Colitis ulcerosa

Referencias

Artículos principales

Rubin DT, Ananthakrishnan AN, Siegel CA, et al. ACG clinical guideline: ulcerative colitis in adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar;114(3):384-413. Resumen

Feuerstein JD, Isaacs KL, Schneider Y, et al. AGA clinical practice guidelines on the management of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2020 Apr;158(5):1450-61.Texto completo  Resumen

Cairns SR, Scholefield JH, Steele RJ, et al; British Society of Gastroenterology, Association of Coloproctology for Great Britain and Ireland. Guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and surveillance in moderate and high risk groups (update from 2002). Gut. 2010 May;59(5):666-89.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Podolsky DK. Inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med. 2002 Aug 8;347(6):417-29. Resumen

2. Hanauer SB. Inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic opportunities. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Jan;12(suppl 1):S3-9. Resumen

3. Collins P, Rhodes J. Ulcerative colitis: diagnosis and management. BMJ. 2006 Aug 12;333(7563):340-3. Resumen

4. Satsangi J, Silverberg MS, Vermeire S, et al. The Montreal classification of inflammatory bowel disease: controversies, consensus, and implications. Gut. 2006 Jun;55(6):749-53. Resumen

5. Roda G, Narula N, Pinotti R, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: proximal disease extension in limited ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Jun;45(12):1481-92. Resumen

6. Silverberg MS, Satsangi J, Ahmad T, et al. Toward an integrated clinical, molecular and serological classification of inflammatory bowel disease: report of a Working Party of the 2005 Montreal World Congress of Gastroenterology. Can J Gastroenterol. 2005 Sep;19 (suppl A):5A-36A. Resumen

7. Ishige T. Growth failure in pediatric onset inflammatory bowel disease: mechanisms, epidemiology, and management. Transl Pediatr. 2019 Jan;8(1):16-22.Texto completo  Resumen

8. Larsen S, Bendtzen K, Nielsen OH. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. Ann Med. 2010 Mar;42(2):97-114. Resumen

9. Ardizzone S, Puttini PS, Cassinotti A, et al. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2008 Jul;40 Suppl 2:S253-9. Resumen

10. Ng SC, Shi HY, Hamidi N, et al. Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: a systematic review of population-based studies. Lancet. 2018 Dec 23;390(10114):2769-78. Resumen

11. Ng SC, Zeng Z, Niewiadomski O, et al; Asia-Pacific Crohn’s and Colitis Epidemiology Study (ACCESS) Group. Early course of inflammatory bowel disease in a population-based inception cohort study from 8 countries in Asia and Australia. Gastroenterology. 2016 Jan;150(1):86-95. Resumen

12. Childers RE, Eluri S, Vazquez C, et al. Family history of inflammatory bowel disease among patients with ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Crohns Colitis. 2014 Nov;8(11):1480-97.Texto completo  Resumen

13. Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment. J Intern Med. 2002 Dec;252(6):475-96.Texto completo  Resumen

14. Moller FT, Andersen V, Wohlfahrt J, et al. Familial risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study 1977-2011. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 Apr;110(4):564-71. Resumen

15. Jostins L, Ripke S, Weersma RK, et al. Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature. 2012 Nov 1;491(7422):119-24.Texto completo  Resumen

16. Liu JZ, van Sommeren S, Huang H, et al. Association analyses identify 38 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and highlight shared genetic risk across populations. Nat Genet. 2015 Sep;47(9):979-86. Resumen

17. Sartor RB. Mechanisms of disease: pathogenesis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jul;3(7):390-407. Resumen

18. Kucharzik T, Maaser C, Lügering A, et al. Recent understanding of IBD pathogenesis: implications for future therapies. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Nov;12(11):1068-83. Resumen

19. Yantiss RK, Odze RD. Diagnostic difficulties in inflammatory bowel disease pathology. Histopathology. 2006 Jan;48(2):116-32. Resumen

20. Nayar M, Rhodes JM. Management of inflammatory bowel disease. Postgrad Med J. 2004 Apr;80(942):206-13.Texto completo  Resumen

21. Takeuchi K, Smale S, Premchand P, et al. Prevalence and mechanism of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced clinical relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Feb;4(2):196-202. Resumen

22. Birrenbach T, Böcker U. Inflammatory bowel disease and smoking: a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic implications. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004 Nov;10(6):848-59. Resumen

23. Rubin DT, Ananthakrishnan AN, Siegel CA, et al. ACG clinical guideline: ulcerative colitis in adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar;114(3):384-413. Resumen

24. Palmela C, Peerani F, Castaneda D, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis: a review of the phenotype and associated specific features. Gut Liver. 2018 Jan 15;12(1):17-29.Texto completo  Resumen

25. Maaser C, Sturm A, Vavricka SR, et al. ECCO-ESGAR guideline for diagnostic assessment in IBD part 1: initial diagnosis, monitoring of known IBD, detection of complications. J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Feb 1;13(2):144-64.Texto completo  Resumen

26. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Faecal calprotectin diagnostic tests for inflammatory diseases of the bowel. Oct 2013 [internet publication].Texto completo

27. Poullis A, Foster R, Northfield TC, et al. Review article: faecal markers in the assessment of activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Apr;16(4):675-81.Texto completo  Resumen

28. Magro F, Langner C, Driessen A, et al; European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation; European Society of Pathology. European consensus on the histopathology of inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2013 Nov;7(10):827-51.Texto completo  Resumen

29. Lamb CA, Kennedy NA, Raine T, et al. British Society of Gastroenterology consensus guidelines on the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut. 2019 Dec;68(suppl 3):s1-106.Texto completo  Resumen

30. Mowat C, Cole A, Windsor A, et al. Guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut. 2011 May;60(5):571-607. Resumen

31. Shergill AK, Lightdale JR, Bruining DH, et al; American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Standards of Practice Committee. The role of endoscopy in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015 May;81(5):1101-21;e13.Texto completo  Resumen

32. Baumgart DC, Sandborn WJ. Inflammatory bowel disease: clinical aspects and established and evolving therapies. Lancet. 2007 May 12;369(9573):1641-57. Resumen

33. Vavricka SR, Rogler G, Gantenbein C, et al. Chronological order of appearance of extraintestinal manifestations relative to the time of IBD diagnosis in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015 Aug;21(8):1794-800.Texto completo  Resumen

34. Vavricka SR, Brun L, Ballabeni P, et al. Frequency and risk factors for extraintestinal manifestations in the Swiss inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jan;106(1):110-9. Resumen

35. Wędrychowicz A, Zając A, Tomasik P. Advances in nutritional therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: review. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan 21;22(3):1045-66.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Kirschner B. Indeterminate colitis/inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBD-U). In: Guandalini S, Dhawan A, Branski D, eds. Textbook of pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology and nutrition. Cham: Springer; 2016:335-40.

37. Soni S, Srirajaskanthan R, Lucas SB, et al. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis masquerading as inflammatory bowel disease in 12 homosexual men. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jul;32(1):59-65.Texto completo  Resumen

38. Feuerstein JD, Isaacs KL, Schneider Y, et al. AGA clinical practice guidelines on the management of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2020 Apr;158(5):1450-61.Texto completo  Resumen

39. Williams JG, Alam MF, Alrubaiy L, et al. Infliximab versus ciclosporin for steroid-resistant acute severe ulcerative colitis (CONSTRUCT): a mixed methods, open-label, pragmatic randomised trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Sep;1(1):15-24.Texto completo  Resumen

40. Sternthal MB, Murphy SJ, George J, et al. Adverse events associated with the use of cyclosporine in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr;103(4):937-43. Resumen

41. Frei P, Biedermann L, Nielsen OH, et al. Use of thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb 21;19(7):1040-8.Texto completo  Resumen

42. Lemaitre M, Kirchgesner J, Rudnichi A, et al. Association between use of thiopurines or tumor necrosis factor antagonists alone or in combination and risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. JAMA. 2017 Nov 7;318(17):1679-86.Texto completo  Resumen

43. Long MD, Kappelman MD, Pipkin CA. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: a review. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Jun;17(6):1423-7.Texto completo  Resumen

44. Hutson JR, Matlow JN, Moretti ME, et al. The fetal safety of thiopurines for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013 Jan;33(1):1-8. Resumen

45. Relling MV, Gardner EE, Sandborn WJ, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for thiopurine methyltransferase genotype and thiopurine dosing. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Mar;89(3):387-91. [Erratum in: Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011 Dec;90(6):894.]Texto completo  Resumen

46. Cummins D, Sekar M, Halil O, et al. Myelosuppression associated with azathioprine-allopurinol interaction after heart and lung transplantation. Transplantation. 1996 Jun 15;61(11):1661-2.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Sparrow MP. Use of allopurinol to optimize thiopurine immunomodulator efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2008 Jul;4(7):505-11.Texto completo  Resumen

48. Wall GC, Muktar H, Effken C, et al. Addition of allopurinol for altering thiopurine metabolism to optimize therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Pharmacotherapy. 2018 Feb;38(2):259-70. Resumen

49. Houwen JPA, Egberts ACG, de Boer A, et al. Influence of allopurinol on thiopurine associated toxicity: a retrospective population-based cohort study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 May;87(5):2333-40.Texto completo  Resumen

50. Vickers AD, Ainsworth C, Mody R, et al. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of biologics in the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. PLoS One. 2016 Oct 24;11(10):e0165435.Texto completo  Resumen

51. Archer R, Tappenden P, Ren S, et al. Infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab for treating moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis after the failure of conventional therapy (including a review of TA140 and TA262): clinical effectiveness systematic review and economic model. Health Technol Assess. 2016 May;20(39):1-326.Texto completo  Resumen

52. Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, Marano C, et al. Subcutaneous golimumab induces clinical response and remission in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jan;146(1):85-95.Texto completo  Resumen

53. Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, Marano C, et al. Subcutaneous golimumab maintains clinical response in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jan;146(1):96-109;e1.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Reinisch W, Sandborn WJ, Rutgeerts P, et al. Long-term infliximab maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: the ACT-1 and -2 extension studies. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012 Feb;18(2):201-11. Resumen

55. Huang X, Lv B, Jin HF, et al. A meta-analysis of the therapeutic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers on ulcerative colitis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;67(8):759-66. Resumen

56. Feagan BG, Rutgeerts P, Sands BE, et al; GEMINI 1 Study Group. Vedolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 22;369(8):699-710.Texto completo  Resumen

57. Engel T, Ungar B, Yung DE, et al. Vedolizumab in IBD-lessons from real-world experience; a systematic review and pooled analysis. J Crohns Colitis. 2018 Jan 24;12(2):245-57.Texto completo  Resumen

58. Bickston SJ, Behm BW, Tsoulis DJ, et al. Vedolizumab for induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Aug 8;(8):CD007571.Texto completo  Resumen

59. Cholapranee A, Hazlewood GS, Kaplan GG, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of biologics for induction and maintenance of mucosal healing in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis controlled trials. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 May;45(10):1291-302.Texto completo  Resumen

60. Colombel JF, Sands BE, Rutgeerts P, et al. The safety of vedolizumab for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Gut. 2017 May;66(5):839-51.Texto completo  Resumen

61. Danese S, Sands BE, O'Brien CD, et al. DOP54 efficacy and safety of ustekinumab through week 16 in patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis randomised to ustekinumab: results from the UNIFI induction trial. J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Mar;13(suppl 1):S061-2.Texto completo

62. Sandborn WJ, Sands BE, Panaccione R, et al. OP37 efficacy and safety of ustekinumab as maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis: week 44 results from UNIFI. J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Mar;13(suppl 1):S025-6.Texto completo

63. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Tofacitinib for moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. November 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

64. Sandborn WJ, Su C, Sands BE, et al; OCTAVE Induction 1, OCTAVE Induction 2, and OCTAVE Sustain Investigators. Tofacitinib as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med. 2017 May 4;376(18):1723-36.Texto completo  Resumen

65. Bonovas S, Lytras T, Nikolopoulos G, et al. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: comparative assessment of tofacitinib and biological therapies for moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Feb;47(4):454-65. Resumen

66. Singh S, Fumery M, Sandborn WJ, et al. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: first- and second-line pharmacotherapy for moderate-severe ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Jan;47(2):162-75. Resumen

67. Food and Drug Administration. FDA requires warnings about increased risk of serious heart-related events, cancer, blood clots, and death for JAK inhibitors that treat certain chronic inflammatory conditions. Sept 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

68. ClinicalTrials.gov. Safety study of tofacitinib versus tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (NCT02092467). August 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

69. European Medicines Agency. Meeting highlights from the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) 7-10 June 2021. June 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

70. European Medicines Agency. Restrictions in use of Xeljanz while EMA reviews risk of blood clots in lungs. 17 May 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

71. Colombel JF, Narula N, Peyrin-Biroulet L. Management strategies to improve outcomes of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology. 2017 Feb;152(2):351-61;e5. Resumen

72. Colombel JF, D'haens G, Lee WJ, et al. Outcomes and strategies to support a treat-to-target approach in inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review. J Crohns Colitis. 2020 Feb 10;14(2):254-66.Texto completo  Resumen

73. Lee SD, Shivashankar R, Quirk D, et al. Therapeutic drug monitoring for current and investigational inflammatory bowel disease treatments. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2021 Mar 1;55(3):195-206.Texto completo  Resumen

74. Feuerstein JD, Nguyen GC, Kupfer SS, et al. American Gastroenterological Association Institute guideline on therapeutic drug monitoring in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2017 Sep;153(3):827-34.Texto completo  Resumen

75. Peyrin-Biroulet L, Germain A, Patel AS, et al. Systematic review: outcomes and post-operative complications following colectomy for ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Oct;44(8):807-16.Texto completo  Resumen

76. Sandborn WJ, Travis S, Moro L, et al. Once-daily budesonide MMX® extended-release tablets induce remission in patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis: results from the CORE I study. Gastroenterology. 2012 Nov;143(5):1218-26;e2.Texto completo  Resumen

77. Sherlock ME, MacDonald JK, Griffiths AM, et al. Oral budesonide for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 26;(10):CD007698.Texto completo  Resumen

78. Bonovas S, Nikolopoulos GK, Lytras T, et al. Comparative safety of systemic and low-bioavailability steroids in inflammatory bowel disease: systematic review and network meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Feb;84(2):239-51.Texto completo  Resumen

79. Bezzio C, Fascì-Spurio F, Viganò C, et al. The problem of adherence to therapy in ulcerative colitis and the potential utility of multi-matrix system (MMX) technology. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Jan;11(1):33-41. Resumen

80. Danese S, Vermeire S, Zhou W, et al. Upadacitinib as induction and maintenance therapy for moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis: results from three phase 3, multicentre, double-blind, randomised trials. Lancet. 2022 Jun 4;399(10341):2113-28. Resumen

81. Feagan BG, Danese S, Loftus EV Jr, et al. Filgotinib as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis (SELECTION): a phase 2b/3 double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2021 Jun 19;397(10292):2372-84. Resumen

82. Abstracts. United European Gastroenterol J. 2020 Dec;8(10):1258-75.Texto completo

83. Razanskaite V, Bettey M, Downey L, et al. Biosimilar infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease: outcomes of a managed switching programme. J Crohns Colitis. 2017 Jun 1;11(6):690-6.Texto completo  Resumen

84. Radin M, Sciascia S, Roccatello D, et al. Infliximab biosimilars in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases: a systematic review. BioDrugs. 2017 Feb;31(1):37-49. Resumen

85. Sandborn WJ. Preliminary data on the use of apheresis in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Jan;12(suppl 1):S15-21. Resumen

86. Habermalz B, Sauerland S. Clinical effectiveness of selective granulocyte, monocyte adsorptive apheresis with the Adacolumn device in ulcerative colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2010 May;55(5):1421-8. Resumen

87. Zhu M, Xu X, Nie F, et al. The efficacy and safety of selective leukocytapheresis in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2011 Aug;26(8):999-1007. Resumen

88. Vecchi M, Vernia P, Riegler G, et al. Therapeutic landscape for ulcerative colitis: where is the Adacolumn(®) system and where should it be? Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2013 Jan;6:1-7.Texto completo  Resumen

89. Lai YM, Yao WY, He Y, et al. Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: the first multicenter study in China. Gut Liver. 2017 Mar 15;11(2):216-25.Texto completo  Resumen

90. Chen XL, Mao JW, Wang YD. Selective granulocyte and monocyte apheresis in inflammatory bowel disease: Its past, present and future. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2020 May 12;11(3):43-56.Texto completo  Resumen

91. Rosenfeld G, Parker CE, MacDonald JK, et al. Etrolizumab for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Dec 2;(12):CD011661.Texto completo  Resumen

92. Sandborn WJ, Vermeire S, Tyrrell H, et al. Etrolizumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: an overview of the phase 3 clinical program. Adv Ther. 2020 Jul;37(7):3417-31.Texto completo  Resumen

93. Huang X, Zeng LR, Chen FS, et al. Trichuris suis ova therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Aug;97(34):e12087.Texto completo  Resumen

94. Gordon M, Sinopoulou V, Grafton-Clarke C, et al. Antibiotics for the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022 May 18;(5):CD013743.Texto completo  Resumen

95. Sandborn WJ, Bosworth B, Zakko S, et al. Budesonide foam induces remission in patients with mild to moderate ulcerative proctitis and ulcerative proctosigmoiditis. Gastroenterology. 2015 Apr;148(4):740-50;e2.Texto completo  Resumen

96. Zeng J, Lv L, Mei ZC. Budesonide foam for mild to moderate distal ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Mar;32(3):558-66. Resumen

97. Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Kaur L, Gordon M, et al. Probiotics for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 4;(3):CD007443.Texto completo  Resumen

98. Do VT, Baird BG, Kockler DR, et al. Probiotics for maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis in adults. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Mar;44(3):565-71. Resumen

99. Ma JC, Zhang XL. Efficacy of probiotic agents in maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis: a meta analysis. World Chin J Digestol. 2008;16(36):4123-7.

100. Kaur L, Gordon M, Baines PA, et al. Probiotics for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 4;(3):CD005573.Texto completo  Resumen

101. Sang LX, Chang B, Zhang WL, et al. Remission induction and maintenance effect of probiotics on ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr 21;16(15):1908-15. Resumen

102. Van Assche G, Manguso F, Zibellini M, et al. Oral prolonged release beclomethasone dipropionate and prednisone in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis: results from a double-blind, randomized, parallel group study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 May;110(5):708-15. Resumen

103. Zhao X, Li N, Ren Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate versus 5-aminosalicylic acid in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 8;11(8):e0160500.Texto completo  Resumen

104. Imdad A, Nicholson MR, Tanner-Smith EE, et al. Fecal transplantation for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 13;(11):CD012774.Texto completo  Resumen

105. Costello SP, Hughes PA, Waters O, et al. Effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on 8-week remission in patients with ulcerative colitis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Jan 15;321(2):156-64.Texto completo  Resumen

106. Bernstein CN, Nugent Z, Targownik LE, et al. Predictors and risks for death in a population-based study of persons with IBD in Manitoba. Gut. 2015 Sep;64(9):1403-11. Resumen

107. Montgomery SM, Ekbom A. Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2002 Jul;18(4):416-20. Resumen

108. Winther KV, Jess T, Langholz E, et al. Survival and cause-specific mortality in ulcerative colitis: follow-up of a population-based cohort in Copenhagen County. Gastroenterology. 2003 Dec;125(6):1576-82. Resumen

109. Negrón ME, Rezaie A, Barkema HW, et al. Ulcerative colitis patients with clostridium difficile are at increased risk of death, colectomy, and postoperative complications: a population-based inception cohort study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 May;111(5):691-704. Resumen

110. Edwards FC, Truelove SC. The course and prognosis of ulcerative colitis. Gut. 1963 Dec;4(4):299-315.Texto completo  Resumen

111. Gan SI, Beck PL. A new look at toxic megacolon: an update and review of incidence, etiology, pathogenesis, and management. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Nov;98(11):2363-71. Resumen

112. Munkholm P. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18(suppl 2):1-5. Resumen

113. Loftus EV Jr. Epidemiology and risk factors for colorectal dysplasia and cancer in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;35(3):517-31. Resumen

114. Jess T, Loftus EV Jr, Harmsen WS, et al. Survival and cause specific mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a long term outcome study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1940-2004. Gut. 2006 Sep;55(9):1248-54.Texto completo  Resumen

115. Velayos FS, Loftus EV Jr, Jess T, et al. Predictive and protective factors associated with colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a case-control study. Gastroenterology. 2006 Jun;130(7):1941-9. Resumen

116. Bonovas S, Fiorino G, Lytras T, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: use of 5-aminosalicylates and risk of colorectal neoplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 May;45(9):1179-92. Resumen

117. Odze RD. Adenomas and adenoma-like DALMs in chronic ulcerative colitis: a clinical, pathological, and molecular review. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Jul;94(7):1746-50. Resumen

118. Broomé U, Chapman RW. Ulcerative colitis: sclerosing cholangitis today, cancer tomorrow? Gut. 1997 Oct;41(4):571-2.Texto completo  Resumen

119. de Vries AB, Janse M, Blokzijl H, et al. Distinctive inflammatory bowel disease phenotype in primary sclerosing cholangitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Feb 14;21(6):1956-71.Texto completo  Resumen

120. Cairns SR, Scholefield JH, Steele RJ, et al; British Society of Gastroenterology, Association of Coloproctology for Great Britain and Ireland. Guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and surveillance in moderate and high risk groups (update from 2002). Gut. 2010 May;59(5):666-89.Texto completo  Resumen

121. Laine L, Kaltenbach T, Barkun A, et al. SCENIC international consensus statement on surveillance and management of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2015 Mar;148(3):639-51;e28.Texto completo  Resumen

122. American Gastroenterological Association. Medical position statement: guidelines on osteoporosis in gastrointestinal diseases. Gastroenterology. 2003 Mar;124(3):791-4.Texto completo  Resumen

123. Bowlus CL, Lim JK, Lindor KD. AGA clinical practice update on surveillance for hepatobiliary cancers in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: expert review. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Nov;17(12):2416-22.Texto completo  Resumen

124. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): use of vaccines and immune globulins in persons with altered immunocompetence. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1993 Apr 9;42(RR-4):1-18.Texto completo  Resumen

125. Rahier JF, Ben-Horin S, Chowers Y, et al. European evidence-based consensus on the prevention, diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2009 Jun;3(2):47-91. Resumen

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