Síndrome del ovario poliquístico

Referencias

Artículos principales

Zawadzki JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: towards a rational approach. In: Dunaif A, Givens JR, Haseltine F, et al., eds. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992:377-84.

The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25. Resumen

Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. Positions statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-45.Texto completo  Resumen

Day F, Karaderi T, Jones MR, et al. Large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of polycystic ovary syndrome suggests shared genetic architecture for different diagnosis criteria. PLoS Genet. 2018 Dec 19;14(12):e1007813.Texto completo  Resumen

International PCOS Network. International evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

Wang R, Li W, Bordewijk EM, et al. First-line ovulation induction for polycystic ovary syndrome: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2019 Nov 5;25(6):717-32.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Zawadzki JK, Dunaif A. Diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: towards a rational approach. In: Dunaif A, Givens JR, Haseltine F, et al., eds. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific; 1992:377-84.

2. The Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS consensus workshop group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004 Jan;81(1):19-25. Resumen

3. Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. Positions statement: criteria for defining polycystic ovary syndrome as a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome: an Androgen Excess Society guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4237-45.Texto completo  Resumen

4. Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, et al. The Androgen Excess and PCOS Society criteria for the polycystic ovary syndrome: the complete task force report. Fertil Steril. 2009 Feb;91(2):456-88. Resumen

5. Norman RJ, Dewailly D, Legro RS, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Lancet. 2007 Aug 25;370(9588):685-97. Resumen

6. Dewailly D, Catteau-Jonard S, Reyss AC, et al. Oligoanovulation with polycystic ovaries but not overt hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct;91(10):3922-7.Texto completo  Resumen

7. Azziz R, Woods KS, Reyna R, et al. The prevalence and features of the polycystic ovary syndrome in an unselected population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2745-9.Texto completo  Resumen

8. Bozdag G, Mumusoglu S, Zengin D, et al. The prevalence and phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2016 Dec;31(12):2841-55. Resumen

9. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Kouli CR, Bergiele AT, et al. A survey of the polycystic ovary syndrome in the Greek island of Lesbos: hormonal and metabolic profile. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Nov;84(11):4006-11.Texto completo  Resumen

10. Asuncion M, Calvo RM, San Millan JL, et al. A prospective study of the prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected Caucasian women from Spain. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jul;85(7):2434-8.Texto completo  Resumen

11. Michelmore KF, Balen AH, Dunger DB, et al. Polycystic ovaries and associated clinical and biochemical features in young women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999 Dec;51(6):779-86. Resumen

12. Goodarzi MO, Quiñones MJ, Azziz R, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome in Mexican-Americans: prevalence and association with the severity of insulin resistance. Fertil Steril. 2005 Sep;84(3):766-9. Resumen

13. Davis SR, Knight S, White V, et al. Preliminary indication of a high prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in indigenous Australian women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2002 Dec;16(6):443-6. Resumen

14. Azziz R, Sanchez LA, Knochenhauer ES, et al. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;89(2):453-62.Texto completo  Resumen

15. Sam S, Sung YA, Legro RS. Evidence for pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction in brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Metabolism. 2008 Jan;57(1):84-9. Resumen

16. Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Demers L, et al. Elevated dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels as the reproductive phenotype in the brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;87(5):2134-8.Texto completo  Resumen

17. Goodarzi MO. Looking for polycystic ovary syndrome genes: rational and best strategy. Semin Reprod Med. 2008 Jan;26(1):5-13. Resumen

18. Vink JM, Sadrzadeh S, Lambalk CB, et al. Heritability of polycystic ovary syndrome in a Dutch twin-family study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;91(6):2100-4.Texto completo  Resumen

19. Chen ZJ, Zhao H, He L, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for polycystic ovary syndrome on chromosome 2p16.3, 2p21 and 9q33.3. Nat Genet. 2011 Jan;43(1):55-9. Resumen

20. Goodarzi MO, Jones MR, Li X, et al. Replication of association of DENND1A and THADA variants with polycystic ovary syndrome in European cohorts. J Med Genet. 2012 Feb;49(2):90-5. Resumen

21. Eriksen MB, Brusgaard K, Andersen M, et al. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism rs2479106 and PCOS in Caucasian patients with PCOS or hirsutism as referral diagnosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Jul;163(1):39-42. Resumen

22. Welt CK, Styrkarsdottir U, Ehrmann DA, et al. Variants in DENND1A are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in women of European ancestry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul;97(7):E1342-7.Texto completo  Resumen

23. Bao S, Cai JH, Yang SY, et al. Association of DENND1A gene polymorphisms with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016 Jun 5;8(2):135-43.Texto completo  Resumen

24. Shi Y, Zhao H, Shi Y, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies eight new risk loci for polycystic ovary syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012 Sep;44(9):1020-5. Resumen

25. Hayes MG, Urbanek M, Ehrmann DA, et al. Genome-wide association of polycystic ovary syndrome implicates alterations in gonadotropin secretion in European ancestry populations. Nat Commun. 2015 Aug 18;6:7502.Texto completo  Resumen

26. Day FR, Hinds DA, Tung JY, et al. Causal mechanisms and balancing selection inferred from genetic associations with polycystic ovary syndrome. Nat Commun. 2015 Sep 29;6:8464.Texto completo  Resumen

27. Day F, Karaderi T, Jones MR, et al. Large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of polycystic ovary syndrome suggests shared genetic architecture for different diagnosis criteria. PLoS Genet. 2018 Dec 19;14(12):e1007813.Texto completo  Resumen

28. Azziz R, Dumesic DA, Goodarzi MO. Polycystic ovary syndrome: an ancient disorder? Fertil Steril. 2011 Apr;95(5):1544-8.Texto completo  Resumen

29. Shah NA, Antoine HJ, Pall M, et al. Association of androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May;93(5):1939-45.Texto completo  Resumen

30. Hickey TE, Legro RS, Norman RJ. Epigenetic modification of the X chromosome influences susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jul;91(7):2789-91.Texto completo  Resumen

31. Kahsar-Miller MD, Nixon C, Boots LR, et al. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in first-degree relatives of patients with PCOS. Fertil Steril. 2001 Jan;75(1):53-8. Resumen

32. Legro RS, Driscoll D, Strauss JF III, et al. Evidence for a genetic basis for hyperandrogenemia in polycystic ovary syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998 Dec 8;95(25):14956-60.Texto completo  Resumen

33. Goodarzi MO, Azziz R. Diagnosis, epidemiology, and genetics of the polycystic ovary syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;20(2):193-205. Resumen

34. Ibáñez L, Dimartino-Nardi J, Potau N, et al. Premature adrenarche-normal variant or forerunner of adult disease? Endocr Rev. 2000 Dec;21(6):671-96.Texto completo  Resumen

35. Brower MA, Hai Y, Jones MR, et al. Bidirectional Mendelian randomization to explore the causal relationships between body mass index and polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2019 Jan 1;34(1):127-36. Resumen

36. Ibáñez L, Potau N, Francois I, et al. Precocious pubarche, hyperinsulinism, and ovarian hyperandrogenism in girls: relation to reduced fetal growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Oct;83(10):3558-62.Texto completo  Resumen

37. Ibáñez L, Valls C, Potau N, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome after precocious pubarche: ontogeny of the low-birthweight effect. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 Nov;55(5):667-72. Resumen

38. Melo AS, Vieira CS, Barbieri MA, et al. High prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in women born small for gestational age. Hum Reprod. 2010 Aug;25(8):2124-31. Resumen

39. Valgeirsdottir H, Vanky E, Sundström-Poromaa I, et al. Prenatal exposures and birth indices, and subsequent risk of polycystic ovary syndrome: a national registry-based cohort study. BJOG. 2019 Jan;126(2):244-51. Resumen

40. Barnes RB, Rosenfield RL, Ehrmann DA, et al. Ovarian hyperandrogynism as a result of congenital adrenal virilizing disorders: evidence for perinatal masculinization of neuroendocrine function in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Nov;79(5):1328-33. Resumen

41. Kuijper EA, Vink JM, Lambalk CB, et al. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in women from opposite-sex twin pairs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jun;94(6):1987-90. Resumen

42. Anderson H, Fogel N, Grebe SK, et al. Infants of women with polycystic ovary syndrome have lower cord blood androstenedione and estradiol levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May;95(5):2180-6. Resumen

43. Barry JA, Kay AR, Navaratnarajah R, et al. Umbilical vein testosterone in female infants born to mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome is elevated to male levels. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;30(5):444-6. Resumen

44. Kandaraki E, Chatzigeorgiou A, Livadas S, et al. Endocrine disruptors and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): elevated serum levels of bisphenol A in women with PCOS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):E480-4. Resumen

45. Hu Y, Wen S, Yuan D, et al. The association between the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A and polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2018 May;34(5):370-7. Resumen

46. Anon. Screening and management of the hyperandrogenic adolescent: ACOG committee opinion, number 789. Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Oct;134(4):e106-14.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Peña AS, Witchel SF, Hoeger KM, et al. Adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome according to the international evidence-based guideline. BMC Med. 2020 Mar 24;18(1):72.Texto completo  Resumen

48. International PCOS Network. International evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

49. Vassalou H, Sotiraki M, Michala L. PCOS diagnosis in adolescents: the timeline of a controversy in a systematic review. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Jun 26;32(6):549-59. Resumen

50. Legro RS, Arslanian SA, Ehrmann DA, et al; Endocrine Society. Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Dec;98(12):4565-92.Texto completo  Resumen

51. Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril. 2012 Jan;97(1):28-38.e25. Resumen

52. Zhao Y, Zhao Y, Wang C, et al. Diagnostic value of anti-Müllerian hormone as a biomarker for polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis update. Endocr Pract. 2019 Oct;25(10):1056-66. Resumen

53. Elting MW, Kwee J, Korsen TJ, et al. Aging women with polycystic ovary syndrome who achieve regular menstrual cycles have a smaller follicle cohort than those who continue to have irregular cycles. Fertil Steril. 2003 May;79(5):1154-60. Resumen

54. Carmina E, Koyama T, Chang L, et al. Does ethnicity influence the prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Dec;167(6):1807-12. Resumen

55. Wild RA, Carmina E, Amanti-Kandarakis E, et al. Assessment of cardiovascular risk and prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome: a consensus statement by the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 May;95(5):2038-49.Texto completo  Resumen

56. Azziz R, Hincapie LA, Knochenhauer ES, et al. Screening for 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia among hyperandrogenic women: a prospective study. Fertil Steril. 1999 Nov;72(5):915-25. Resumen

57. Kakoly NS, Khomami MB, Joham AE, et al. Ethnicity, obesity and the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in PCOS: a systematic review and meta-regression. Hum Reprod Update. 2018 Jul 1;24(4):455-67.Texto completo  Resumen

58. Salley KE, Wickham EP, Cheang KI, et al. Glucose intolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement of the Androgen Excess Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec;92(12):4546-56.Texto completo  Resumen

59. De Ugarte CM, Chen YDI, Azziz R. What's the best way to diagnose insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia? Contemp Ob Gyn. 2005 March;50:66-74.

60. Wild RA, Applebaum-Bowden D, Demers LM, et al. Lipoprotein lipids in women with androgen excess: independent associations with increased insulin and androgen. Clin Chem. 1990 Feb;36(2):283-9. Resumen

61. Talbott E, Clerici A, Berga SL, et al. Adverse lipid and coronary heart disease risk profiles in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: results of a case-control study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1998 May;51(5):415-22. Resumen

62. Legro RS, Kunselman AR, Dunaif A. Prevalence and predictors of dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Med. 2001 Dec 1;111(8):607-13. Resumen

63. Ayala C, Steinberger E, Smith KD, et al. Serum testosterone levels and reference ranges in reproductive-age women. Endocr Pract. 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):322-9. Resumen

64. Bui HN, Sluss PM, Hayes FJ, et al. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Chim Acta. 2015 Oct 23;450:227-32. Resumen

65. Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Diamond MP, et al. Total testosterone assays in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: precision and correlation with hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec;95(12):5305-13.Texto completo  Resumen

66. Woods KS, Reyna R, Azziz R. Effect of oral micronized progesterone on androgen levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2002 Jun;77(6):1125-7. Resumen

67. Alsamarai S, Adams JM, Murphy MK, et al. Criteria for polycystic ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome as a function of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Dec;94(12):4961-70. Resumen

68. Meldrum DR, Abraham GE. Peripheral and ovarian venous concentrations of various steroid hormones in virilizing ovarian tumors. Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Jan;53(1):36-43. Resumen

69. Derksen J, Nagesser SK, Meinders AE. Identification of virilizing adrenal tumors in hirsute women. N Engl J Med. 1994 Oct 13;331(15):968-73.Texto completo  Resumen

70. Draper N, Stewart PM. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the pre-receptor regulation of corticosteroid hormone action. J Endocrinol. 2005 Aug;186(2):251-71. Resumen

71. Moran LJ, Brinkworth G, Noakes M, et al. Effects of lifestyle modification in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006 May;12(5):569-78. Resumen

72. Kiddy DS, Hamilton-Fairley D, Bush A, et al. Improvement in endocrine and ovarian function during dietary treatment of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1992 Jan;36(1):105-11. Resumen

73. Clark AM, Ledger W, Galletly C, et al. Weight loss results in significant improvement in pregnancy and ovulation rates in anovulatory obese women. Hum Reprod. 1995 Oct;10(10):2705-12. Resumen

74. Harrison CL, Lombard CB, Moran LJ, et al. Exercise therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2011 Mar-Apr;17(2):171-83.Texto completo  Resumen

75. Lim SS, Hutchison SK, Van Ryswyk E, et al. Lifestyle changes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 28;(3):CD007506.Texto completo  Resumen

76. Oberg E, Gidlöf S, Jakson I, et al. Improved menstrual function in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome after behavioural modification intervention - a randomized controlled trial. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019 Mar;90(3):468-78. Resumen

77. Stamets K, Taylor DS, Kunselman A, et al. A randomized trial of the effects of two types of short-term hypocaloric diets on weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2004 Mar;81(3):630-7. Resumen

78. Moran JL, Noakes M, Clifton PM, et al. Short-term meal replacements followed by dietary macronutrient restriction enhance weight loss in polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):77-87.Texto completo  Resumen

79. Moran LJ, Noakes M, Clifton PM, et al. Dietary composition in restoring reproductive and metabolic physiology in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Feb;88(2):812-9.Texto completo  Resumen

80. Moran LJ, Ko H, Misso M, et al. Dietary composition in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review to inform evidence-based guidelines. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Apr;113(4):520-45. Resumen

81. Leeman L, Acharya U. The use of metformin in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome and associated anovulatory infertility: the current evidence. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Aug;29(6):467-72. Resumen

82. Ehrmann DA, Cavaghan MK, Imperial J, et al. Effects of metformin on insulin secretion, insulin action, and ovarian steroidogenesis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Feb;82(2):524-30.Texto completo  Resumen

83. Johnson NP, Bontekoe S, Stewart AW. Analysis of factors predicting success of metformin and clomiphene treatment for women with infertility owing to PCOS-related ovulation dysfunction in a randomised controlled trial. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Jun;51(3):252-6. Resumen

84. Sharpe A, Morley LC, Tang T, et al. Metformin for ovulation induction (excluding gonadotrophins) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Dec 17;(12):CD013505.Texto completo  Resumen

85. Feng L, Lin XF, Wan ZH, et al. Efficacy of metformin on pregnancy complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015;31(11):833-9. Resumen

86. Zeng XL, Zhang YF, Tian Q, et al. Effects of metformin on pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Sep;95(36):e4526. Resumen

87. Tan X, Li S, Chang Y, et al. Effect of metformin treatment during pregnancy on women with PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Invest Med. 2016 Sep 11;39(4):E120-31. Resumen

88. Løvvik TS, Carlsen SM, Salvesen Ø, et al. Use of metformin to treat pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PregMet2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2019 Apr;7(4):256-66. Resumen

89. Hanem LGE, Salvesen Ø, Juliusson PB, et al. Intrauterine metformin exposure and offspring cardiometabolic risk factors (PedMet study): a 5-10 year follow-up of the PregMet randomised controlled trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2019 Mar;3(3):166-74. Resumen

90. Smithson DS, Vause TDR, Cheung AP. No. 362-ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2018 Jul;40(7):978-87. Resumen

91. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee opinion no. 738: aromatase inhibitors in gynecologic practice. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jun;131(6):1. Resumen

92. Wang R, Li W, Bordewijk EM, et al. First-line ovulation induction for polycystic ovary syndrome: an individual participant data meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2019 Nov 5;25(6):717-32.Texto completo  Resumen

93. Casper RF, Mitwally MF. Review: aromatase inhibitors for ovulation induction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):760-71.Texto completo  Resumen

94. Legro RS, Brzyski RG, Diamond MP, et al. Letrozole versus clomiphene for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 10;371(2):119-29.Texto completo  Resumen

95. Franik S, Eltrop SM, Kremer JA, et al. Aromatase inhibitors (letrozole) for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 24;(5):CD010287.Texto completo  Resumen

96. Misso ML, Wong JL, Teede HJ, et al. Aromatase inhibitors for PCOS: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2012 May-Jun;18(3):301-12. Resumen

97. Yu Q, Hu S, Wang Y, et al. Letrozole versus laparoscopic ovarian drilling in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2019 Feb 6;17(1):17.Texto completo  Resumen

98. Abu Hashim H, Shokeir T, Badawy A. Letrozole versus combined metformin and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2010 Sep;94(4):1405-9. Resumen

99. Aboulghar M. Symposium: Update on prediction and management of OHSS. Prevention of OHSS. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009 Jul;19(1):33-42. Resumen

100. Bordewijk EM, Nahuis M, Costello MF, et al. Metformin during ovulation induction with gonadotrophins followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination for subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 24;(1):CD009090.Texto completo  Resumen

101. Abu Hashim H. Twenty years of ovulation induction with metformin for PCOS; what is the best available evidence? Reprod Biomed Online. 2016 Jan;32(1):44-53. Resumen

102. Bordewijk EM, Ng KYB, Rakic L, et al. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling for ovulation induction in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Feb 11;(2):CD001122.Texto completo  Resumen

103. Palomba S, Falbo A, La Sala GB. Effects of metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with gonadotrophins for in vitro fertilisation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BJOG. 2013 Feb;120(3):267-76. Resumen

104. Mourad S, Brown J, Farquhar C. Interventions for the prevention of OHSS in ART cycles: an overview of Cochrane reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 23;(1):CD012103.Texto completo  Resumen

105. Huang X, Wang P, Tal R, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of metformin among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing assisted reproductive technology procedures. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Nov;131(2):111-6. Resumen

106. Martin KA, Anderson RR, Chang RJ, et al. Evaluation and treatment of hirsutism in premenopausal women: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Apr 1;103(4):1233-57.Texto completo  Resumen

107. Barrionuevo P, Nabhan M, Altayar O, et al. Treatment options for hirsutism: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Apr 1;103(4):1258-64. Resumen

108. van Hylckama Vlieg A, Helmerhorst FM, Vandenbroucke JP, et al. The venous thrombotic risk of oral contraceptives, effects of oestrogen dose and progestogen type: results of the MEGA case-control study. BMJ. 2009 Aug 13;339:b2921. Resumen

109. Lidegaard Ø, Løkkegaard E, Svendsen AL, et al. Hormonal contraception and risk of venous thromboembolism: national follow-up study. BMJ. 2009 Aug 13;339:b2890.Texto completo  Resumen

110. Gronich N, Lavi I, Rennert G. Higher risk of venous thrombosis associated with drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives: a population-based cohort study. CMAJ. 2011 Dec 13;183(18):E1319-25.Texto completo  Resumen

111. Yildiz BO. Oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome: risk-benefit assessment. Semin Reprod Med. 2008 Jan;26(1):111-20. Resumen

112. Cosma M, Swiglo BA, Flynn DN, et al. Clinical review: insulin sensitizers for the treatment of hirsutism: a systematic review and metaanalyses of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr;93(4):1135-42.Texto completo  Resumen

113. Fraison E, Kostova E, Moran LJ, et al. Metformin versus the combined oral contraceptive pill for hirsutism, acne, and menstrual pattern in polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 13;(8):CD005552.Texto completo  Resumen

114. Barba M, Schünemann HJ, Sperati F, et al. The effects of metformin on endogenous androgens and SHBG in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 May;70(5):661-70.Texto completo  Resumen

115. Thethi TK, Katalenich B, Nagireddy P, et al. Role of insulin sensitizers on cardiovascular risk factors in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a meta-analysis. Endocr Pract. 2015 Jun;21(6):645-67. Resumen

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