  Resumen

Public Health England. UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations B 9: investigation of throat related specimens. Apr 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

Spinks A, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Nov 5;(11):CD000023.Texto completo  Resumen

van Driel ML, De Sutter AI, Thorning S, et al. Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 17;3:CD004406.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15;55(10):e86-102.Texto completo  Resumen

2. Penn RL. Francisella tularensis. In: Mandell, GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2005:2674-85.

3. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 30;382(18):1708-1720.Texto completo  Resumen

4. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020 Mar 17;323(11):1061-1069.Texto completo  Resumen

5. Zhang L, Peres TG, Silva MVF, et al. What we know so far about Coronavirus Disease 2019 in children: A meta-analysis of 551 laboratory-confirmed cases. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020 Aug;55(8):2115-2127.Texto completo  Resumen

6. Patel NA. Pediatric COVID-19: Systematic review of the literature. Am J Otolaryngol. 2020 Sep - Oct;41(5):102573.Texto completo  Resumen

7. Dunmire SK, Hogquist KA, Balfour HH. Infectious mononucleosis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2015;390(pt 1):211-40.Texto completo  Resumen

8. Orenstein WA, Perry RT, Halsey NA. The clinical significance of measles: a review. J Infect Dis. 2004 May 1;189(suppl 1):S4-16.Texto completo  Resumen

9. Flores AR & Caserta MT. Pharyngitis. In: Bennett J, Dolin R, Blaser M, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier;2019:824-31.

10. Riordan T. Human infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum (Necrobacillosis), with a focus on Lemierre's syndrome. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007 Oct;20(4):622-59.Texto completo  Resumen

11. Kuppalli K, Livorsi D, Talati NJ, et al. Lemierre's syndrome due to Fusobacterium necrophorum. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;12(10):808-15.Texto completo  Resumen

12. Tanz RR, Shulman ST. Chronic pharyngeal carriage of group A streptococci. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Feb;26(2):175-6.Texto completo  Resumen

13. UK Health Security Agency. Group A streptococcal infections: activity during the 2022 to 2023 season. 2023 [internet publication].Texto completo

14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Alert Network: Increase in pediatric invasive group A streptococcal infections. Dec 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

15. Frost HM, Fritsche TR, Hall MC. Beta-hemolytic nongroup A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. J Pediatr. 2018 Dec 6;206:268-73;e1. Resumen

16. Thai TN, Dale AP, Ebell MH. Signs and symptoms of Group A versus Non-Group A strep throat: A meta-analysis. Fam Pract. 2018 May 23;35(3):231-238.Texto completo  Resumen

17. Malmberg S, Petrén S, Gunnarsson R, et al. Acute sore throat and <i>Fusobacterium necrophorum</i> in primary healthcare: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2021 Jun 4;11(6):e042816.Texto completo  Resumen

18. Sayad E, Zeid CA, Hajjar RE, et al. The burden of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum pharyngitis: a systematic review and management algorithm. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2021 Jul;146:110759.Texto completo  Resumen

19. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet on tularaemia. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pharyngitis (strep throat). Nov 2018 [internetpublication].Texto completo

21. Bisno AL. Acute pharyngitis. New Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 18;344(3):205-11. Resumen

22. Penn RL. Francisella tularensis (Tularemia). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 8th ed., vol. 2. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2015:2590-602;e3.

23. Glavey SV, Keane N, Power M, et al. Posterior pharyngeal candidiasis in the absence of clinically overt oral involvement: a cross-sectional study. Lung. 2013 Dec;191(6):663-8. Resumen

24. Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Marchione P, et al. Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Nov 22;11:CD004407.Texto completo  Resumen

25. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Jun 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

26. Cooper RJ, Hoffman JR, Bartlett JG, et al. Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for acute pharyngitis in adults: background. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Mar 20;134(6):509-17. Resumen

27. Meland E, Digranes A, Skjaerven R. Assessment of clinical features predicting streptococcal pharyngitis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1993;25(2):177-83. Resumen

28. Cohen JF, Pauchard JY, Hjelm N, et al. Efficacy and safety of rapid tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jun 4;6:CD012431.Texto completo  Resumen

29. Luo R, Sickler J, Vahidnia F, et al. Diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in the United States, 2011-2015. BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 26;19(1):193.Texto completo  Resumen

30. Cohen JF, Bertille N, Cohen R, et al. Rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 4;(7):CD010502.Texto completo  Resumen

31. Lean WL, Arnup S, Danchin M, et al. Rapid diagnostic tests for group A streptococcal pharyngitis: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014 Oct;134(4):771-81. Resumen

32. Barakat AJ, Evans C, Gill M, et al. Rapid strep testing in children with recently treated streptococcal pharyngitis. Pediatr Investig. 2019 Mar 22;3(1):27-30.Texto completo  Resumen

33. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Rapid tests for group A streptococcal infections in people with a sore throat. Nov 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

34. Rao A, Berg B, Quezada T, et al. Diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children in a primary care setting: impact of point-of-care polymerase chain reaction. BMC Pediatr. 2019 Jan 16;19(1):24.Texto completo  Resumen

35. Felsenstein S, Faddoul D, Sposto R, et al. Molecular and clinical diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Nov;52(11):3884-9.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Uhl JR, Adamson SC, Vetter EA, et al. Comparison of LightCycler PCR, rapid antigen immunoassay, and culture for detection of group A streptococci from throat swabs. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Jan;41(1):242-9.Texto completo  Resumen

37. Public Health England. UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations B 9: investigation of throat related specimens. Apr 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

38. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis. Sep 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Appropriate antibiotic use - adult treatment recommendations: pharyngitis. Oct 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

40. Centor RM, Witherspoon JM, Dalton HP, et al. The diagnosis of strep throat in adults in the emergency room. Med Decis Making. 1981;1(3):239-46.Texto completo  Resumen

41. McIsaac WJ, White D, Tannenbaum D, et al. A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat. CMAJ. 1998 Jan 13;158(1):75-83.Texto completo  Resumen

42. Little P, Hobbs FD, Moore M, et al. Clinical score and rapid antigen detection test to guide antibiotic use for sore throats: randomised controlled trial of PRISM (primary care streptococcal management). BMJ. 2013 Oct 10;347:f5806.Texto completo  Resumen

43. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sore throat (acute): antimicrobialprescribing. Jan 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

44. Tanz RR, Ranniger EJ, Rippe JL, et al. Highly sensitive molecular assay for group A streptococci over-identifies carriers and may impact outpatient antimicrobial stewardship. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 Aug;38(8):769-74.Texto completo  Resumen

45. Little P, Hobbs FD, Moore M, et al; PRISM investigators. PRImary care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study: in vitro study, diagnostic cohorts and a pragmatic adaptive randomised controlled trial with nested qualitative study and cost-effectiveness study. Health Technol Assess. 2014 Jan;18(6):vii-xxv;1-101.Texto completo  Resumen

46. Shaikh N, Leonard E, Martin JM. Prevalence of streptococcal pharyngitis and streptococcal carriage in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2010 Sep;126(3):e557-64.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory illness in children and adults. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

48. Hopper SM, McCarthy M, Tancharoen C, et al. Topical lidocaine to improve oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth ulcers: a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Mar;63(3):292-9. Resumen

49. de Mey C, Koelsch S, Richter E, et al. Efficacy and safety of ambroxol lozenges in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sore throat - a pooled analysis. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2016 Jul;66(7):384-92. Resumen

50. de Mey C, Patel J, Lakha DR, et al. Efficacy and safety of an oral ambroxol spray in the treatment of acute uncomplicated sore throat. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2015 Dec;65(12):658-67. Resumen

51. Schachtel BP, Shephard A, Shea T, et al. Flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges for treating sore throat symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Pain Manag. 2016 Nov;6(6):519-29. Resumen

52. Mukherjee PK, Esper F, Buchheit K, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the safety and effectiveness of a novel dual-action oral topical formulation against upper respiratory infections. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Jan 14;17(1):74.Texto completo  Resumen

53. Palm J, Fuchs K, Stammer H, et al. Efficacy and safety of a triple active sore throat lozenge in the treatment of patients with acute pharyngitis: results of a multi-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group trial (DoriPha). Int J Clin Pract. 2018 Dec;72(12):e13272.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Bouroubi A, Donazzolo Y, Donath F, et al. Pain relief of sore throat with a new anti-inflammatory throat lozenge, ibuprofen 25 mg: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international phase III study. Int J Clin Pract. 2017 Sep;71(9):e12961.Texto completo  Resumen

55. Shephard A, Zybeshari S. Virucidal action of sore throat lozenges against respiratory viruses parainfluenza type 3 and cytomegalovirus. Antiviral Res. 2015 Nov;123:158-62. Resumen

56. Cohen JF, Cohen R, Levy C, et al. Selective testing strategies for diagnosing group A streptococcal infection in children with pharyngitis: a systematic review and prospective multicentre external validation study. CMAJ. 2015 Jan 6;187(1):23-32.Texto completo  Resumen

57. de Cassan S, Thompson MJ, Perera R, et al. Corticosteroids as standalone or add-on treatment for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 1;(5):CD008268.Texto completo  Resumen

58. Sadeghirad B, Siemieniuk RAC, Brignardello-Petersen R, et al. Corticosteroids for treatment of sore throat: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2017 Sep 20;358:j3887.Texto completo  Resumen

59. Hayward GN, Hay AD, Moore MV, et al. Effect of oral dexamethasone without immediate antibiotics vs placebo on acute sore throat in adults: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017 Apr 18;317(15):1535-43.Texto completo  Resumen

60. Lepelletier D, Pinaud V, Le Conte P, et al. Is there an association between prior anti-inflammatory drug exposure and occurrence of peritonsillar abscess (PTA)? A national multicenter prospective observational case-control study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Jan;36(1):57-63. Resumen

61. Waljee AK, Rogers MA, Lin P, et al. Short term use of oral corticosteroids and related harms among adults in the United States: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2017 Apr 12;357:j1415.Texto completo  Resumen

62. Wing A, Villa-Roel C, Yeh B, et al. Effectiveness of corticosteroid treatment in acute pharyngitis: a systematic review of the literature. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 May;17(5):476-83. Resumen

63. Fleming-Dutra KE, Hersh AL, Shapiro DJ, et al. Prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions among US ambulatory care visits, 2010-2011. JAMA. 2016 May 3;315(17):1864-73. Resumen

64. de la Poza Abad M, Mas Dalmau G, Moreno Bakedano M, et al; Delayed Antibiotic Prescription (DAP) Group. Prescription strategies in acute uncomplicated respiratory infections: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Jan;176(1):21-9. Resumen

65. Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, et al. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 7;(9):CD004417.Texto completo  Resumen

66. Coxeter P, Del Mar CB, McGregor L, et al. Interventions to facilitate shared decision making to address antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in primary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 12;(11):CD010907.Texto completo  Resumen

67. Islam S, Mannix MK, Breuer RK, et al. Guideline adherence and antibiotic utilization by community pediatricians, private urgent care centers, and a pediatric emergency department. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2020 Jan;59(1):21-30.Texto completo  Resumen

68. Langlois DM, Andreae M. Group A streptococcal infections. Pediatr Rev. 2011 Oct;32(10):423-9; quiz 430.Texto completo  Resumen

69. Mustafa Z, Ghaffari M. Diagnostic methods, clinical guidelines, and antibiotic treatment for group A streptococcal pharyngitis: a narrative review. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020;10:563627.Texto completo  Resumen

70. World Health Organization. Rheumatic heart disease. Nov 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

71. Spinks A, Glasziou PP, Del Mar CB. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Nov 5;(11):CD000023.Texto completo  Resumen

72. Pichichero ME. A review of evidence supporting the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for prescribing cephalosporin antibiotics for penicillin-allergic patients. Pediatrics. 2005 Apr;115(4):1048-57. Resumen

73. van Driel ML, De Sutter AI, Thorning S, et al. Different antibiotic treatments for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 17;3:CD004406.Texto completo  Resumen

74. Green M, Martin JM, Barbadora KA, et al. Reemergence of macrolide resistance in pharyngeal isolates of group A streptococci in southwestern Pennsylvania. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Feb;48(2):473-6.Texto completo  Resumen

75. DeMuri GP, Sterkel AK, Kubica PA, et al. Macrolide and clindamycin resistance in group A streptococci isolated from children with pharyngitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Mar;36(3):342-4.Texto completo  Resumen

76. Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, et al. Short-term late-generation antibiotics versus longer term penicillin for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;(8):CD004872.Texto completo  Resumen

77. Li P, Jiang G, Shen X. Evaluation of 3-day azithromycin or 5-day cefaclor in comparison with 10-day amoxicillin for treatment of tonsillitis in children. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2019 Oct;97(10):939-44. Resumen

78. Skoog Ståhlgren G, Tyrstrup M, Edlund C, et al. Penicillin V four times daily for five days versus three times daily for 10 days in patients with pharyngotonsillitis caused by group A streptococci: randomised controlled, open label, non-inferiority study. BMJ. 2019 Oct 4;367:l5337.Texto completo  Resumen

79. Bartlett A, Williams R, Hilton M. Splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis:a systematic review of published case reports. Injury. 2016 Mar;47(3):531-8. Resumen

80. Rezk E, Nofal YH, Hamzeh A, et al. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 8;(11):CD004402.Texto completo  Resumen

81. De Paor M, O'Brien K, Fahey T, et al. Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 8;(12):CD011487.Texto completo  Resumen

82. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diphtheria. May 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tickborne diseases of the United States. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

84. World Health Organization: Global Alert and Response (GAR). WHO guidelines on tularaemia. 2007 [internet publication].Texto completo

85. St Cyr S, Barbee L, Workowski KA, et al. Update to CDC's treatment guidelines for gonococcal infection, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Dec 18;69(50):1911-6.Texto completo  Resumen

86. Koskenkorva T, Koivunen P, Koskela M, et al. Short-term outcomes of tonsillectomy in adult patients with recurrent pharyngitis: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2013 May 14;185(8):E331-6.Texto completo  Resumen

87. Burton MJ, Glasziou PP, Chong LY, et al. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical treatment for chronic/recurrent acute tonsillitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 19;(11):CD001802.Texto completo  Resumen

88. Morad A, Sathe NA, Francis DO, et al. Tonsillectomy versus watchful waiting for recurrent throat infection: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2017 Feb;139(2):e20163490.Texto completo  Resumen

89. Mitchell RB, Archer SM, Ishman SL, et al. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillectomy in children (update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 Feb;160(1_suppl):S1-42.Texto completo  Resumen

90. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Erratum: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2014 May 15;58(10):1496.Texto completo

91. Schwartz RH, Kim D, Martin M, et al. A Reappraisal of the minimum duration of antibiotic treatment before approval of return to school for children with streptococcal pharyngitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Dec;34(12):1302-4.Texto completo  Resumen

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