Diabetes tipo 2 en adultos

Referencias

Artículos principales

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period. December 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

Cosentino F, Grant PJ, Aboyans V, et al. 2019 ESC guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 7;41(2):255-323.Texto completo  Resumen

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. November 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

Davies MJ, D'Alessio DA, Fradkin J, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018: a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2018 Dec;41(12):2669-701.Texto completo  Resumen

Buse JB, Wexler DJ, Tsapas A, et al. 2019 update to: management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018 – a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia. 2020 Feb;63(2):221-8.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Meigs JB, Muller DC, Nathan DM, et al. The natural history of progression from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Diabetes. 2003 Jun;52(6):1475-84.Texto completo  Resumen

2. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. Lancet. 2016 Apr 6;387(10027):1513-30.Texto completo  Resumen

3. Magliano DJ, Islam RM, Barr ELM, et al. Trends in incidence of total or type 2 diabetes: systematic review. BMJ. 2019 Sep 11;366:l5003.Texto completo  Resumen

4. International Diabetes Federation. IDF diabetes atlas - 9th edition. 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

5. Preis SR, Pencina MJ, Hwang SJ, et al. Trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2009 Jul 6;120(3):212-20.Texto completo  Resumen

6. Gregg EW, Zhuo X, Cheng YJ, et al. Trends in lifetime risk and years of life lost due to diabetes in the USA, 1985-2011: a modelling study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;2(11):867-74. Resumen

7. Kahn SE, Cooper ME, Del Prato S. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future. Lancet. 2014 Mar 22;383(9922):1068-83.Texto completo  Resumen

8. Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome: connecting and reconciling cardiovascular and diabetes worlds. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Mar 21;47(6):1093-100.Texto completo  Resumen

9. Wormser D, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, et al; Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies. Lancet. 2011 Mar 26;377(9771):1085-95.Texto completo  Resumen

10. Mayer-Davis EJ, Lawrence JM, Dabelea D, et al. Incidence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002-2012. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 13;376(15):1419-29.Texto completo  Resumen

11. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 2 diabetes: prevention in people at high risk. September 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

12. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Diabetes in America. 3rd edition. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, NIH Pub No. 17-1468; 2018.Texto completo

13. Hemmingsen B, Gimenez-Perez G, Mauricio D, et al. Diet, physical activity or both for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 4;(12):CD003054.Texto completo  Resumen

14. Coustan DR, Carpenter MW, O'Sullivan PS, et al. Gestational diabetes: predictors of subsequent disordered glucose metabolism. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Apr;168(4):1139-44; discussion 1144-5. Resumen

15. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2022. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan 1;45(Suppl 1):S1-259.Texto completo

16. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period. December 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

17. Sattar N, Gill JM. Type 2 diabetes in migrant south Asians: mechanisms, mitigation, and management. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015 Dec;3(12):1004-16. Resumen

18. Ma RC, Chan JC. Type 2 diabetes in East Asians: similarities and differences with populations in Europe and the United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Apr;1281:64-91.Texto completo  Resumen

19. Hu FB. Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jun;34(6):1249-57.Texto completo  Resumen

20. Shai I, Jiang R, Manson JE, et al. Ethnicity, obesity, and risk of type 2 diabetes in women: a 20-year follow-up study. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jul;29(7):1585-90.Texto completo  Resumen

21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020: estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States. 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

22. Menke A, Casagrande S, Geiss L, Cowie CC. Prevalence of and trends in diabetes among adults in the United States, 1988-2012. JAMA. 2015 Sep 8;314(10):1021-9. Resumen

23. Shan Z, Li Y, Zong G, et al. Rotating night shift work and adherence to unhealthy lifestyle in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes: results from two large US cohorts of female nurses. BMJ. 2018 Nov 21;363:k4641.Texto completo  Resumen

24. Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, et al. Nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes or prediabetes: a consensus report. Diabetes Care. 2019 May;42(5):731-54.Texto completo  Resumen

25. LeBlanc EL, Patnode CD, Webber EM, et al; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). Behavioral and pharmacotherapy weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: an updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. September 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo  Resumen

26. NHS England. NHS diabetes prevention programme (NHS DPP) [internet publication].Texto completo

27. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393-403.Texto completo  Resumen

28. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1997 Apr;20(4):537-44. Resumen

29. Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 3;344(18):1343-50.Texto completo  Resumen

30. Knowler WC, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. 10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet. 2009 Nov 14;374(9702):1677-86. Resumen

31. Balk EM, Earley A, Raman G, et al. Combined diet and physical activity promotion programs to prevent type 2 diabetes among persons at increased risk: a systematic review for the Community Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Sep 15;163(6):437-51.Texto completo  Resumen

32. Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, Bosch J, et al; DREAM (Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication) Trial Investigators. Effect of rosiglitazone on the frequency of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Sep 23;368(9541):1096-105.Texto completo  Resumen

33. Apolzan JW, Venditti EM, Edelstein SL, et al. Long-term weight loss with metformin or lifestyle intervention in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Ann Intern Med. 2019 May 21;170(10):682-90. Resumen

34. Moelands SV, Lucassen PL, Akkermans RP, et al. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 28;(12):CD005061.Texto completo  Resumen

35. Hemmingsen B, Sonne DP, Metzendorf MI, et al. Dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(5):CD012204.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Roberts S, Barry E, Craig D, et al. Preventing type 2 diabetes: systematic review of studies of cost-effectiveness of lifestyle programmes and metformin, with and without screening, for pre-diabetes. BMJ Open. 2017 Nov 15;7(11):e017184.Texto completo  Resumen

37. Haw JS, Galaviz KI, Straus AN, et al. Long-term sustainability of diabetes prevention approaches: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Dec 1;177(12):1808-17. Resumen

38. Herman WH, Pan Q, Edelstein SL, et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Impact of lifestyle and metformin interventions on the risk of progression to diabetes and regression to normal glucose regulation in overweight or obese people with impaired glucose regulation. Diabetes Care. 2017 Dec;40(12):1668-77.Texto completo  Resumen

39. Galaviz KI, Weber MB, Straus A, et al. Global diabetes prevention interventions: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the real-world impact on incidence, weight, and glucose. Diabetes Care. 2018 Jul;41(7):1526-34.Texto completo  Resumen

40. Armato JP, DeFronzo RA, Abdul-Ghani M, et al. Successful treatment of prediabetes in clinical practice using physiological assessment (STOP DIABETES). Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Oct;6(10):781-9. Resumen

41. Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2019 Sep 10;140(11):e596-e646.Texto completo  Resumen

42. Cosentino F, Grant PJ, Aboyans V, et al. 2019 ESC guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jan 7;41(2):255-323.Texto completo  Resumen

43. Rosenzweig JL, Bakris GL, Berglund LF, et al. Primary prevention of ASCVD and T2DM in patients at metabolic risk: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Sep;104(9):3939-85.Texto completo  Resumen

44. World Health Organization. Classification of diabetes mellitus. 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

45. World Health Organization. Screening for type 2 diabetes: report of a World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation meeting. 2003 [internet publication].Texto completo

46. Newton CA, Raskin P. Diabetic ketoacidosis in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and biochemical differences. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Sep 27;164(17):1925-31.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Umpierrez GE, Kitabchi AE. Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors and management strategies. Treat Endocrinol. 2003;2(2):95-108. Resumen

48. Puttanna A, Padinjakara RNK. Diabetic ketoacidosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pract Diab. 2014;31(4):155-8.Texto completo

49. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. SGLT2 inhibitors: updated advice on the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. April 2016 [internet publication].Texto completo

50. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. July 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

51. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2019 surveillance of type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management (2015) NICE guideline NG17. 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

52. Sacks DB, Arnold M, Bakris GL, et al; National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. Position statement executive summary: guidelines and recommendations for laboratory analysis in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jun;34(6):1419-23.Texto completo  Resumen

53. Lampasona V, Petrone A, Tiberti C, et al. Zinc transporter 8 antibodies complement GAD and IA-2 antibodies in the identification and characterization of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes: Non Insulin Requiring Autoimmune Diabetes (NIRAD) 4. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan;33(1):104-8.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Newman JD, Berger JS, Ladapo JA. Underuse of medications and lifestyle counseling to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2019 May;42(5):e75-e76.Texto completo  Resumen

55. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. November 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

56. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

57. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management. August 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

58. Strain WD, Hope SV, Green A, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in older people: a brief statement of key principles of modern day management including the assessment of frailty – a national collaborative stakeholder initiative. Diabet Med. 2018 Jul;35(7):838-45.Texto completo  Resumen

59. Sinclair A, Gallagher A. Managing frailty and associated comorbidities in older adults with diabetes: position statement on behalf of the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD). 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

60. Strain WD, Down S, Brown P, et al. Diabetes and frailty: an expert consensus statement on the management of older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Ther. 2021 May;12(5):1227-47.Texto completo  Resumen

61. DeFronzo RA. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Med Clin North Am. 2004 Jul;88(4):787-835, ix. Resumen

62. Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, et al. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005 Sep;28(9):2289-304.Texto completo  Resumen

63. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic kidney disease: assessment and management. November 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

64. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Peripheral arterial disease: diagnosis and management. December 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

65. Anstee QM, McPherson S, Day CP. How big a problem is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease? BMJ. 2011 Jul 18;343:d3897. Resumen

66. Norris JM, Johnson RK, Stene LC. Type 1 diabetes-early life origins and changing epidemiology. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Mar;8(3):226-38.Texto completo  Resumen

67. O'Neal KS, Johnson JL, Panak RL. Recognizing and appropriately treating latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Diabetes Spectr. 2016 Nov;29(4):249-52.Texto completo  Resumen

68. Naik RG, Brooks-Worrell BM, Palmer JP. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;94(12):4635-44.Texto completo  Resumen

69. Pihoker C, Gilliam LK, Ellard S, et al; SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. Prevalence, characteristics and clinical diagnosis of maturity onset diabetes of the young due to mutations in HNF1A, HNF4A, and glucokinase: results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Oct;98(10):4055-62.Texto completo  Resumen

70. Fajans SS, Bell GI. MODY: history, genetics, pathophysiology, and clinical decision making. Diabetes Care. 2011 Aug;34(8):1878-84.Texto completo  Resumen

71. Chiang JL, Maahs DM, Garvey KC, et al. Type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2018 Sep;41(9):2026-44.Texto completo  Resumen

72. Fajans SS, Bell GI, Polonsky KS. Molecular mechanisms and clinical pathophysiology of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 27;345(13):971-80. Resumen

73. Vellanki P, Umpierrez GE. Diabetic ketoacidosis: a common debut of diabetes among African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Endocr Pract. 2017 Aug;23(8):971-8.Texto completo  Resumen

74. Steenkamp DW, Alexanian SM, Sternthal E. Approach to the patient with atypical diabetes. CMAJ. 2014 Jun 10;186(9):678-84.Texto completo  Resumen

75. UK National Screening Committee. Adult screening programme: diabetes. November 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

76. US Preventive Services Task Force. Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: screening. August 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

77. Sherifali D, Bai JW, Kenny M, et al. Diabetes self-management programmes in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2015 Nov;32(11):1404-14.Texto completo  Resumen

78. Pillay J, Armstrong MJ, Butalia S, et al. Behavioral programs for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Dec 1;163(11):848-60.Texto completo  Resumen

79. Chatterjee S, Davies MJ, Heller S, et al. Diabetes structured self-management education programmes: a narrative review and current innovations. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Feb;6(2):130-42. Resumen

80. Fisher L, Hessler D, Glasgow RE, et al. REDEEM: a pragmatic trial to reduce diabetes distress. Diabetes Care. 2013 Sep;36(9):2551-8.Texto completo  Resumen

81. Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 May;174(5):773-85. Resumen

82. Zelniker TA, Wiviott SD, Raz I, et al. Comparison of the effects of glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors for prevention of major adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2019 Apr 23;139(17):2022-31. Resumen

83. Schnurr TM, Jakupović H, Carrasquilla GD, et al. Obesity, unfavourable lifestyle and genetic risk of type 2 diabetes: a case-cohort study. Diabetologia. 2020 Jul;63(7):1324-32.Texto completo  Resumen

84. Blomster JI, Woodward M, Zoungas S, et al. The harms of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation in women compared with men with type 2 diabetes: an observational analysis of the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial. BMJ Open. 2016 Jan 8;6(1):e009668.Texto completo  Resumen

85. Hansen MB, Jensen ML, Carstensen B. Causes of death among diabetic patients in Denmark. Diabetologia. 2012 Feb;55(2):294-302. Resumen

86. Tancredi M, Rosengren A, Svensson AM, et al. Excess mortality among persons with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 29;373(18):1720-32.Texto completo  Resumen

87. Desai JR, Vazquez-Benitez G, Xu Z, et al. Who must we target now to minimize future cardiovascular events and total mortality? Lessons from the surveillance, prevention and management of diabetes mellitus (SUPREME-DM) cohort study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015 Sep;8(5):508-16.Texto completo  Resumen

88. Rawshani A, Rawshani A, Franzén S, et al. Risk factors, mortality, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16;379(7):633-44.Texto completo  Resumen

89. Berkelmans GF, Gudbjörnsdottir S, Visseren FL, et al. Prediction of individual life-years gained without cardiovascular events from lipid, blood pressure, glucose, and aspirin treatment based on data of more than 500 000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur Heart J. 2019 Sep 7;40(34):2899-906. Resumen

90. Diabetes UK. Position statement: low carb diets for people with diabetes. May 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

91. Snorgaard O, Poulsen GM, Andersen HK, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017 Feb 23;5(1):e000354.Texto completo  Resumen

92. Goldenberg JZ, Day A, Brinkworth GD, et al. Efficacy and safety of low and very low carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes remission: systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished randomized trial data. BMJ. 2021 Jan 13;372:m4743.Texto completo  Resumen

93. Prochaska JO, Velicer WF, Rossi JS, et al. Stages of change and decisional balance for 12 problem behaviors. Health Psychol. 1994 Jan;13(1):39-46. Resumen

94. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Preventing excess weight gain. March 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

95. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Weight management: lifestyle services for overweight or obese adults. May 2014 [internet publication].Texto completo

96. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Obesity: identification, assessment and management. November 2014 [internet publication].Texto completo

97. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Physical activity: brief advice for adults in primary care. May 2013 [internet publication].Texto completo

98. Lean ME, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. 2018 Feb 10;391(10120):541-51. Resumen

99. Gregg EW, Chen H, Wagenknecht LE, et al; Look AHEAD Research Group. Association of an intensive lifestyle intervention with remission of type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2012 Dec 19;308(23):2489-96.Texto completo  Resumen

100. Lean ME, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Durability of a primary care-led weight-management intervention for remission of type 2 diabetes: 2-year results of the DiRECT open-label, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 May;7(5):344-55. Resumen

101. Margolis KL, Asche SE, Bergdall AR, et al. Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist management on blood pressure control: a cluster randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013 Jul 3;310(1):46-56.Texto completo  Resumen

102. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification. September 2016 [internet publication].Texto completo

103. NHS England; NHS Accelerated Access Collaborative. Summary of national guidance for lipid management for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

104. Giugliano RP, Cannon CP, Blazing MA, et al; IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial) Investigators. Benefit of adding ezetimibe to statin therapy on cardiovascular outcomes and safety in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus: results From IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial). Circulation. 2018 Apr 10;137(15):1571-82. Resumen

105. Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al; FOURIER Steering Committee and Investigators. Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017 May 4;376(18):1713-22.Texto completo  Resumen

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107. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Bempedoic acid with ezetimibe for treating primary hypercholesterolaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia. April 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

108. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Stop smoking interventions and services. March 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

109. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Smoking: harm reduction. July 2013 [internet publication].Texto completo

110. Rydén L, Grant PJ, Anker SD, et al. ESC guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. Eur Heart J. 2013 Oct;34(39):3035-87.Texto completo  Resumen

111. Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ. 2002;324:71-86.Texto completo  Resumen

112. Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, et al. 2016 European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: the sixth joint task force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts), developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J. 2016 Aug 1;37(29):2315-81.Texto completo  Resumen

113. ASCEND Study Collaborative Group; Bowman L, Mafham M, Wallendszus K, et al. Effects of aspirin for primary prevention in persons with diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2018 Oct 18;379(16):1529-39.Texto completo  Resumen

114. Laiteerapong N, Cooper JM, Skandari MR, et al. Individualized glycemic control for US adults with type 2 diabetes: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Feb 6;168(3):170-8. Resumen

115. Ismail-Beigi F, Moghissi E, Tiktin M, et al. Individualizing glycemic targets in type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications of recent clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Apr 19;154(8):554-9. Resumen

116. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Hearing loss in adults: assessment and management. June 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

117. Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. Information for drivers with diabetes. June 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

118. Davies MJ, D'Alessio DA, Fradkin J, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018: a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2018 Dec;41(12):2669-701.Texto completo  Resumen

119. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet. 1998 Sep 12;352(9131):854-65. Resumen

120. Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, et al. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 9;359(15):1577-89.Texto completo  Resumen

121. Griffin SJ, Leaver JK, Irving GJ. Impact of metformin on cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomised trials among people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2017 Sep;60(9):1620-9.Texto completo  Resumen

122. Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Genuth S, et al; ACCORD Study Group. Long-term effects of intensive glucose lowering on cardiovascular outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 3;364(9):818-28. Resumen

123. Patel A, MacMahon S, et al; ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 6;358(24):2560-72.Texto completo  Resumen

124. Reaven PD, Emanuele NV, Wiitala WL, et al; VADT Investigators. Intensive glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes - 15-year follow-up. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jun 6;380(23):2215-24.Texto completo  Resumen

125. Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T, et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 8;360(2):129-39.Texto completo  Resumen

126. Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, et al; Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2545-59.Texto completo  Resumen

127. Buse JB, Wexler DJ, Tsapas A, et al. 2019 update to: management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018 – a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia. 2020 Feb;63(2):221-8.Texto completo  Resumen

128. Li S, Vandvik PO, Lytvyn L, et al. SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists for adults with type 2 diabetes: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2021 May 11;373:n1091.Texto completo  Resumen

129. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin as monotherapies for treating type 2 diabetes. May 2016 [internet publication].Texto completo

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