Paro cardíaco

Referencias

Artículos principales

Panchal AR, Bartos JA, Cabañas JG, et al. Part 3: adult basic and advanced life support: 2020 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2020 Oct 20;142(16_suppl_2):S366-S468.Texto completo  Resumen

Priori SG, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Mazzanti A, et al. 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:2793-867.Texto completo  Resumen

Al-Khatib SM, Stevenson WG, Ackerman MJ, et al. 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Circulation. 2018 Sep 25;138(13):e272-391.Texto completo  Resumen

Nolan JP, Sandroni C, Böttiger BW, et al. European Resuscitation Council and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine guidelines 2021: post-resuscitation care. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:220-269. Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Panchal AR, Bartos JA, Cabañas JG, et al. Part 3: adult basic and advanced life support: 2020 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2020 Oct 20;142(16_suppl_2):S366-S468.Texto completo  Resumen

2. Tsao CW, Aday AW, Almarzooq ZI, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics - 2022 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2022 Feb 22;145(8):e153-e639.Texto completo  Resumen

3. Gräsner JT, Lefering R, Koster RW, et al; EuReCa ONE Collaborators. EuReCa ONE - 27 nations, ONE Europe, ONE registry: a prospective one month analysis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes in 27 countries in Europe. Resuscitation. 2016;105:188-95.Texto completo  Resumen

4. Rea TD, Eisenberg MS, Sinibaldi G, et al. Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States. Resuscitation. 2004;63:17-24. Resumen

5. Nadkarni VM, Larkin GL, Peberdy MA, et al; for the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Investigators. First documented rhythm and clinical outcome from in-hospital cardiac arrest among children and adults. JAMA. 2006;295:50-7.Texto completo  Resumen

6. Zheng ZJ, Croft JB, Giles WH, et al. Sudden cardiac death in the United States, 1989 to 1998. Circulation. 2001;104:2158-63.Texto completo  Resumen

7. Bayes de Luna A, Coumel P, Leclercq JF. Ambulatory sudden cardiac death: mechanisms of production of fatal arrhythmia on the basis of data from 157 cases. Am Heart J. 1989;117:151-9. Resumen

8. Narang R, Cleland JG, Erhardt L,et al. Mode of death in chronic heart failure: a request and proposition for more accurate classification. Eur Heart J. 1996;17:1390-403.Texto completo  Resumen

9. Khan IA. Long QT syndrome: diagnosis and management. Am Heart J. 2002;143:7-14. Resumen

10. Li H, Fuentes-Garcia J, Towbin JA. Current concepts in long QT syndrome. Pediatr Cardiol. 2000;21:542-50. Resumen

11. Calinas-Correia J. Recalling the causes of pulseless electrical activity (PEA). Resuscitation. 2000;43:221-2. Resumen

12. Kloeck WG. A practical approach to the aetiology of pulseless electrical activity; A simple 10-step training mnemonic. Resuscitation. 1995;30:157-9. Resumen

13. Cascio WE, Johnson TA, Gettes LS. Electrophysiologic changes in ischemic ventricular myocardium: I; Influence of ionic, metabolic, and energetic changes. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1995;6:1039-62. Resumen

14. De Bakker JM, Coronel R, Tasseron S, et al. Ventricular tachycardia in the infarcted, Langendorff-perfused human heart: role of the arrangement of surviving cardiac fibers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990;15:1594-607. Resumen

15. Pogwizd SM, McKenzie JP, Cain ME. Mechanisms underlying spontaneous and induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 1998;98:2404-14. Resumen

16. Nader A, Massumi A, Cheng J, et al. Inherited arrhythmic disorders: long QT and Brugada syndromes. Tex Heart Inst J. 2007;34:67-75.Texto completo  Resumen

17. el-Sherif N, Turitto G. The long QT syndrome and torsade de pointes. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1999;22:91-110. Resumen

18. Gupta A, Lawrence AT, Krishnan K, et al. Current concepts in the mechanisms and management of drug-induced QT prolongation and torsarde de points. Am Heart J. 2007;153:891-9. Resumen

19. Myerburg RJ, Halperin H, Egan DA, et al. Pulseless electric activity: definition, causes, mechanisms, management, and research priorities for the next decade: report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop. Circulation. 2013;128:2532-41.Texto completo  Resumen

20. Huikuri HV, Castellanos A, Myerburg RJ. Sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmias. New Engl J Med 2001;345:1473-82. Resumen

21. Stevenson WG, Stevenson LW, Middlekauff HR, et al. Sudden death prevention in patients with advanced ventricular dysfunction. Circulation. 1993;88:2953-61. Resumen

22. Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB, et al. Amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jan 20;352(3):225-37.Texto completo  Resumen

23. Elliott P, McKenna WJ. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Lancet. 2004;363:1881-91. Resumen

24. Maron BJ, Shirani J, Poliac LC, et al. Sudden death in young competitive athletes. Clinical, demographic, and pathological profiles. JAMA. 1996;276:199-204. Resumen

25. Dalal D, Nasir K, Bomma C, et al. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: a United States experience. Circulation. 2005;112:3823-32.Texto completo  Resumen

26. Schwartz PJ, Periti M, Malliani A. The long Q-T syndrome. Am Heart J. 1975;89:378-90. Resumen

27. Sauer AJ, Moss AJ, McNitt S, et al. Long QT syndrome in adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Jan 23;49(3):329-37. Resumen

28. Eroglu TE, Barcella CA, Blom MT, et al. Opioid use is associated with increased out-of-hospital cardiac arrest risk among 40 000-cases across two countries. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2022 May;88(5):2256-2266.Texto completo  Resumen

29. Dezfulian C, Orkin AM, Maron BA, et al. Opioid-associated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: distinctive clinical features and implications for health care and public responses: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021 Apr 20;143(16):e836-e870.Texto completo  Resumen

30. Brugada P, Brugada J. Right bundle branch block, persistent ST segment elevation and sudden cardiac death: a distinct clinical and electrocardiographic syndrome. A multicenter report. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;20:1391-6. Resumen

31. Antzelevitch C, Brugada P, Borggrefe M, et al. Brugada syndrome: report of the second consensus conference: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the European Heart Rhythm Association. Circulation. 2005;111:659-70. Resumen

32. Escobedo LG, Caspersen CJ. Risk factors for sudden coronary death in the United States. Epidemiology. 1997;8:175-80. Resumen

33. Katz A, Grosbard A. Does it all go up in smoke? Cigarette smoking and tachyarrhythmias. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006;17:937-9. Resumen

34. Jauregui-Garrido B, Jauregui-Lobera I. Sudden death in eating disorders. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2012;8:91-8.Texto completo  Resumen

35. Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall WJ, et al. Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med. 2002 Mar 21;346(12):877-83.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Beaser AD, Cifu AS, Nayak HM. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death. JAMA. 2019 Jul 9;322(2):161-62. Resumen

37. Priori SG, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Mazzanti A, et al. 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Eur Heart J. 2015;36:2793-867.Texto completo  Resumen

38. Erath JW, Hohnloser SH. Drugs to prevent sudden cardiac death. Int J Cardiol. 2017 Jun 15;237:22-4. Resumen

39. Claro JC, Candia R, Rada G, et al. Amiodarone versus other pharmacological interventions for prevention of sudden cardiac death. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Dec 8;(12):CD008093.Texto completo  Resumen

40. Dainty KN, Colquitt B, Bhanji F, et al. Understanding the importance of the lay responder experience in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2022 Apr 26;145(17):e852-e867.Texto completo  Resumen

41. Soar J, Böttiger BW, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:115-51. Resumen

42. Huis In 't Veld MA, Allison MG, Bostick DS, et al. Ultrasound use during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with delays in chest compressions. Resuscitation. 2017 Oct;119:95-98. Resumen

43. Clattenburg EJ, Wroe P, Brown S, et al. Point-of-care ultrasound use in patients with cardiac arrest is associated prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation pauses: A prospective cohort study. Resuscitation. 2018 Jan;122:65-68. Resumen

44. Lemkes JS, Janssens GN, van der Hoeven NW, et al. Coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST segment elevation: one-year outcomes of the COACT randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2020 Dec 1;5(12):1358-65.Texto completo  Resumen

45. Kern KB, Hilwig RW, Rhee KH, et al. Myocardial dysfunction after resuscitation from cardiac arrest: an example of global myocardial stunning. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996;28:232-40. Resumen

46. Wever EF, Robles de Medina EO. Sudden death in patients without structural heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1137-44. Resumen

47. Viskin S, Belhassen B. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Am Heart J. 1990;120:661-71. Resumen

48. Salerno DM, Asinger RW, Elsperger J, et al. Frequency of hypokalemia after successfully resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest compared with that in transmural acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1987;59:84-8. Resumen

49. Al-Khatib SM, Stevenson WG, Ackerman MJ, et al. 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Circulation. 2018 Sep 25;138(13):e272-391.Texto completo  Resumen

50. Behr E, Wood DA, Wright M, et al. Cardiological assessment of first-degree relatives in sudden arrhythmic death syndrome. Lancet. 2003; 362:1457-9. Resumen

51. Tan HL, Hofman N, van Langen IM, et al. Sudden unexplained death: heritability and diagnostic yield of cardiological and genetic examination in surviving relatives. Circulation. 2005; 112:207-13. Resumen

52. Desbiens NA. Simplifying the diagnosis and management of pulseless electrical activity in adults: a qualitative review. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:391-6. Resumen

53. Rea TD, Fahrenbruch C, Culley L, et al. CPR with chest compression alone or with rescue breathing. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:423-33. Resumen

54. Svensson L, Bohm K, Castrèn M, et al. Compression-only CPR or standard CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:434-42. Resumen

55. Perkins GD, Ji C, Achana F, et al. Adrenaline to improve survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the PARAMEDIC2 RCT. Health Technol Assess. 2021 Apr;25(25):1-166. Resumen

56. Perkins GD, Ji C, Deakin CD, et al. A randomized trial of epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 23;379(8):711-21.Texto completo  Resumen

57. Holmberg MJ, Issa MS, Moskowitz A, et al. Vasopressors during adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation. 2019 Jun;139:106-21.Texto completo  Resumen

58. Finn J, Jacobs I, Williams TA, et al. Adrenaline and vasopressin for cardiac arrest. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 17;(1):CD003179.Texto completo  Resumen

59. Gallagher EJ, Lombardi G, Gennis P. Effectiveness of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1995;274:1922-5. Resumen

60. Zhan L, Yang LJ, Huang Y, et al. Continuous chest compression versus interrupted chest compression for cardiopulmonary resuscitation of non-asphyxial out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(3):CD010134.Texto completo  Resumen

61. Wenzel V, Idris AH, Dorges V, et al. The respiratory system during resuscitation: a review of the history, risk of infection during assisted ventilation, respiratory mechanics, and ventilation strategies for patients with an unprotected airway. Resuscitation. 2001;49:123-34. Resumen

62. SOS-KANTO study group. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders with chest compression only (SOS-KANTO): an observational study. Lancet. 2007;369:920-6. Resumen

63. The Public Access Defibrillation Trial Investigators. Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:637-46.Texto completo  Resumen

64. Sanna T, La Torre G, de Waure C, et al. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation alone vs. cardiopulmonary resuscitation plus automated external defibrillator use by non-healthcare professionals: a meta-analysis on 1583 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2008;76:226-32. Resumen

65. Bækgaard JS, Viereck S, Møller TP, et al. The effects of public access defibrillation on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review of observational studies. Circulation. 2017 Sep 5;136(10):954-65.Texto completo  Resumen

66. Nolan JP, Maconochie I, Soar J, et al. Executive summary: 2020 International consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation. 2020 Oct 20;142(16_suppl_1):S2-S27.Texto completo  Resumen

67. Tzivoni D, Banai S, Schuger C, et al. Treatment of torsade de pointes with magnesium sulfate. Circulation.1988; 77:392-7. Resumen

68. Reis AG, Ferreira de Paiva E, Schvartsman C, et al. Magnesium in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: critical review. Resuscitation. 2008;77:21-5. Resumen

69. Sherbino J, Verbeek PR, MacDonald RD, et al. Prehospital transcutaneous cardiac pacing for symptomatic bradycardia or bradyasystolic cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation. 2006;70:193-200. Resumen

70. Donnino MW, Andersen LW, Berg KM, et al; ILCOR ALS Task Force. Temperature management after cardiac arrest: an advisory statement by the Advanced Life Support Task Force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation. Circulation. 2015 Dec 22;132(25):2448-56.Texto completo  Resumen

71. Dankiewicz J, Cronberg T, Lilja G, et al. Hypothermia versus normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jun 17;384(24):2283-94.Texto completo  Resumen

72. Nielsen N, Wetterslev J, Cronberg T, et al; TTM Trial Investigators. Targeted temperature management at 33°C versus 36°C after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:2197-206.Texto completo  Resumen

73. Nolan JP, Sandroni C, Böttiger BW, et al. European Resuscitation Council and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine guidelines 2021: post-resuscitation care. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:220-269. Resumen

74. Bosson N, Kaji AH, Niemann JT, et al. Survival and neurologic outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results one year after regionalization of post-cardiac arrest care in a large metropolitan area. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2014 Apr-Jun;18(2):217-23. Resumen

75. Sinning C, Ahrens I, Cariou A, et al. The cardiac arrest centre for the treatment of sudden cardiac arrest due to presumed cardiac cause - aims, function and structure: Position paper of the Association for Acute CardioVascular Care of the European Society of Cardiology (AVCV), European Association of Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (EAPCI), European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), European Resuscitation Council (ERC), European Society for Emergency Medicine (EUSEM) and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2020 Nov;9(4_suppl):S193-S202.Texto completo  Resumen

76. Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) Investigators. A comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from near-fatal ventricular arrhythmias. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1576-84.Texto completo  Resumen

77. Morrison LJ, Verbeek PR, Vermeulen MJ, et al. Derivation and evaluation of a termination of resuscitation clinical prediction rule for advanced life support providers. Resuscitation. 2007 Aug;74(2):266-75. Resumen

78. Morrison LJ, Visentin LM, Kiss A, et al. Validation of a rule for termination of resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 3;355(5):478-87.Texto completo  Resumen

79. Ebell MH, Vellinga A, Masterson S, et al. Meta-analysis of the accuracy of termination of resuscitation rules for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Emerg Med J. 2019 Aug;36(8):479-84.Texto completo  Resumen

80. Bailey ED, Wydro GC, Cone DC. Termination of resuscitation in the prehospital setting for adult patients suffering nontraumatic cardiac arrest. National Association of EMS Physicians Standards and Clinical Practice Committee. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2000;4:190-5. Resumen

81. Calder I, Pearce A, eds. Core topics in airway management. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011.

82. Guerci AD, Weisfeldt ML. Mechanical-ventilatory cardiac support. Crit Care Clin. 1986;2:209-20. Resumen

83. Larsen MP, Eisenberg MS, Cummins RO, et al. Predicting survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a graphic model. Ann Emerg Med. 1993; 22:1652-8. Resumen

84. Wik L, Hansen TB, Fylling F, et al. Delaying defibrillation to give basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003;289:1389-95. Resumen

85. Soar J, Donnino MW, Maconochie I, et al. 2018 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations summary. Circulation. 2018 Dec 4;138(23):e714-30.Texto completo  Resumen

86. Fernando SM, Tran A, Cheng W, et al. Pre-arrest and intra-arrest prognostic factors associated with survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2019 Dec 4;367:l6373.Texto completo  Resumen

87. Booth CM, Boone RH, Tomlinson G, Detsky AS. Is this patient dead, vegetative, or severely neurologically impaired? Assessing outcome for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. JAMA. 2004;291:870-9. Resumen

88. Rea TD, Eisenberg MS, Becker LJ, et al. Temporal trends in sudden cardiac arrest: a 25-year emergency medical services perspective. Circulation. 2003 Jun 10;107(22):2780-5.Texto completo  Resumen

89. van Walraven C, Forster AJ, Parish DC, et al. Validation of a clinical decision aid to discontinue in-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitations. JAMA. 2001;285:1602-6.Texto completo  Resumen

90. Hoke RS, Chamberlain D. Skeletal chest injuries secondary to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2004 Dec;63(3):327-38. Resumen

91. Berek K, Jeschow M, Aichner F. The prognostication of cerebral hypoxia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in adults. Eur Neurol. 1997; 37:135-45. Resumen

92. Richmond TS. Cerebral resuscitation after global brain ischemia: linking research to practice. AACN Clin Issues. 1997;8:171-81. Resumen

93. Cheung KW, Green RS, Magee KD. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia as a neuroprotectant in post cardiac arrest patients. CJEM. 2006;8:329-37. Resumen

94. Strassburg CP. Gastrointestinal disorders of the critically ill. Shock liver. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2003;17:369-81. Resumen

95. Rosser BG, Gores GJ. Liver cell necrosis: cellular mechanisms and clinical implications. Gastroenterology. 1995;108:252-75. Resumen

96. Bonventre JV. Mechanisms of ischemic acute renal failure. Kidney Int. 1993;43:1160-78. Resumen

97. Molitoris BA, Sutton TA. Endothelial injury and dysfunction: Role in the extension phase of acute renal failure. Kidney Int. 2004;66:496-9. Resumen

98. Schaffer WA, Cobb LA. Recurrent ventricular fibrillation and modes of death in survivors of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 1975;293:259-62. Resumen

99. Zipes DP, Wellens HJ. Sudden cardiac death. Circulation. 1998; 98; 2334-51.Texto completo  Resumen

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