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Referencias

Artículos principales

Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1093-1103.Texto completo  Resumen

Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:499-516. Resumen

Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part I: diagnosis. Report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:1301-1311. Resumen

FitzGerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Jun;72(6):744-60. Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, Zhang W, et al. Global epidemiology of gout: prevalence, incidence and risk factors. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2015 Nov;11(11):649-62. Resumen

2. Jackson G, Wright C, Thornley S, et al. Potential unmet need for gout diagnosis and treatment: capture-recapture analysis of a national administrative dataset. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012 Oct;51(10):1820-4.Texto completo  Resumen

3. Chen-Xu M, Yokose C, Rai SK, et al. Contemporary prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia in the United States and decadal trends: the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2016. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jun;71(6):991-9.Texto completo  Resumen

4. Abbott RD, Brand FN, Kannel WB, et al. Gout and coronary heart disease: the Framingham Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1988;41(3):237-42. Resumen

5. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake and the risk of gout in men. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1093-1103.Texto completo  Resumen

6. Cea Soriano L, Rothenbacher D, Choi HK, et al. Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011 Mar 3;13(2):R39.Texto completo  Resumen

7. Mikuls TR, Farrar JT, Bilker WB, et al. Gout epidemiology: results from the UK general practice research database, 1990-1999. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:267-272.Texto completo  Resumen

8. Singh JA, Reddy SG, Kundukulam J. Risk factors for gout and prevention: a systematic review of the literature. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2011;23:192-202. Resumen

9. Campion EW, Glynn RJ, DeLabry LO. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Risks and consequences in the Normative Aging Study. Am J Med. 1987;82:421-426. Resumen

10. Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:499-516. Resumen

11. Ben Salem C, Slim R, Fathallah N, et al. Drug-induced hyperuricaemia and gout. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 May 1;56(5):679-88.Texto completo  Resumen

12. Afridi SM, Reddy S, Raja A, et al. Gout due to tacrolimus in a liver transplant recipient. Cureus. 2019 Mar 13;11(3):e4247.Texto completo  Resumen

13. Arromdee E, Michet CJ, Crowson CS, et al. Epidemiology of gout: is the incidence rising? J Rheumatol. 2002;29:2403-2406. Resumen

14. Evans PL, Prior JA, Belcher J, et al. Obesity, hypertension and diuretic use as risk factors for incident gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Arthritis Res Ther. 2018 Jul 5;20(1):136.Texto completo  Resumen

15. Li R, Yu K, Li C. Dietary factors and risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27(6):1344-56.Texto completo  Resumen

16. Major TJ, Topless RK, Dalbeth N, et al. Evaluation of the diet wide contribution to serum urate levels: meta-analysis of population based cohorts. BMJ. 2018 Oct 10;363:k3951.Texto completo  Resumen

17. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Obesity, weight change, hypertension, diuretic use, and risk of gout in men: the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:742-748.Texto completo  Resumen

18. Lee J, Sparrow D, Vokonas PS, et al. Uric acid and coronary heart disease risk: evidence for a role of uric acid in obesity-insulin resistance syndrome. The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:288-294. Resumen

19. Johnson RJ, Rideout BA. Uric acid and diet - insights into the epidemic of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1071-1073. Resumen

20. Wu XW, Lee CC, Muzny DM, et al. Urate oxidase: primary structure and evolutionary implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989;86:9412-9416.Texto completo  Resumen

21. Wu XW, Muzny DM, Lee CC, et al. Two independent mutational events in the loss of urate oxidase during hominoid evolution. J Mol Evol. 1992;34:78-84. Resumen

22. Dalbeth N, Merriman TR, Stamp LK. Gout. Lancet. 2016 Oct 22;388(10055):2039-52. Resumen

23. Shoji A, Yamanaka H, Kamatani N. A retrospective study of the relationship between serum urate level and recurrent attacks of gouty arthritis: evidence for reduction of recurrent gouty arthritis with antihyperuricemic therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;51:321-325.Texto completo  Resumen

24. Fam AG, Stein J, Rubenstein J. Gouty arthritis in nodal osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol. 1996;23:684-689. Resumen

25. Yagnik DR, Hillyer P, Marshall D, et al. Noninflammatory phagocytosis of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals by mouse macrophages. Implications for the control of joint inflammation in gout. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43:1779-1789.Texto completo  Resumen

26. Cronstein BN, Molad Y, Reibman J, et al. Colchicine alters the quantitative and qualitative display of selectins on endothelial cells and neutrophils. J Clin Invest. 1995 Aug;96(2):994-1002.Texto completo  Resumen

27. Terkeltaub R, Zachariae C, Santoro D, et al. Monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 is a potential mediator of crystal-induced inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 1991;34:894-903. Resumen

28. Nishimura A, Akahoshi T, Takahashi M, et al. Attenuation of monosodium urate crystal-induced arthritis in rabbits by a neutralizing antibody against interleukin-8. J Leukoc Biol. 1997;62:444-449. Resumen

29. Martinon F, Pétrilli V, Mayor A, et al. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature. 2006;440:237-241. Resumen

30. Liu R, Liote F, Rose DM, et al. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and Src kinase signaling transduce monosodium urate crystal-induced nitric oxide production and matrix metalloproteinase 3 expression in chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:247-258.Texto completo  Resumen

31. Bouchard L, de Medicis R, Lussier A, et al. Inflammatory microcrystals alter the functional phenotype of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro: synergism with IL-1 to overexpress cyclooxygenase-2. J Immunol. 2002;168:5310-5317.Texto completo  Resumen

32. Akashi A, Nakayama A, Kamatani Y, et al. A common variant of LDL receptor related protein 2 (LRP2) gene is associated with gout susceptibility: a meta-analysis in a Japanese population. Hum Cell. 2020 Apr;33(2):303-7.Texto completo  Resumen

33. Zhou Z, Li Z, Wang C, et al. Common variants in the SLC28A2 gene are associated with serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia and gout in Han Chinese. Hereditas. 2019 Jan 16;156:4.Texto completo  Resumen

34. Nakayama A, Nakatochi M, Kawamura Y, et al. Subtype-specific gout susceptibility loci and enrichment of selection pressure on ABCG2 and ALDH2 identified by subtype genome-wide meta-analyses of clinically defined gout patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 May;79(5):657-65.Texto completo  Resumen

35. Glynn RJ, Campion EW, Silbert JE. Trends in serum uric acid levels 1961-1980. Arthritis Rheum. 1983;26:87-93. Resumen

36. Emmerson B. Hyperlipidaemia in hyperuricaemia and gout. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998;57:509-510.Texto completo  Resumen

37. Rathmann W, Funkhouser E, Dyer AR, et al. Relations of hyperuricemia with the various components of the insulin resistance syndrome in young black and white adults: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. Ann Epidemiol. 1998;8:250-261. Resumen

38. Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, et al. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;59:539-543.Texto completo  Resumen

39. Yamashita S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, et al. Studies on the impaired metabolism of uric acid in obese subjects: marked reduction of renal urate excretion and its improvement by a low-calorie diet. Int J Obes. 1986;10:255-264. Resumen

40. Nielsen SM, Bartels EM, Henriksen M, et al. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Nov;76(11):1870-82.Texto completo  Resumen

41. Ter Maaten JC, Voorburg A, Heine RJ, et al. Renal handling of urate and sodium during acute physiological hyperinsulinaemia in healthy subjects. Clin Sci (Lond). 1997;92:51-58. Resumen

42. MacFarlane LA, Liu CC, Solomon DH. The effect of initiating pharmacologic insulin on serum uric acid levels in patients with diabetes: a matched cohort analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2015 Apr;44(5):592-6.Texto completo  Resumen

43. Prebis JW, Gruskin AB, Polinsky MS, et al. Uric acid in childhood essential hypertension. J Pediatr. 1981;98:702-707. Resumen

44. Baker JF, Krishnan E, Chen L, et al. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular disease: recent developments, and where do they leave us? Am J Med. 2005;118:816-826. Resumen

45. Abhishek A, Courtney P, Jenkins W, et al. Brief report: monosodium urate monohydrate crystal deposits are common in asymptomatic sons of patients with gout: the Sons of Gout Study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Nov;70(11):1847-52.Texto completo  Resumen

46. Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, See LC, et al. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Feb;74(2):369-74.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Sivera F, Andrés M, Carmona L, et al. Multinational evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of gout: integrating systematic literature review and expert opinion of a broad panel of rheumatologists in the 3e initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Feb;73(2):328-35.Texto completo  Resumen

48. Wallace SL, Robinson H, Masi AT, et al. Preliminary criteria for the classification of the acute arthritis of primary gout. Arthritis Rheum. 1977;20:895-900. Resumen

49. Neogi T, Jansen TL, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67:2557-2568.Texto completo  Resumen

50. Neogi T, Jansen TL, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1789-1798.Texto completo  Resumen

51. Hainer BL, Matheson E, Wilkes RT. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of gout. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Dec 15;90(12):831-6.Texto completo  Resumen

52. Qaseem A, McLean RM, Starkey M, et al. Diagnosis of acute gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jan 3;166(1):52-7.Texto completo  Resumen

53. Bădulescu M, Macovei L, Rezuş E. Acute gout attack with normal serum uric acid levels. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2014 Oct-Dec;118(4):942-5. Resumen

54. Lee YH, Song GG. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in patients with gout: a meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2018 Apr;47(5):703-9. Resumen

55. Zhang Q, Gao F, Sun W, et al. The diagnostic performance of musculoskeletal ultrasound in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2018 Jul 6;13(7):e0199672.Texto completo  Resumen

56. Ogdie A, Taylor WJ, Weatherall M, et al. Imaging modalities for the classification of gout: systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1868-1874. Resumen

57. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: chronic extremity joint pain - suspected inflammatory arthritis. 2016 [internet publication].Texto completo

58. Ramon A, Bohm-Sigrand A, Pottecher P, et al. Role of dual-energy CT in the diagnosis and follow-up of gout: systematic analysis of the literature. Clin Rheumatol. 2018 Mar;37(3):587-95. Resumen

59. Chen J, Liao M, Zhang H, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy CT and ultrasound in gouty arthritis: a systematic review. Z Rheumatol. 2017 Oct;76(8):723-9. Resumen

60. Yu Z, Mao T, Xu Y, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-energy CT in gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Skeletal Radiol. 2018 Dec;47(12):1587-93. Resumen

61. Gamala M, Jacobs JWG, van Laar JM. The diagnostic performance of dual energy CT for diagnosing gout: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Dec 1;58(12):2117-21. Resumen

62. Zhang W, Doherty M, Bardin T, et al. EULAR evidence based recommendations for gout. Part I: diagnosis. Report of a task force of the Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT). Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:1301-1311. Resumen

63. Rettenbacher T, Ennemoser S, Weirich H, et al. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray. Eur Radiol. 2008 Mar;18(3):621-30. Resumen

64. Ahmed I, Gertner E. Safety of arthrocentesis and joint injection in patients receiving anticoagulation at therapeutic levels. Am J Med. 2012 Mar;125(3):265-9.Texto completo  Resumen

65. Bashir MA, Ray R, Sarda P, et al. Determination of a safe INR for joint injections in patients taking warfarin. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2015 Nov;97(8):589-91.Texto completo  Resumen

66. Primary Care Rheumatology Society. Joint and soft tissue injection guidelines. 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

67. Mushtaq S, Choudhary R, Scanzello CR. Non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis-related pain in the elderly. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2011 Sep;4(3):113-22.Texto completo  Resumen

68. Chowalloor PV, Siew TK, Keen HI. Imaging in gout: a review of the recent developments. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2014;6:131-143.Texto completo  Resumen

69. Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Rheumatoid factor in the serum of gouty patients. Arthritis Rheum. 1977;20:1559-1560. Resumen

70. Niewold TB, Harrison MJ, Paget SA. Anti-CCP antibody testing as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in rheumatoid arthritis. QJM. 2007;100:193-201.Texto completo  Resumen

71. Ory PA, Gladman DD, Mease PJ. Psoriatic arthritis and imaging. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005 Mar;64 Suppl 2:ii55-7.Texto completo  Resumen

72. FitzGerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Jun;72(6):744-60. Resumen

73. Billy CA, Lim RT, Ruospo M, et al. Corticosteroid or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for the treatment of acute gout: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Rheumatol. 2018 Jan;45(1):128-36.Texto completo  Resumen

74. Qaseem A, Harris RP, Forciea MA, et al; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Management of acute and recurrent gout: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jan 3;166(1):58-68.Texto completo  Resumen

75. Schumacher HR Jr, Boice JA, Daikh DI, et al. Randomised double blind trial of etoricoxib and indometacin in treatment of acute gouty arthritis. BMJ. 2002;324:1488-1492.Texto completo  Resumen

76. Rubin BR, Burton R, Navarra S, et al. Efficacy and safety profile of treatment with etoricoxib 120 mg once daily compared with indomethacin 50 mg three times daily in acute gout: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:598-606.Texto completo  Resumen

77. Curiel RV, Guzman NJ. Challenges associated with the management of gouty arthritis in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012;42:166-178. Resumen

78. Rainer TH, Cheng CH, Janssens HJ, et al. Oral prednisolone in the treatment of acute gout: a pragmatic, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2016;164:464-471. Resumen

79. Janssen CA, Oude Voshaar MAH, Vonkeman HE, et al. Anakinra for the treatment of acute gout flares: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, non-inferiority trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Jan 2 [Epub ahead of print].Texto completo  Resumen

80. Saag K, So A, Khanna P, et al. THU0409 a randomized, phase 2 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of anakinra in difficult-to-treat acute gouty arthritis: the anaGO study. 2020;79 (Suppl 1):442.Texto completo

81. Schlesinger N, Alten RE, Bardin T, et al. Canakinumab for acute gouty arthritis in patients with limited treatment options: results from two randomised, multicentre, active-controlled, double-blind trials and their initial extensions. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1839-1848. Resumen

82. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA briefing document supplemental BLA 125319: Ilaris (canakinumab) for the following proposed indication: "ILARIS is indicated for the treatment of gouty arthritis attacks. ILARIS has also been shown to extend the time to the next attack and reduce the frequency of subsequent attacks."June 2011 [internet publication].

83. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Canakinumab for treating gouty arthritis attacks and reducing the frequency of subsequent attacks (terminated appraisal). April 2013 [internet publication].Texto completo

84. Ayoub-Charette S, Liu Q, Khan TA, et al. Important food sources of fructose-containing sugars and incident gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2019 May 5;9(5):e024171.Texto completo  Resumen

85. Ebrahimpour-Koujan S, Saneei P, Larijani B, et al. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and dietary fructose in relation to risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;60(1):1-10. Resumen

86. Moi JH, Sriranganathan MK, Edwards CJ, et al. Lifestyle interventions for chronic gout. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(5):CD010039.Texto completo  Resumen

87. Hill EM, Sky K, Sit M, et al. Does starting allopurinol prolong acute treated gout? A randomized clinical trial. J Clin Rheumatol. 2015 Apr;21(3):120-5. Resumen

88. Taylor TH, Mecchella JN, Larson RJ, et al. Initiation of allopurinol at first medical contact for acute attacks of gout: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Med. 2012 Nov;125(11):1126-34. Resumen

89. Yin R, Li L, Zhang G, et al. Rate of adherence to urate-lowering therapy among patients with gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2018 Apr 10;8(4):e017542.Texto completo  Resumen

90. Beslon V, Moreau P, Maruani A, et al. Effects of discontinuation of urate-lowering therapy: a systematic review. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 Mar;33(3):358-66.Texto completo  Resumen

91. Dalbeth N, Billington K, Doyle A, et al. Effects of allopurinol dose escalation on bone erosion and urate volume in gout: a dual-energy computed tomography imaging study within a randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Oct;71(10):1739-46. Resumen

92. Stamp LK, Taylor WJ, Jones PB, et al. Starting dose is a risk factor for allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome: a proposed safe starting dose of allopurinol. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:2529-2536. Resumen

93. Vargas-Santos AB, Peloquin CE, Zhang Y, et al. Association of chronic kidney disease with allopurinol use in gout treatment. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Nov 1;178(11):1526-33.Texto completo  Resumen

94. Krishnan E, Akhras KS, Sharma H, et al. Serum urate and incidence of kidney disease among veterans with gout. J Rheumatol. 2013;40:1166-1172.Texto completo  Resumen

95. Yang CY, Chen CH, Deng ST, et al. Allopurinol use and risk of fatal hypersensitivity reactions: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175:1550-1557. Resumen

96. Lin CW, Huang WI, Chao PH, et al. Risk of cutaneous adverse reactions associated with allopurinol or febuxostat in real-world patients: a nationwide study. Int J Clin Pract. 2019 May;73(5):e13316. Resumen

97. Becker MA, Schumacher HR Jr, Wortmann RL, et al. Febuxostat compared with allopurinol in patients with hyperuricemia and gout. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2450-2461.Texto completo  Resumen

98. Schumacher HR Jr, Becker MA, Wortmann RL, et al. Effects of febuxostat versus allopurinol and placebo in reducing serum urate in subjects with hyperuricemia and gout: a 28-week, phase III, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59:1540-1548.Texto completo  Resumen

99. Becker MA, Schumacher HR, MacDonald PA, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of successful longterm urate lowering with febuxostat or allopurinol in subjects with gout. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1273-1282. Resumen

100. Ernst ME, Fravel MA. Febuxostat: a selective xanthine-oxidase/xanthine-dehydrogenase inhibitor for the management of hyperuricemia in adults with gout. Clin Ther. 2009;31:2503-2518. Resumen

101. Stevenson M, Pandor A. Febuxostat for the treatment of hyperuricaemia in people with gout: a single technology appraisal. Health Technol Assess. 2009;13(Suppl 3):37-42. Resumen

102. White WB, Saag KG, Becker MA, et al. Cardiovascular safety of febuxostat or allopurinol in patients with gout. N Engl J Med. 2018 Mar 12;378(13):1200-10.Texto completo  Resumen

103. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA adds Boxed Warning for increased risk of death with gout medicine Uloric (febuxostat). Feb 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo  Resumen

104. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Febuxostat (Adenuric): increased risk of cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality in clinical trial in patients with a history of major cardiovascular disease. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

105. Hui M, Carr A, Cameron S, et al; British Society for Rheumatology Standards, Audit and Guidelines Working Group. The British Society for Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Jul 1;56(7):e1-20. [Erratum in: Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Jul 1;56(7):1246.]Texto completo  Resumen

106. Sundy JS, Baraf HS, Yood RA, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of pegloticase for the treatment of chronic gout in patients refractory to conventional treatment: two randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2011;306:711-720.Texto completo  Resumen

107. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Febuxostat for the management of hyperuricaemia in people with gout. Dec 2008 [internet publication].Texto completo

108. Poiley J, Steinberg AS, Choi YJ, et al. A randomized, double-blind, active- and placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of arhalofenate for reducing flare in patients with gout. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:2027-2034.Texto completo  Resumen

109. Steinberg AS, Vince BD, Choi YJ, et al. The pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and safety of arhalofenate in combination with febuxostat when treating hyperuricemia associated with gout. J Rheumatol. 2017 Mar;44(3):374-9.Texto completo  Resumen

110. Yu TF, Gutman AB. Efficacy of colchicine prophylaxis in gout. Prevention of recurrent gouty arthritis over a mean period of five years in 208 gouty subjects. Ann Intern Med. 1961;55:179-192. Resumen

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112. Dubreuil M, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, et al. Allopurinol initiation and all-cause mortality in the general population. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1368-1372.Texto completo  Resumen

113. Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, Mallen C, et al. Effect of allopurinol on all-cause mortality in adults with incident gout: propensity score-matched landmark analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015;54:2145-2150.Texto completo  Resumen

114. Kelley's textbook of rheumatology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 2001.

115. Roughley M, Sultan AA, Clarson L, et al. Risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with gout and the impact of urate lowering therapy: a population-based cohort study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2018 Oct 30;20(1):243.Texto completo  Resumen

116. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, et al. Alcohol intake and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study. Lancet. 2004;363:1277-1281. Resumen

117. Lin KC, Lin HY, Chou P. The interaction between uric acid level and other risk factors on the development of gout among asymptomatic hyperuricemic men in a prospective study. J Rheumatol. 2000;27:1501-1505. Resumen

118. Humphreys BD, Soiffer RJ, Magee CC. Renal failure associated with cancer and its treatment: an update. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:151-161.Texto completo  Resumen

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