Encefalopatía hepática

Referencias

Artículos principales

Vilstrup H, Amodio P, Bajaj J, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease: 2014 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Hepatology. 2014 Aug;60(2):715-35.Texto completo  Resumen

Sharma BC, Sharma P, Agrawal A, et al. Secondary prophylaxis of hepatic encephalopathy: an open-label randomized controlled trial of lactulose versus placebo. Gastroenterology. 2009 Sep;137(3):885-91.Texto completo  Resumen

Tarantino G, Citro V, Esposito P, et al. Blood ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis: a clue for the presence of portosystemic collateral veins. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar 17;9:21.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Vilstrup H, Amodio P, Bajaj J, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease: 2014 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Hepatology. 2014 Aug;60(2):715-35.Texto completo  Resumen

2. Jepsen P, Ott P, Andersen PK, et al. Clinical course of alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a Danish population-based cohort study. Hepatology. 2010 May;51(5):1675-82.Texto completo  Resumen

3. Sharma BC, Sharma P, Agrawal A, et al. Secondary prophylaxis of hepatic encephalopathy: an open-label randomized controlled trial of lactulose versus placebo. Gastroenterology. 2009 Sep;137(3):885-91.Texto completo  Resumen

4. Tarantino G, Citro V, Esposito P, et al. Blood ammonia levels in liver cirrhosis: a clue for the presence of portosystemic collateral veins. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar 17;9:21.Texto completo  Resumen

5. James JH, Ziparo V, Jeppsson B, et al. Hyperammonaemia, plasma amino acid imbalance, and blood-brain amino acid transport: a unified theory of portal-systemic encephalopathy. Lancet. 1979 Oct 13;2(8146):772-5. Resumen

6. Wijdicks EF. Hepatic Encephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 27;375(17):1660-70. Resumen

7. Raabe W. Ammonium ions abolish excitatory synaptic transmission between cerebellar neurons in primary dissociated tissue culture. J Neurophysiol. 1992 Jul;68(1):93-9. Resumen

8. Schafer DF, Jones EA. Hepatic encephalopathy and the gamma-aminobutyric-acid neurotransmitter system. Lancet. 1982 Jan 2;1(8262):18-20. Resumen

9. Bajaj JS, Heuman DM, Hylemon PB, et al. Altered profile of human gut microbiome is associated with cirrhosis and its complications. J Hepatol. 2014 May;60(5):940-7.Texto completo  Resumen

10. Acharya C, Sahingur SE, Bajaj JS. Microbiota, cirrhosis, and the emerging oral-gut-liver axis. JCI Insight. 2017 Oct 5;2(19).Texto completo  Resumen

11. Horowitz ME, Schafer DF, Molnar P, et al. Increased blood-brain transfer in a rabbit model of acute liver failure. Gastroenterology. 1983 May;84(5 Pt 1):1003-11. Resumen

12. Mas A. Hepatic encephalopathy: from pathophysiology to treatment. Digestion. 2006;73 Suppl 1:86-93. Resumen

13. Häussinger D, Schliess F. Pathogenetic mechanisms of hepatic encephalopathy. Gut. 2008 Aug;57(8):1156-65. Resumen

14. Guevara M, Baccaro ME, Torre A, et al. Hyponatremia is a risk factor of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis: a prospective study with time-dependent analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Jun;104(6):1382-9. Resumen

15. Riggio O, Merlli M, Pedretti G, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Incidence and risk factors. Dig Dis Sci. 1996 Mar;41(3):578-84. Resumen

16. Kalaitzakis E, Björnsson E. Renal function and cognitive impairment in patients with liver cirrhosis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007 Oct;42(10):1238-44. Resumen

17. Kumar S, Modi R, Bhandari BM, et al. A head CT is unnecessary in the initial evaluation of a cirrhotic patient with recurrent hepatic encephalopathy. Ann Hepatol. 2018 Aug 24;17(5):810-4. Resumen

18. Stahl J. Studies of the blood ammonia in liver disease. Its diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic significance. Ann Intern Med. 1963 Jan;58:1-24. Resumen

19. Amodio P, Gatta A. Neurophysiological investigation of hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Dec;20(4):369-79. Resumen

20. Manzo G, De Gennaro A, Cozzolino A, et al. MR imaging findings in alcoholic and nonalcoholic acute Wernicke's encephalopathy: a review. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:503596.Texto completo  Resumen

21. Horst D, Grace ND, Conn HO, et al. Comparison of dietary protein with an oral, branched chain-enriched amino acid supplement in chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy: a randomized controlled trial. Hepatology. 1984 Mar-Apr;4(2):279-87. Resumen

22. Córdoba J, López-Hellín J, Planas M, et al. Normal protein diet for episodic hepatic encephalopathy: results of a randomized study. J Hepatol. 2004 Jul;41(1):38-43. Resumen

23. Gluud LL, Vilstrup H, Morgan MY. Non-absorbable disaccharides versus placebo/no intervention and lactulose versus lactitol for the prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in people with cirrhosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 6;(5):CD003044.Texto completo  Resumen

24. Patidar KR, Bajaj JS. Antibiotics for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis. 2013 Jun;28(2):307-12.Texto completo  Resumen

25. McPherson S, Thompson A; British Society of Gastroenterology. Management of hepatic encephalopathy: beyond the acute episode. December 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

26. Kimer N, Krag A, Møller S, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: the effects of rifaximin in hepatic encephalopathy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Jul;40(2):123-32.Texto completo  Resumen

27. Wang Z, Chu P, Wang W. Combination of rifaximin and lactulose improves clinical efficacy and mortality in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2019 Dec 17;13:1-11.Texto completo  Resumen

28. Leevy CB, Phillips JA. Hospitalizations during the use of rifaximin versus lactulose for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Mar;52(3):737-41. Resumen

29. Goh ET, Stokes CS, Sidhu SS, et al. L-ornithine L-aspartate for prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in people with cirrhosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 15;(5):CD012410.Texto completo  Resumen

30. Butterworth RF, Kircheis G, Hilger N, et al. Efficacy of l-ornithine l-aspartate for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia in cirrhosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2018 Sep;8(3):301-13.Texto completo  Resumen

31. Zhu GQ, Shi KQ, Huang S, et al. Systematic review with network meta-analysis: the comparative effectiveness and safety of interventions in patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Apr;41(7):624-35.Texto completo  Resumen

32. Gluud LL, Dam G, Les I, et al. Branched-chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 18;(5):CD001939.Texto completo  Resumen

33. Bass NM, Mullen KD, Sanyal A, et al. Rifaximin treatment in hepatic encephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 2010 Mar 25;362(12):1071-81.Texto completo  Resumen

34. Kamath PS, Wiesner RH, Malinchoc M, et al. A model to predict survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Hepatology. 2001 Feb;33(2):464-70.Texto completo  Resumen

35. Biggins SW, Kim WR, Terrault NA, et al. Evidence-based incorporation of serum sodium concentration into MELD. Gastroenterology. 2006 May;130(6):1652-60.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Shehata HH, Elfert AA, Abdin AA, et al. Randomized controlled trial of polyethylene glycol versus lactulose for the treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Dec;30(12):1476-81. Resumen

37. Rahimi RS, Singal AG, Cuthbert JA, et al. Lactulose vs polyethylene glycol 3350 – electrolyte solution for treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy: the HELP randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Nov;174(11):1727-33.Texto completo  Resumen

38. Hassanein TI, Tofteng F, Brown RS Jr, et al. Randomized controlled study of extracorporeal albumin dialysis for hepatic encephalopathy in advanced cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2007 Dec;46(6):1853-62.Texto completo  Resumen

39. Heemann U, Treichel U, Loock J, et al. Albumin dialysis in cirrhosis with superimposed acute liver injury: a prospective, controlled study. Hepatology. 2002 Oct;36(4 Pt 1):949-58.Texto completo  Resumen

40. Dalal R, McGee RG, Riordan SM, et al. Probiotics for people with hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 23;(2):CD008716.Texto completo  Resumen

41. Bajaj JS, Kassam Z, Fagan A, et al. Fecal microbiota transplant from a rational stool donor improves hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized clinical trial. Hepatology. 2017 Dec;66(6):1727-38.Texto completo  Resumen

42. Bajaj JS, Salzman NH, Acharya C, et al. Fecal microbial transplant capsules are safe in hepatic encephalopathy: a phase 1, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology. 2019 Nov;70(5):1690-703. Resumen

43. Jalan R, Wright G, Davies NA, et al. L-ornithine phenylacetate (OP): a novel treatment for hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. Med Hypotheses. 2007;69(5):1064-9. Resumen

44. Ventura-Cots M, Arranz JA, Simón-Talero M, et al. Safety of ornithine phenylacetate in cirrhotic decompensated patients: an open-label, dose-escalating, single-cohort study. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013 Nov-Dec;47(10):881-7. Resumen

45. Zacharias HD, Zacharias AP, Gluud LL, et al. Pharmacotherapies that specifically target ammonia for the prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in adults with cirrhosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jun 17;(6):CD012334.Texto completo  Resumen

46. Rockey DC, Vierling JM, Mantry P, et al. Randomized, double-blind, controlled study of glycerol phenylbutyrate in hepatic encephalopathy. Hepatology. 2014 Mar;59(3):1073-83.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Bustamante J, Rimola A, Ventura PJ, et al. Prognostic significance of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 1999 May;30(5):890-5. Resumen

48. Stewart CA, Malinchoc M, Kim WR, et al. Hepatic encephalopathy as a predictor of survival in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Transpl. 2007 Oct;13(10):1366-71.Texto completo  Resumen

49. Bajaj JS, Schubert CM, Heuman DM, et al. Persistence of cognitive impairment after resolution of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jun;138(7):2332-40.Texto completo  Resumen

50. Bajaj JS, Wade JB, Gibson DP, et al. The multi-dimensional burden of cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy on patients and caregivers. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Sep;106(9):1646-53.Texto completo  Resumen

51. Bajaj JS, Hafeezullah M, Zadvornova Y, et al. The effect of fatigue on driving skills in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Apr;104(4):898-905. Resumen

52. Ezaz G, Murphy SL, Mellinger J, et al. Increased morbidity and mortality associated with falls among patients with cirrhosis. Am J Med. 2018 Jun;131(6):645-50. Resumen

53. Tapper EB, Halbert B, Mellinger J. Rates of and reasons for hospital readmissions in patients with cirrhosis: a multistate population-based cohort study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Aug;14(8):1181-8.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Munoz SJ. Hepatic encephalopathy. Med Clin North Am. 2008 Jul;92(4):795-812. Resumen

55. Volk ML, Tocco RS, Bazick J, et al. Hospital readmissions among patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Feb;107(2):247-52.Texto completo  Resumen

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