Sepsis en niños

Referencias

Artículos principales

Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Jan;6(1):2-8. Resumen

Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020 Feb;21(2):e52-e106.Texto completo  Resumen

Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6:2-8. Resumen

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. July 2016. https://www.nice.org.uk (last accessed 2 March 2017).Texto completo

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

Davis AL, Carcillo JA, Aneja RK, et al. American College of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun;45(6):1061-93.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Bone RC. The sepsis syndrome: definition and general approach to management. Clin Chest Med. 1996 Jun;17(2):175-81. Resumen

2. Angus DC, van der Poll T. Severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):840-51.Texto completo  Resumen

3. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Jan;6(1):2-8. Resumen

4. World Health Organization Global Health Observatory. Causes of child mortality. 2017 [internet publication].

5. Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020 Feb;21(2):e52-e106.Texto completo  Resumen

6. Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A; International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis. International pediatric sepsis consensus conference: definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6:2-8. Resumen

7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. July 2016. https://www.nice.org.uk (last accessed 2 March 2017).Texto completo

8. Vergnano S, Sharland M, Kazembe P, et al. Neonatal sepsis: an international perspective. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005;90:F220-F224.Texto completo  Resumen

9. Stoll BJ, Gordon T, Korones SB, et al. Early-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr. 1996;129:72-80. Resumen

10. Stoll BJ, Gordon T, Korones SB, et al. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr. 1996;129:63-71. Resumen

11. Behrman RE, Kliegman R, Jenson HB. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 2000:544.

12. Brierley J, Peters MJ. Distinct hemodynamic patterns of septic shock at presentation to pediatric intensive care. Pediatrics. 2008 Oct;122(4):752-9. Resumen

13. Rudd KE, Johnson SC, Agesa KM, et al. Global, regional, and national sepsis incidence and mortality, 1990-2017: analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 2020 Jan 18;395(10219):200-211.Texto completo  Resumen

14. Watson RS, Carcillo JA, Linde-Zwirble WT, et al. The epidemiology of severe sepsis in children in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar 1;167(5):695-701.Texto completo  Resumen

15. Hartman ME, Linde-Zwirble WT, Angus DC, et al. Trends in the epidemiology of pediatric severe sepsis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep;14(7):686-93. Resumen

16. Fleischmann-Struzek C, Goldfarb DM, Schlattmann P, et al. The global burden of paediatric and neonatal sepsis: a systematic review. Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Mar;6(3):223-230.Texto completo  Resumen

17. Ruth A, McCracken CE, Fortenberry JD, et al. Pediatric severe sepsis: current trends and outcomes from the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;15(9):828-38. Resumen

18. Weiss SL, Fitzgerald JC, Pappachan J, et al. Global epidemiology of pediatric severe sepsis: the sepsis prevalence, outcomes, and therapies study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 May 15;191(10):1147-57.Texto completo  Resumen

19. Kissoon N, Uyeki TM. Sepsis and the global burden of disease in children. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Feb;170(2):107-8. Resumen

20. Greenhow TL, Hung YY, Herz AM. Changing epidemiology of bacteremia in infants aged 1 week to 3 months. Pediatrics. 2012 Mar;129(3):e590-6. Resumen

21. Puopolo KM, Benitz WE, Zaoutis TE, et al. Management of neonates born at ≥35 0/7 weeks' gestation with suspected or proven early-onset bacterial sepsis. Pediatrics. 2018 Dec;142(6):.Texto completo  Resumen

22. Schrag SJ, Farley MM, Petit S, et al. Epidemiology of invasive early-onset neonatal sepsis, 2005 to 2014. Pediatrics. 2016 Dec;138(6):.Texto completo  Resumen

23. Stoll BJ, Puopolo KM, Hansen NI, et al. Early-onset neonatal sepsis 2015 to 2017, the rise of Escherichia coli, and the need for novel prevention strategies. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jul 1;174(7):e200593.Texto completo  Resumen

24. Soeorg H, Huik K, Parm U, et al. Genetic relatedness of coagulase-negative Staphylococci from gastrointestinal tract and blood of preterm neonates with late-onset sepsis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Apr;32(4):389-93. Resumen

25. Stoll BJ, Gordon T, Korones SB, et al. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr. 1996 Jul;129(1):63-71. Resumen

26. Randolph AG, McCulloh RJ. Pediatric sepsis: important considerations for diagnosing and managing severeinfections in infants, children, and adolescents. Virulence. 2014 Jan 1;5(1):179-89.Texto completo  Resumen

27. UK Health Security Agency. Group A streptococcal infections: activity during the 2022 to 2023 season. 2023 [internet publication].Texto completo

28. Lee CY, Chen PY, Huang FL, et al. Microbiologic spectrum and susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates from the pediatric intensive care unit in a single medical center - 6 years' experience. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2009 Apr;42(2):160-5. Resumen

29. Lee GM. Preventing infections in children and adults with asplenia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2020 Dec 4;2020(1):328-335.Texto completo  Resumen

30. AlFawaz T, Alzumar O, AlShahrani D, et al. Severity of Salmonella infection among sickle cell diseases pediatric patients: Description of the infection pattern. Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2019 Sep;6(3):115-117.Texto completo  Resumen

31. Olupot-Olupot P, Engoru C, Nteziyaremye J, et al. The clinical spectrum of severe childhood malaria in Eastern Uganda. Malar J. 2020 Sep 3;19(1):322.Texto completo  Resumen

32. Gotts JE, Matthay MA. Sepsis: pathophysiology and clinical management. BMJ. 2016 May 23;353:i1585.Texto completo  Resumen

33. Hack CE, Zeerleder S. The endothelium in sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul;29(7 suppl):S21-7. Resumen

34. Pathan N, Hemingway CA, Alizadeh AA, et al. Role of interleukin 6 in myocardial dysfunction of meningococcal septic shock. Lancet. 2004 Jan 17;363(9404):203-9. Resumen

35. Bantel H, Schulze-Osthoff K. Cell death in sepsis. Crit Care. 2009;13(4):173.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Brown GC, Borutaite V. Nitric oxide and mitochondrial respiration in the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Jul 15;75(2):283-90.Texto completo  Resumen

37. Singer M. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure. Virulence. 2014 Jan 1;5(1):66-72.Texto completo  Resumen

38. Bone RC, Grodzin CJ, Balk RA. Sepsis: a new hypothesis for pathogenesis of the disease process. Chest. 1997 Jul;112(1):235-43. Resumen

39. Munford RS, Pugin J. Normal responses to injury prevent systemic inflammation and can be immunosuppressive. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Feb;163(2):316-21.Texto completo  Resumen

40. Peters M, Petros A, Dixon G, et al. Acquired immunoparalysis in paediatric intensive care: prospective observational study. BMJ. 1999 Sep 4;319(7210):609-10.Texto completo  Resumen

41. Adib-Conquy M, Cavaillon JM. Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome. Thromb Haemost. 2009 Jan;101(1):36-47. Resumen

42. Remick DG. Pathophysiology of sepsis. Am J Pathol. 2007 May;170(5):1435-44.Texto completo  Resumen

43. Yao TC, Wang JY, Chang SM, et al. Association of Oral Corticosteroid Bursts With Severe Adverse Events in Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jul 1;175(7):723-729.Texto completo  Resumen

44. Feudtner C, Christakis DA, Connell FA. Pediatric deaths attributable to complex chronic conditions: a population-based study of Washington State, 1980-1997. Pediatrics. 2000 Jul;106(1 Pt 2):205-9.Texto completo  Resumen

45. Fraser LK, Miller M, Hain R, et al. Rising national prevalence of life-limiting conditions in children in England. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr;129(4):e923-9.Texto completo  Resumen

46. Ge WJ, Mirea L, Yang J, et al; Canadian Neonatal Network. Prediction of neonatal outcomes in extremely preterm neonates. Pediatrics. 2013 Oct;132(4):e876-85. Resumen

47. Bateman SL, Seed PC. Procession to pediatric bacteremia and sepsis: covert operations and failures in diplomacy. Pediatrics. 2010 Jul;126(1):137-50.Texto completo  Resumen

48. Polin RA, Denson S, Brady MT; Committee on Fetus and Newborn; Committee on Infectious Diseases. Epidemiology and diagnosis of health care-associated infections in the NICU. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr;129(4):e1104-9.Texto completo  Resumen

49. Soman M, Green B, Daling J. Risk factors for early neonatal sepsis. Am J Epidemiol. 1985 May;121(5):712-9. Resumen

50. Herbst A, Källén K. Time between membrane rupture and delivery and septicemia in term neonates. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Sep;110(3):612-8. Resumen

51. Sohn AH, Garrett DO, Sinkowitz-Cochran RL, et al; Pediatric Prevention Network. Prevalence of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: results from the first national point-prevalence survey. J Pediatr. 2001 Dec;139(6):821-7. Resumen

52. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. Sep 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

53. Levine MM, Campbell JD, Kotloff KL. Overview of vaccines and immunisation. Br Med Bull. 2002;62:1-13.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Department of Health (UK). Meningococcal B vaccination programme to be introduced. Mar 2014 [internet publication].Texto completo

55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Meningococcal outbreaks. May 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

56. Wodi AP, Murthy N, Bernstein H, et al. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger - United States, 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Feb 18;71(7):234-7.Texto completo  Resumen

57. World Health Organization. Decade of vaccines - global vaccine action plan 2011-2020. 2013 [internet publication].Texto completo

58. Bion J, Richardson A, Hibbert P, et al; Matching Michigan Collaboration & Writing Committee. 'Matching Michigan': a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013 Feb;22(2):110-23.Texto completo  Resumen

59. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of infections in neonatal intensive care unit patients: central line-associated blood stream infections. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

60. de Souza DC, Barreira ER, Faria LS. The epidemiology of sepsis in childhood. Shock. 2017 Jan;47(1S suppl 1):2-5. Resumen

61. Weiss SL, Parker B, Bullock ME, et al. Defining pediatric sepsis by different criteria: discrepancies in populations and implications for clinical practice. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012 Jul;13(4):e219-26. Resumen

62. Daniels R, Nutbeam T, McNamara G, et al. The sepsis six and the severe sepsis resuscitation bundle: a prospective observational cohort study. Emerg Med J. 2011 Jun;28(6):507-12.Texto completo  Resumen

63. Pantell RH, Roberts KB, Adams WG, et al. Evaluation and management of well-appearing febrile infants 8 to 60 days old. Pediatrics. 2021 Aug;148(2):.Texto completo  Resumen

64. Kim F, Polin RA, Hooven TA. Neonatal sepsis. BMJ. 2020 Oct 1;371:m3672.Texto completo  Resumen

65. Garcia-Prats JA, Cooper TR, Schneider VF, et al. Rapid detection of microorganisms in blood cultures of newborn infants utilizing an automated blood culture system. Pediatrics. 2000 Mar;105(3 Pt 1):523-7. Resumen

66. Kayange N, Kamugisha E, Mwizamholya DL, et al. Predictors of positive blood culture and deaths among neonates with suspected neonatal sepsis in a tertiary hospital, Mwanza-Tanzania. BMC Pediatr. 2010 Jun 4;10:39.Texto completo  Resumen

67. Pammi M, Flores A, Versalovic J, et al. Molecular assays for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 25;(2):CD011926.Texto completo  Resumen

68. Borthwick EMJ, Hill CJ, Rabindranath KS, et al. High-volume haemofiltration for sepsis in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 31;(1):CD008075.Texto completo  Resumen

69. Garcia-Alvarez M, Marik P, Bellomo R. Sepsis-associated hyperlactatemia. Crit Care. 2014 Sep 9;18(5):503.Texto completo  Resumen

70. Levi M, Toh CH, Thachil J, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Br J Haematol. 2009 Apr;145(1):24-33.Texto completo  Resumen

71. Pontrelli G, De Crescenzo F, Buzzetti R, et al. Accuracy of serum procalcitonin for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates and children with systemic inflammatory syndrome: a meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Apr 24;17(1):302.Texto completo  Resumen

72. Trippella G, Galli L, De Martino M, et al. Procalcitonin performance in detecting serious and invasive bacterial infections in children with fever without apparent source: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2017 Nov;15(11):1041-1057.Texto completo  Resumen

73. Downes KJ, Fitzgerald JC, Weiss SL. Utility of procalcitonin as a biomarker for sepsis in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Jun 24;58(7):.Texto completo  Resumen

74. Kaplan JM, Wong HR. Biomarker discovery and development in pediatric critical care medicine. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Mar;12(2):165-73.Texto completo  Resumen

75. Casado-Flores J, Blanco-Quirós A, Asensio J, et al. Serum procalcitonin in children with suspected sepsis: a comparison with C-reactive protein and neutrophil count. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2003 Apr;4(2):190-5. Resumen

76. Brown JVE, Meader N, Cleminson J, et al. C-reactive protein for diagnosing late-onset infection in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 14;1:CD012126.Texto completo  Resumen

77. Stocker M, van Herk W, El Helou S, et al. Procalcitonin-guided decision making for duration of antibiotic therapy in neonates with suspected early-onset sepsis: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial (NeoPIns). Lancet. 2017 Aug 26;390(10097):871-81. Resumen

78. Dai J, Jiang W, Min Z, et al. Neutrophil CD64 as a diagnostic marker for neonatal sepsis: meta-analysis. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017 Mar-Apr;26(2):327-32.Texto completo  Resumen

79. Shahkar L, Keshtkar A, Mirfazeli A, et al. The role of IL-6 for predicting neonatal sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Pediatr. 2011 Dec;21(4):411-7.Texto completo  Resumen

80. Shi J, Tang J, Chen D. Meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil CD64 for neonatal sepsis. Ital J Pediatr. 2016 Jun 7;42(1):57.Texto completo  Resumen

81. Zhou M, Cheng S, Yu J, et al. Interleukin-8 for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 May 21;10(5):e0127170.Texto completo  Resumen

82. Sun B, Liang LF, Li J, et al. A meta-analysis of interleukin-6 as a valid and accurate index in diagnosing early neonatal sepsis. Int Wound J. 2019 Apr;16(2):527-533.Texto completo  Resumen

83. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fever in under 5s. Jul 2014 [internet publication].Texto completo

84. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neonatal infection: antibiotics for prevention and treatment. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

85. Martin K, Weiss SL. Initial resuscitation and management of pediatric septic shock. Minerva Pediatr. 2015 Apr;67(2):141-58.Texto completo  Resumen

86. Macrae D, Grieve R, Allen E, et al. A randomized trial of hyperglycemic control in pediatric intensive care. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 9;370(2):107-18.Texto completo  Resumen

87. Deep A, Sagar H, Goonasekera C, et al. Evolution of acute kidney injury and its association with systemic hemodynamics in children with fluid-refractory septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2018 Jul;46(7):e677-83. Resumen

88. Liguoro I, Pilotto C, Bonanni M, et al. SARS-COV-2 infection in children and newborns: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr. 2020 Jul;179(7):1029-46.Texto completo  Resumen

89. Salazar ML, Eiland LS. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal resembling serotonin syndrome in an adolescent boy with cerebral palsy. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008 Oct;24(10):691-3. Resumen

90. Vergnano S, Sharland M, Kazembe P, et al. Neonatal sepsis: an international perspective. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 May;90(3):F220-4.Texto completo  Resumen

91. Koenig JM, Keenan WJ. Group B streptococcus and early-onset sepsis in the era of maternal prophylaxis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 Jun;56(3):689-708.Texto completo  Resumen

92. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Perinatal group B streptococcal disease after universal screening recommendations - United States, 2003-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Jul 20;56(28):701-5.Texto completo  Resumen

93. Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Early-Onset Disease in Newborns: ACOG Committee Opinion, Number 797. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Feb;135(2):e51-e72.Texto completo  Resumen

94. Pearson GA, ed. Why children die: a pilot study 2006; England (South West, North East and West Midlands), Wales and Northern Ireland. London: CEMACH; 2008.

95. Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman. Time to act: severe sepsis - rapid diagnosis and treatment saves lives. 2013 [internet publication].Texto completo

96. Davis AL, Carcillo JA, Aneja RK, et al. American College of Critical Care Medicine clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2017 Jun;45(6):1061-93.Texto completo  Resumen

97. Paul R, Neuman MI, Monuteaux MC, et al. Adherence to PALS sepsis guidelines and hospital length of stay. Pediatrics. 2012 Aug;130(2):e273-80.Texto completo  Resumen

98. Paul R, Melendez E, Stack A, et al. Improving adherence to PALS septic shock guidelines. Pediatrics. 2014 May;133(5):e1358-66.Texto completo  Resumen

99. Larsen GY, Mecham N, Greenberg R. An emergency department septic shock protocol and care guideline for children initiated at triage. Pediatrics. 2011 Jun;127(6):e1585-92. Resumen

100. Cruz AT, Perry AM, Williams EA, et al. Implementation of goal-directed therapy for children with suspected sepsis in the emergency department. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar;127(3):e758-66. Resumen

101. Chong SL, Ong GY, Venkataraman A, et al. The golden hours in paediatric septic shock--current updates and recommendations. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2014 May;43(5):267-74. Resumen

102. Shekerdemian L, Bohn D. Cardiovascular effects of mechanical ventilation. Arch Dis Child. 1999 May;80(5):475-80.Texto completo  Resumen

103. Akech S, Ledermann H, Maitland K. Choice of fluids for resuscitation in children with severe infection and shock: systematic review. BMJ. 2010 Sep 2;341:c4416.Texto completo  Resumen

104. Carcillo JA. Intravenous fluid choices in critically ill children. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2014 Aug;20(4):396-401. Resumen

105. Medeiros DN, Ferranti JF, Delgado AF, et al. Colloids for the initial management of severe sepsis and septic shock in pediatric patients: a systematic review. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2015 Nov;31(11):e11-6. Resumen

106. Food and Drug Administration. Labeling changes on mortality, kidney injury, and excess bleeding with hydroxyethyl starch products. Jul 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

107. European Medicines Agency. PRAC recommends suspending hydroxyethyl-starch solutions for infusion from the market. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

108. Zarychanski R, Abou-Setta AM, Turgeon AF, et al. Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013 Feb 20;309(7):678-88.Texto completo  Resumen

109. Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency. Drug safety update: Hydroxyethyl starch intravenous Infusions. Dec 2014 [internet publication].Texto completo

110. Lewis SR, Pritchard MW, Evans DJ, et al. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Aug 3;8:CD000567.Texto completo  Resumen

111. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-143.Texto completo  Resumen

112. Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO, et al. Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 30;364(26):2483-95.Texto completo  Resumen

113. Li D, Li X, Cui W, et al. Liberal versus conservative fluid therapy in adults and children with sepsis or septic shock. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 10;12:CD010593.Texto completo  Resumen

114. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intravenous fluid therapy in children and young people in hospital. Jun 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

115. Bagshaw SM, Brophy PD, Cruz D, et al. Fluid balance as a biomarker: impact of fluid overload on outcome in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2008;12(4):169.Texto completo  Resumen

116. Boschee ED, Cave DA, Garros D, et al. Indications and outcomes in children receiving renal replacement therapy in pediatric intensive care. J Crit Care. 2014 Feb;29(1):37-42. Resumen

117. Academy of Medical Royal Colleges. Statement on the initial antimicrobial treatment of sepsis V2.0. Oct 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

118. Nauclér P, Huttner A, van Werkhoven CH, et al. Impact of time to antibiotic therapy on clinical outcome in patients with bacterial infections in the emergency department: implications for antimicrobial stewardship. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Feb;27(2):175-81.Texto completo  Resumen

119. Klompas M, Calandra T, Singer M. Antibiotics for Sepsis-Finding the Equilibrium. JAMA. 2018 Oct 9;320(14):1433-4. Resumen

120. Kumar A, Roberts D, Wood KE, et al. Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2006 Jun;34(6):1589-96. Resumen

121. Wang XD, Huo XM, Xu MX, et al. Clinical research of timing of application of antibiotics in septic shock of pediatric patients [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2013 Apr;25(4):207-10. Resumen

122. Weiss SL, Fitzgerald JC, Balamuth F, et al. Delayed antimicrobial therapy increases mortality and organ dysfunction duration in pediatric sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2014 Nov;42(11):2409-17.Texto completo  Resumen

123. Klein Klouwenberg PM, Cremer OL, van Vught LA, et al. Likelihood of infection in patients with presumed sepsis at the time of intensive care unit admission: a cohort study. Crit Care. 2015 Sep 7;19(1):319.Texto completo  Resumen

124. Heffner AC, Horton JM, Marchick MR, et al. Etiology of illness in patients with severe sepsis admitted to the hospital from the emergency department. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Mar 15;50(6):814-20.Texto completo  Resumen

125. Strich JR, Heil EL, Masur H. Considerations for empiric antimicrobial therapy in sepsis and septic shock in an era of antimicrobial resistance. J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 21;222(suppl 2):S119-31.Texto completo  Resumen

126. Korang SK, Safi S, Nava C, et al. Antibiotic regimens for early-onset neonatal sepsis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 May 17;5:CD013837.Texto completo  Resumen

127. Simmons ML, Durham SH, Carter CW. Pharmacological management of pediatric patients with sepsis. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2012 Oct-Dec;23(4):437-48. Resumen

128. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neutropenic sepsis: prevention and management in people with cancer. Sep 2012 [internet publication].Texto completo

129. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. Nov 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

130. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

131. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side effects. Jul 2016 [internet publication].Texto completo

132. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

133. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

134. Ninis N, Phillips C, Bailey L, et al. The role of healthcare delivery in the outcome of meningococcal disease in children: case-control study of fatal and non-fatal cases. BMJ. 2005 Jun 25;330(7506):1475.Texto completo  Resumen

135. Sanfilippo F, La Rosa V, Grasso C, et al. Echocardiographic parameters and mortality in pediatric sepsis: a systematic review and m,eta-analysis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2021 Mar 1;22(3):251-61. Resumen

136. Ozturk MA, Gunes T, Koklu E, et al. Oral nystatin prophylaxis to prevent invasive candidiasis in neonatal intensive care unit. Mycoses. 2006 Nov;49(6):484-92. Resumen

137. Hsieh E, Smith PB, Jacqz-Aigrain E, et al. Neonatal fungal infections: when to treat? Early Hum Dev. 2012 May;88(suppl 2):S6-10.Texto completo  Resumen

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