Accidente cerebrovascular isquémico

Referencias

Artículos principales

Kleindorfer DO, Towfighi A, Chaturvedi S, et al. 2021 guideline for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2021 Jul;52(7):e364-467.Texto completo  Resumen

Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: 2019 update to the 2018 guidelines for the early management of acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2019 Dec;50(12):e344-418.Texto completo  Resumen

Kleindorfer DO, Towfighi A, Chaturvedi S, et al. 2021 guideline for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2021 Jul;52(7):e364-e467.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Amarenco P, Lavallée PC, Labreuche J, et al. One-year risk of stroke after transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 21;374(16):1533-42.Texto completo  Resumen

2. Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ, et al; TOAST Investigators. Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke: definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial (TOAST - Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). Stroke. 1993 Jan;24(1):35-41.Texto completo  Resumen

3. Ay H, Benner T, Arsava EM, et al. A computerized algorithm for etiologic classification of ischemic stroke: the causative classification of stroke system. Stroke. 2007 Nov;38(11):2979-84.Texto completo  Resumen

4. Bamford J, Sandercock P, Dennis M, et al. Classification and natural history of clinically identifiable subtypes of cerebral infarction. Lancet. 1991 Jun 22;337(8756):1521-6. Resumen

5. Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Caplan LR, et al. New approach to stroke subtyping: the A-S-C-O (phenotypic) classification of stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2009;27(5):502-8.Texto completo  Resumen

6. Gao S, Wang YJ, Xu AD, et al. Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification. Front Neurol. 2011;2:6.Texto completo  Resumen

7. GBD 2016 Stroke Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of stroke, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 2019 May;18(5):439-58.Texto completo  Resumen

8. Tsao CW, Aday AW, Almarzooq I, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics - 2022 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2022 Feb 22;145(8):e153-639.Texto completo  Resumen

9. Ekker MS, Boot EM, Singhal AB, et al. Epidemiology, aetiology, and management of ischaemic stroke in young adults. Lancet Neurol. 2018 Sep;17(9):790-801. Resumen

10. Seminog OO, Scarborough P, Wright FL, et al. Determinants of the decline in mortality from acute stroke in England: linked national database study of 795 869 adults. BMJ. 2019 May 22;365:l1778.Texto completo  Resumen

11. Pandian JD, Gall SL, Kate MP, et al. Prevention of stroke: a global perspective. Lancet. 2018 Oct 6;392(10154):1269-78. Resumen

12. Feigin VL, Nguyen G, et al; GBD 2016 Lifetime Risk of Stroke Collaborators. Global, regional, and country-specific lifetime risks of stroke, 1990 and 2016. N Engl J Med. 2018 Dec 20;379(25):2429-37.Texto completo  Resumen

13. Wang W, Jiang B, Sun H, et al. Prevalence, incidence, and mortality of stroke in China: results from a nationwide population-based survey of 480 687 adults. Circulation. 2017 Feb 21;135(8):759-71.Texto completo  Resumen

14. Turan TN, Zaidat OO, Gronseth GS, et al. Stroke prevention in symptomatic large artery intracranial atherosclerosis practice advisory: report of the AAN guideline subcommittee. Neurology. 2022 Mar 22;98(12):486-98.Texto completo  Resumen

15. Amarenco P, Cohen A, Tzourio C, et al. Atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch and the risk of ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1994 Dec 1;331(22):1474-9.Texto completo  Resumen

16. Amarenco P, Cohen A, Hommel M, et al; French Study of Aortic Plaques in Stroke Group. Atherosclerotic disease of the aortic arch as a risk factor for recurrent ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1996 May 9;334(19):1216-21.Texto completo  Resumen

17. Sacco RL. Risk factors, outcomes, and stroke subtypes for ischemic stroke. Neurology. 1997 Nov;49(5 suppl 4):S39-44. Resumen

18. Spence JD. Controlling resistant hypertension. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2018 Jun;3(2):69-75.Texto completo  Resumen

19. Kissela BM, Khoury JC, Alwell K, et al. Age at stroke: temporal trends in stroke incidence in a large, biracial population. Neurology. 2012 Oct 23;79(17):1781-7.Texto completo  Resumen

20. Adams RJ, McKie VC, Hsu L, et al. Prevention of a first stroke by transfusions in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal results on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jul 2;339(1):5-11.Texto completo  Resumen

21. Flossmann E, Schulz UG, Rothwell PM. Systematic review of methods and results of studies of the genetic epidemiology of ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):212-27.Texto completo  Resumen

22. Malik R, Chauhan G, Traylor M, et al. Multiancestry genome-wide association study of 520,000 subjects identifies 32 loci associated with stroke and stroke subtypes. Nat Genet. 2018 Apr;50(4):524-37. [Erratum in: Publisher Correction: Multiancestry genome-wide association study of 520,000 subjects identifies 32 loci associated with stroke and stroke subtypes. Nat Genet. 2019 Jul;51(7):1192-3.]Texto completo  Resumen

23. Dichgans M, Pulit SL, Rosand J. Stroke genetics: discovery, biology, and clinical applications. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Jun;18(6):587-99. Resumen

24. Barrett KM, Meschia JF. Genetic stroke syndromes. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014 Apr;20(2 cerebrovascular disease):399-411.Texto completo  Resumen

25. Shahjouei S, Sadighi A, Chaudhary D, et al. A 5-decade analysis of incidence trends of ischemic stroke after transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Neurol. 2021 Jan 1;78(1):77-87.Texto completo  Resumen

26. Lioutas VA, Ivan CS, Himali JJ, et al. Incidence of transient ischemic attack and association with long-term risk of stroke. JAMA. 2021 Jan 26;325(4):373-81.Texto completo  Resumen

27. Charidimou A, Shams S, Romero JR, et al; International META-MICROBLEEDS Initiative. Clinical significance of cerebral microbleeds on MRI: a comprehensive meta-analysis of risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, mortality, and dementia in cohort studies (v1). Int J Stroke. 2018 Jul;13(5):454-68.Texto completo  Resumen

28. Wolf PA, D'Agostino RB, Kannel WB, et al. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for stroke: the Framingham study. JAMA. 1988 Feb 19;259(7):1025-9. Resumen

29. Hackshaw A, Morris JK, Boniface S, et al. Low cigarette consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: meta-analysis of 141 cohort studies in 55 study reports. BMJ. 2018 Jan 24;360:j5855.Texto completo  Resumen

30. Kannel WB, McGee DL. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease: the Framingham study. JAMA. 1979 May 11;241(19):2035-8. Resumen

31. Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham study. Stroke. 1991 Aug;22(8):983-8. Resumen

32. Goldstein LB, Adams R, Becker K, et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Stroke. 2001 Jan;32(1):280-99.Texto completo  Resumen

33. Lüscher TF. Stroke: cardiac causes and their management. Eur Heart J. 2015 Sep 14;36(35):2339-41.Texto completo  Resumen

34. Chambers BR, Norris JW. Outcome in patients with asymptomatic neck bruits. N Engl J Med. 1986 Oct 2;315(14):860-5. Resumen

35. Barnett HJ, Taylor DW, Haynes RB, et al; North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1991 Aug 15;325(7):445-53.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Barnett HJ, Taylor DW, Eliasziw M, et al; North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1998 Nov 12;339(20):1415-25.Texto completo  Resumen

37. Kim JS, Bonovich D. Research on intracranial atherosclerosis from the East and west: why are the results different? J Stroke. 2014 Sep;16(3):105-13.Texto completo  Resumen

38. Iso H, Jacobs DR Jr, Wentworth D, et al. Serum cholesterol levels and six-year mortality from stroke in 350,977 men screened for the multiple risk factor intervention trial. N Engl J Med. 1989 Apr 6;320(14):904-10. Resumen

39. Baigent C, Blackwell L, Emberson J, et al; Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaboration. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet. 2010 Nov 13;376(9753):1670-81.Texto completo  Resumen

40. Collins R, Reith C, Emberson J, et al. Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. Lancet. 2016 Nov 19;388(10059):2532-61.Texto completo  Resumen

41. Amarenco P, Labreuche J, Touboul PJ. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and risk of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2008 Feb;196(2):489-96. Resumen

42. Cruz-Flores S, Rabinstein A, Biller J, et al. Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care: the American experience: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011 Jul;42(7):2091-116.Texto completo  Resumen

43. Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, et al; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics - 2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135:e146-e603.Texto completo  Resumen

44. Yang Q, Tong X, Schieb L, et al. Vital signs: recent trends in stroke death rates - United States, 2000-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Sep 8;66(35):933-9.Texto completo  Resumen

45. Howard VJ. Reasons underlying racial differences in stroke incidence and mortality. Stroke. 2013 Jun;44(6 suppl 1):S126-8.Texto completo  Resumen

46. Oshunbade AA, Yimer WK, Valle KA, et al. Cigarette smoking and incident stroke in blacks of the Jackson Heart Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Jun 16;9(12):e014990.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Bazzano LA, Serdula MK, Liu S. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003 Nov;5(6):492-9. Resumen

48. He J, Ogden LG, Vupputuri S, et al. Dietary sodium intake and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults. JAMA. 1999 Dec 1;282(21):2027-34.Texto completo  Resumen

49. Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Dietary potassium and stroke-associated mortality: a 12-year prospective population study. N Engl J Med. 1987 Jan 29;316(5):235-40. Resumen

50. Tong TYN, Appleby PN, Key TJ, et al. The associations of major foods and fibre with risks of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke: a prospective study of 418 329 participants in the EPIC cohort across nine European countries. Eur Heart J. 2020 Jul 21;41(28):2632-40.Texto completo  Resumen

51. Spence JD. Diet for stroke prevention. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2018 Jun;3(2):44-50.Texto completo  Resumen

52. Muto M, Ezaki O. High dietary saturated fat is associated with a low risk of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke in Japanese but not in non-Japanese: a review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2018 May 1;25(5):375-92.Texto completo  Resumen

53. Barker DJ, Lackland DT. Prenatal influences on stroke mortality in England and Wales. Stroke. 2003 Jul;34(7):1598-602.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Prior PL, Suskin N. Exercise for stroke prevention. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2018 Jun;3(2):59-68.Texto completo  Resumen

55. Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Rexrode KM, et al. Prospective study of body mass index and risk of stroke in apparently healthy women. Circulation. 2005 Apr 19;111(15):1992-8.Texto completo  Resumen

56. Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Berger K, et al. Body mass index and the risk of stroke in men. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Dec 9-23;162(22):2557-62.Texto completo  Resumen

57. Patra J, Taylor B, Irving H, et al. Alcohol consumption and the risk of morbidity and mortality for different stroke types - a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2010 May 18;10:258.Texto completo  Resumen

58. Millwood IY, Walters RG, Mei XW, et al; China Kadoorie Biobank Collaborative Group. Conventional and genetic evidence on alcohol and vascular disease aetiology: a prospective study of 500 000 men and women in China. Lancet. 2019 May 4;393(10183):1831-42.Texto completo  Resumen

59. Gillum LA, Mamidipudi SK, Johnston SC. Ischemic stroke risk with oral contraceptives: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2000 Jul 5;284(1):72-8. Resumen

60. Hendrix SL, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Johnson KC, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen on stroke in the Women's Health Initiative. Circulation. 2006 May 23;113(20):2425-34.Texto completo  Resumen

61. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Jul 17;288(3):321-33.Texto completo  Resumen

62. Sacco S, Merki-Feld GS, Ægidius KL, et al. Hormonal contraceptives and risk of ischemic stroke in women with migraine: a consensus statement from the European Headache Federation (EHF) and the European Society of Contraception and Reproductive Health (ESC). J Headache Pain. 2017 Oct 30;18(1):108.Texto completo  Resumen

63. Kurth T, Slomke MA, Kase CS, et al. Migraine, headache, and the risk of stroke in women: a prospective study. Neurology. 2005 Mar 22;64(6):1020-6. Resumen

64. Adelborg K, Szépligeti SK, Holland-Bill L, et al. Migraine and risk of cardiovascular diseases: Danish population based matched cohort study. BMJ. 2018 Jan 31;360:k96.Texto completo  Resumen

65. Martinez-Majander N, Artto V, Ylikotila P, et al. Association between migraine and cryptogenic ischemic stroke in young adults. Ann Neurol. 2021 Feb;89(2):242-53.Texto completo  Resumen

66. Bassetti CLA, Randerath W, Vignatelli L, et al. EAN/ERS/ESO/ESRS statement on the impact of sleep disorders on risk and outcome of stroke. Eur J Neurol. 2020 Jul;27(7):1117-36.Texto completo  Resumen

67. Yeghiazarians Y, Jneid H, Tietjens JR, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021 Jul 20;144(3):e56-67.Texto completo  Resumen

68. Zhou L, Yu K, Yang L, et al. Sleep duration, midday napping, and sleep quality and incident stroke: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort. Neurology. 2020 Jan 28;94(4):e345-56. Resumen

69. Lappin JM, Darke S, Farrell M. Stroke and methamphetamine use in young adults: a review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017 Dec;88(12):1079-91.Texto completo  Resumen

70. Spence JD, Bang H, Chambless LE, et al. Vitamin Intervention For Stroke Prevention trial: an efficacy analysis. Stroke. 2005 Nov;36(11):2404-9.Texto completo  Resumen

71. Lonn E, Yusuf S, Arnold MJ, et al; Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 2 Investigators. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 13;354(15):1567-77.Texto completo  Resumen

72. Bønaa KH, Njølstad I, Ueland PM, et al; NORVIT Trial Investigators. Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 13;354(15):1578-88.Texto completo  Resumen

73. Keene D, Price C, Shun-Shin MJ, et al. Effect on cardiovascular risk of high density lipoprotein targeted drug treatments niacin, fibrates, and CETP inhibitors: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including 117,411 patients. BMJ. 2014 Jul 18;349:g4379.Texto completo  Resumen

74. Ulivi L, Squitieri M, Cohen H, et al. Cerebral venous thrombosis: a practical guide. Pract Neurol. 2020 Oct;20(5):356-67.Texto completo  Resumen

75. Kuo HK, Yen CJ, Chang CH, et al. Relation of C-reactive protein to stroke, cognitive disorders, and depression in the general population: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Jun;4(6):371-80. Resumen

76. Amarenco P, Davis S, Jones EF, et al. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus warfarin in patients with stroke and aortic arch plaques. Stroke. 2014 May;45(5):1248-57.Texto completo  Resumen

77. Di Tullio MR, Russo C, Jin Z, et al. Aortic arch plaques and risk of recurrent stroke and death. Circulation. 2009 May 5;119(17):2376-82.Texto completo  Resumen

78. Meissner I, Whisnant JP, Khandheria BK, et al. Prevalence of potential risk factors for stroke assessed by transesophageal echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography: the SPARC study. Stroke prevention: assessment of risk in a community. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 Sep;74(9):862-9. Resumen

79. Hagen PT, Scholz DG, Edwards WD. Incidence and size of patent foramen ovale during the first 10 decades of life: an autopsy study of 965 normal hearts. Mayo Clin Proc. 1984 Jan;59(1):17-20.Texto completo  Resumen

80. Spence JD. Cardioembolic stroke: everything has changed. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2018 Jun;3(2):76-83.Texto completo  Resumen

81. Kim H, Kim J, Kim S, et al. Cardiovascular effects of long-term exposure to air pollution: a population-based study with 900 845 person-years of follow-up. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Nov 8;6(11):e007170.Texto completo  Resumen

82. Willett J, Achenbach S, Pinto FJ, et al. The tobacco endgame: eradicating a worsening epidemic: a joint opinion from the American Heart Association, World Heart Federation, American College of Cardiology, and the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Jul 6;78(1):77-81.Texto completo  Resumen

83. Thompson AM, Hu T, Eshelbrenner CL, et al. Antihypertensive treatment and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease events among persons without hypertension: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2011 Mar 2;305(9):913-22.Texto completo  Resumen

84. Rutten-Jacobs LC, Larsson SC, Malik R, et al. Genetic risk, incident stroke, and the benefits of adhering to a healthy lifestyle: cohort study of 306 473 UK Biobank participants. BMJ. 2018 Oct 24;363:k4168.Texto completo  Resumen

85. Aguilar MI, Hart R, Pearce LA. Oral anticoagulants versus antiplatelet therapy for preventing stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and no history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD006186.Texto completo  Resumen

86. Culebras A, Messé SR, Chaturvedi S, et al. Summary of evidence-based guideline update: prevention of stroke in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2014 Feb 25;82(8):716-24.Texto completo  Resumen

87. Kleindorfer DO, Towfighi A, Chaturvedi S, et al. 2021 guideline for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2021 Jul;52(7):e364-467.Texto completo  Resumen

88. Whitlock RP, Belley-Cote EP, Paparella D, et al. Left atrial appendage occlusion during cardiac surgery to prevent stroke. N Engl J Med. 2021 Jun 3;384(22):2081-91.Texto completo  Resumen

89. De Caterina R, Salvatore T, Marchioli R. Cholesterol-lowering interventions and stroke: insights from IMPROVE-IT. Atherosclerosis. 2016 May;248:216-8. Resumen

90. Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Giugliano RP, et al. Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jun 18;372(25):2387-97.Texto completo  Resumen

91. Schmidt AF, Carter JL, Pearce LS, et al. PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Oct 20;10:CD011748.Texto completo  Resumen

92. Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Wiviott SD, et al; Open-Label Study of Long-Term Evaluation against LDL Cholesterol (OSLER) Investigators. Efficacy and safety of evolocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 16;372(16):1500-9.Texto completo  Resumen

93. Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al. Evolocumab and clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017 May 4;376(18):1713-22.Texto completo  Resumen

94. Robinson JG, Farnier M, Krempf M, et al; ODYSSEY LONG TERM Investigators. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2015 Apr 16;372(16):1489-99.Texto completo  Resumen

95. Schwartz GG, Steg PG, Szarek M, et al. Alirocumab and cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 29;379(22):2097-107.Texto completo  Resumen

96. Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Sep 10;74(10):e177-232.Texto completo  Resumen

97. US Preventive Services Task Force; Davidson KW, Barry MJ, Mangione CM, et al. Aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2022 Apr 26;327(16):1577-84.Texto completo  Resumen

98. Gaziano JM, Brotons C, Coppolecchia R, et al; ARRIVE Executive Committee. Use of aspirin to reduce risk of initial vascular events in patients at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease (ARRIVE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2018 Sep 22;392(10152):1036-46. Resumen

99. McNeil JJ, Wolfe R, Woods RL, et al; ASPREE Investigator Group. Effect of aspirin on cardiovascular events and bleeding in the healthy elderly. N Engl J Med. 2018 Oct 18;379(16):1509-18.Texto completo  Resumen

100. Bowman L, Mafham M, Wallendszus K, et al; ASCEND Study Collaborative Group. Effects of aspirin for primary prevention in persons with diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2018 Oct 18;379(16):1529-39.Texto completo  Resumen

101. Sharma M, Hart RG, Connolly SJ, et al. Stroke outcomes in the COMPASS Trial. Circulation. 2019 Feb 26;139(9):1134-45.Texto completo  Resumen

102. Alberts MJ, Latchaw RE, Jagoda A, et al. Revised and updated recommendations for the establishment of primary stroke centers: a summary statement from the brain attack coalition. Stroke. 2011 Sep;42(9):2651-65.Texto completo  Resumen

103. Tao WD, Liu M, Fisher M, et al. Posterior versus anterior circulation infarction: how different are the neurological deficits? Stroke. 2012 Aug;43(8):2060-5.Texto completo  Resumen

104. Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: 2019 update to the 2018 guidelines for the early management of acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2019 Dec;50(12):e344-418.Texto completo  Resumen

105. Schwamm LH, Wu O, Song SS, et al; MR WITNESS Investigators. Intravenous thrombolysis in unwitnessed stroke onset: MR WITNESS trial results. Ann Neurol. 2018 May;83(5):980-93.Texto completo  Resumen

106. Campbell BC, Ma H, Ringleb PA, et al; EXTEND, ECASS-4, and EPITHET Investigators. Extending thrombolysis to 4·5-9 h and wake-up stroke using perfusion imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet. 2019 Jul 13;394(10193):139-47. Resumen

107. Campbell BCV, Ma H, Parsons MW, et al. Association of reperfusion after thrombolysis with clinical outcome across the 4.5- to 9-hours and wake-up stroke time window: a meta-analysis of the EXTEND and EPITHET randomized clinical trials. JAMA Neurol. 2021 Feb 1;78(2):236-40. Resumen

108. Sanna T, Diener HC, Passman RS, et al. Cryptogenic stroke and underlying atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 26;370(26):2478-86.Texto completo  Resumen

109. Gladstone DJ, Spring M, Dorian P, et al; EMBRACE Investigators and Coordinators. Atrial fibrillation in patients with cryptogenic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 26;370(26):2467-77.Texto completo  Resumen

110. Boehme AK, Esenwa C, Elkind MS. Stroke risk factors, genetics, and prevention. Circ Res. 2017 Feb 3;120(3):472-95.Texto completo  Resumen

111. Kamel H, Healey JS. Cardioembolic stroke. Circ Res. 2017 Feb 3;120(3):514-26.Texto completo  Resumen

112. Johnston SC, Nguyen-Huynh MN, Schwarz ME, et al. National Stroke Association guidelines for the management of transient ischemic attacks. Ann Neurol. 2006 Sep;60(3):301-13.Texto completo  Resumen

113. Kiyohara T, Kamouchi M, Kumai Y, et al. ABCD3 and ABCD3-I scores are superior to ABCD2 score in the prediction of short- and long-term risks of stroke after transient ischemic attack. Stroke. 2014 Feb;45(2):418-25.Texto completo  Resumen

114. Zhao M, Wang S, Zhang D, et al. Comparison of stroke prediction accuracy of ABCD2 and ABCD3-I in patients with transient ischemic attack: a meta-analysis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017 Oct;26(10):2387-95. Resumen

115. Mayer L, Ferrari J, Krebs S, et al; Austrian Stroke Unit Collaborators. ABCD3-I score and the risk of early or 3-month stroke recurrence in tissue- and time-based definitions of TIA and minor stroke. J Neurol. 2018 Mar;265(3):530-4.Texto completo  Resumen

116. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Stroke and transient ischaemic attack in over 16s: diagnosis and initial management. April 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

117. Giles MF, Rothwell PM. Risk of stroke early after transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Dec;6(12):1063-72. Resumen

118. Higgins P, MacFarlane PW, Dawson J, et al. Noninvasive cardiac event monitoring to detect atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial. Stroke. 2013 Sep;44(9):2525-31.Texto completo  Resumen

119. Hill MD, Demchuk AM, Tomsick TA, et al. Using the baseline CT scan to select acute stroke patients for IV-IA therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006 Sep;27(8):1612-6.Texto completo  Resumen

120. Caplan L. Caplan's stroke: a clinical approach. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2009.

121. Chalela JA, Kidwell CS, Nentwich LM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: a prospective comparison. Lancet. 2007 Jan 27;369(9558):293-8.Texto completo  Resumen

122. Baird TA, Parsons MW, Phanh T, et al. Persistent poststroke hyperglycemia is independently associated with infarct expansion and worse clinical outcome. Stroke. 2003 Sep;34(9):2208-14.Texto completo  Resumen

123. Kase CS, Furlan AJ, Wechsler LR, et al. Cerebral hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for ischemic stroke: the PROACT II trial. Neurology. 2001 Nov 13;57(9):1603-10. Resumen

124. Demchuk AM, Morgenstern LB, Krieger DW, et al. Serum glucose level and diabetes predict tissue plasminogen activator-related intracerebral hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 1999 Jan;30(1):34-9.Texto completo  Resumen

125. Amarenco P. Transient Ischemic Attack. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 14;382(20):1933-1941.Texto completo  Resumen

126. Roch JA, Nighoghossian N, Hermier M, et al. Transient neurologic symptoms related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy: usefulness of T2*-weighted imaging. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005;20(5):412-4. Resumen

127. Wardlaw JM, Murray V, Berge E, et al. Thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jul 29;(7):CD000213.Texto completo  Resumen

128. Man S, Xian Y, Holmes DN, et al. Association between thrombolytic door-to-needle time and 1-year mortality and readmission in patients with acute ischemic stroke. JAMA. 2020 Jun 2;323(21):2170-84.Texto completo  Resumen

129. Hacke W, Kaste M, Bluhmki E, et al; ECASS Investigators. Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4.5 hours after acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2008 Sep 25;359(13):1317-29.Texto completo  Resumen

130. Whiteley WN, Emberson J, Lees KR, et al. Risk of intracerebral haemorrhage with alteplase after acute ischaemic stroke: a secondary analysis of an individual patient data meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2016 Aug;15(9):925-33. Resumen

131. Kheiri B, Osman M, Abdalla A, et al. Tenecteplase versus alteplase for management of acute ischemic stroke: a pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2018 Nov;46(4):440-50. Resumen

132. Burgos AM, Saver JL. Evidence that tenecteplase Is noninferior to alteplase for acute ischemic stroke: meta-analysis of 5 randomized trials. Stroke. 2019 Aug;50(8):2156-62.Texto completo  Resumen

133. Sattin JA, Chiong W, Bonnie RJ, et al. Consent issues in the management of acute ischemic stroke: AAN position statement. Neurology. 2022 Jan 11;98(2):73-9.Texto completo  Resumen

134. Saver JL. Number needed to treat estimates incorporating effects over the entire range of clinical outcomes: novel derivation method and application to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke. Arch Neurol. 2004 Jul;61(7):1066-70.Texto completo  Resumen

135. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1995 Dec 14;333(24):1581-7.Texto completo  Resumen

136. Ganesh A, Fraser JF, Gordon Perue GL, et al. Endovascular treatment and thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in patients with premorbid disability or dementia: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2022 May;53(5):e204-e217.Texto completo  Resumen

137. Ma H, Campbell BC, Parsons MW, et al; EXTEND Investigators. Thrombolysis guided by perfusion imaging up to 9 hours after onset of stroke. N Engl J Med. 2019 May 9;380(19):1795-803.Texto completo  Resumen

138. Berge E, Whiteley W, Audebert H, et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines on intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. Eur Stroke J. 2021 Mar;6(1):I-LXII.Texto completo  Resumen

139. Bluhmki E, Danays T, Biegert G, et al. Alteplase for acute ischemic stroke in patients aged >80 years: pooled analyses of individual patient data. Stroke. 2020 Aug;51(8):2322-31.Texto completo  Resumen

140. Hacke W, Lyden P, Emberson J, et al. Effects of alteplase for acute stroke according to criteria defining the European Union and United States marketing authorizations: individual-patient-data meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Stroke. 2018 Feb;13(2):175-s89.Texto completo  Resumen

141. Zinkstok SM, Roos YB; ARTIS investigators. Early administration of aspirin in patients treated with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 Aug 25;380(9843):731-7. Resumen

142. Wang Y, Johnston SC, Bath PM, et al. Acute dual antiplatelet therapy for minor ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. BMJ. 2019 Feb 28;364:l895.Texto completo  Resumen

143. Kennedy J, Hill MD, Ryckborst KJ, et al. Fast assessment of stroke and transient ischaemic attack to prevent early recurrence (FASTER): a randomised controlled pilot trial. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Nov;6(11):961-9. Resumen

144. Hao Q, Tampi M, O'Donnell M, et al. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for acute minor ischaemic stroke or high risk transient ischaemic attack: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2018 Dec 18;363:k5108.Texto completo  Resumen

145. Rahman H, Khan SU, Nasir F, et al. Optimal duration of aspirin plus clopidogrel after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Stroke. 2019 Apr;50(4):947-53.Texto completo  Resumen

146. Johnston SC, Amarenco P, Denison H, et al. Ticagrelor and aspirin or aspirin alone in acute ischemic stroke or TIA. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 16;383(3):207-17.Texto completo  Resumen

147. Wang Y, Meng X, Wang A, et al. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in CYP2C19 loss-of-function carriers with stroke or TIA. N Engl J Med. 2021 Dec 30;385(27):2520-30.Texto completo  Resumen

148. Sacks D, Baxter B, Campbell BCV, et al. Multisociety consensus quality improvement revised consensus statement for endovascular therapy of acute ischemic stroke: from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR), Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology Society of Europe (CIRSE), Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA), Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS), European Society of Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT), European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR), European Stroke Organization (ESO), Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS), and World Stroke Organization (WSO). J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2018 Apr;29(4):441-53.Texto completo  Resumen

149. Turc G, Bhogal P, Fischer U, et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) - European Society for Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT) guidelines on mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke: endorsed by Stroke Alliance for Europe (SAFE). Eur Stroke J. 2019 Mar;4(1):6-12.Texto completo  Resumen

150. Campbell BC, Donnan GA, Mitchell PJ, et al. Endovascular thrombectomy for stroke: current best practice and future goals. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2016 Feb 16;1(1):16-22.Texto completo  Resumen

151. Rodrigues FB, Neves JB, Caldeira D, et al. Endovascular treatment versus medical care alone for ischaemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2016 Apr 18;353:i1754.Texto completo  Resumen

152. Mueller-Kronast NH, Zaidat OO, Froehler MT, et al; STRATIS Investigators. Systematic evaluation of patients treated with neurothrombectomy devices for acute ischemic stroke: primary results of the STRATIS Registry. Stroke. 2017 Oct;48(10):2760-8.Texto completo  Resumen

153. Vidale S, Agostoni E. Endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke: an updated meta-analysis of efficacy and safety. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2017 May;51(4):215-9. Resumen

154. Roaldsen MB, Jusufovic M, Berge E, et al. Endovascular thrombectomy and intra-arterial interventions for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jun 14;6:CD007574.Texto completo  Resumen

155. Griessenauer CJ, Medin C, Maingard J, et al. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in large-vessel occlusion ischemic stroke presenting with low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: systematic review and meta-analysis. World Neurosurg. 2018 Feb;110:263-9. Resumen

156. Katsanos AH, Turc G, Psychogios M, et al. Utility of intravenous alteplase prior to endovascular stroke treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. Neurology. 2021 Aug 24;97(8):e777-e784. Resumen

157. LeCouffe NE, Kappelhof M, Treurniet KM, et al. A randomized trial of intravenous alteplase before endovascular treatment for stroke. N Engl J Med. 2021 Nov 11;385(20):1833-44.Texto completo  Resumen

158. Balami JS, White PM, McMeekin PJ, et al. Complications of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke: prevention and management. Int J Stroke. 2018 Jun;13(4):348-61. Resumen

159. Campbell BC, van Zwam WH, Goyal M, et al; HERMES collaborators. Effect of general anaesthesia on functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke having endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Neurol. 2018 Jan;17(1):47-53. Resumen

160. Nogueira RG, Jadhav AP, Haussen DC, et al; DAWN Trial Investigators. Thrombectomy 6 to 24 hours after stroke with a mismatch between deficit and infarct. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan 4;378(1):11-21.Texto completo  Resumen

161. Albers GW, Marks MP, Kemp S, et al; DEFUSE 3 Investigators. Thrombectomy for stroke at 6 to 16 hours with selection by perfusion imaging. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 22;378(8):708-18.Texto completo  Resumen

162. Furlan A, Higashida R, Wechsler L, et al. Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke: the PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999 Dec 1;282(21):2003-11.Texto completo  Resumen

163. Sandercock PA, Counsell C, Kane EJ. Anticoagulants for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 12;(3):CD000024.Texto completo  Resumen

164. Yi X, Lin J, Wang C, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin is more effective than aspirin in preventing early neurologic deterioration and improving six-month outcome. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014 Jul;23(6):1537-44. Resumen

165. Wang QS, Chen C, Chen XY, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin versus aspirin for acute ischemic stroke with large artery occlusive disease: subgroup analyses from the Fraxiparin in Stroke Study for the treatment of ischemic stroke (FISS-tris) study. Stroke. 2012 Feb;43(2):346-9.Texto completo  Resumen

166. Lip GY, Banerjee A, Boriani G, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest. 2018 Nov;154(5):1121-201.Texto completo  Resumen

167. Lane DA, Lip GY. Use of the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc and HAS-BLED scores to aid decision making for thromboprophylaxis in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Circulation. 2012 Aug 14;126(7):860-5.Texto completo  Resumen

168. Feldman W. Treatment of occult bacteremia. Pediatrics. 1984 Dec;74(6):1131-3.Texto completo  Resumen

169. Rerkasem A, Orrapin S, Howard DP, et al. Carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Sep 12;9:CD001081.Texto completo  Resumen

170. Brott TG, Hobson RW 2nd, Howard G, et al; CREST Investigators. Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 1;363(1):11-23.Texto completo  Resumen

171. Brott TG, Howard G, Roubin GS, et al; CREST Investigators. Long-term results of stenting versus endarterectomy for carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 17;374(11):1021-31.Texto completo  Resumen

172. Messé SR, Gronseth GS, Kent DM, et al. Practice advisory update summary: patent foramen ovale and secondary stroke prevention: report of the guideline subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2020 May 19;94(20):876-85.Texto completo  Resumen

173. Kuijpers T, Spencer FA, Siemieniuk RA, et al. Patent foramen ovale closure, antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation therapy alone for management of cryptogenic stroke? A clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 Jul 25;362:k2515.Texto completo  Resumen

174. Ahmed N, Steiner T, Caso V, et al; ESO-KSU session participants. Recommendations from the ESO-Karolinska Stroke Update Conference, Stockholm 13-15 November 2016. Eur Stroke J. 2017 Jun;2(2):95-102.Texto completo

175. Ahmad Y, Howard JP, Arnold A, et al. Patent foramen ovale closure vs. medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur Heart J. 2018 May 7;39(18):1638-49.Texto completo  Resumen

176. Lattanzi S, Brigo F, Cagnetti C, et al. Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack: to close or not to close? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018;45(5-6):193-203.Texto completo  Resumen

177. Ntaios G, Papavasileiou V, Sagris D, et al. Closure of patent foramen ovale versus medical therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2018 Feb;49(2):412-8.Texto completo  Resumen

178. Vidale S, Russo F, Campana C, et al. Patent foramen ovale closure versus medical therapy in cryptogenic strokes and transient ischemic attacks: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Angiology. 2019 Apr;70(4):325-31. Resumen

179. Mir H, Siemieniuk RA, Ge L, et al. Patent foramen ovale closure, antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation in patients with patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke: a systematic review and network meta-analysis incorporating complementary external evidence. BMJ Open. 2018 Jul 25;8(7):e023761.Texto completo  Resumen

180. Ferro JM, Bousser MG, Canhão P, et al. European Stroke Organization guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis - endorsed by the European Academy of Neurology. Eur J Neurol. 2017 Oct;24(10):1203-13.Texto completo  Resumen

181. Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-143.Texto completo  Resumen

182. Amarenco P, Kim JS, Labreuche J, et al. A Comparison of two LDL cholesterol targets after ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jan 2;382(1):9.Texto completo  Resumen

183. Chu DK, Kim LH, Young PJ, et al. Mortality and morbidity in acutely ill adults treated with liberal versus conservative oxygen therapy (IOTA): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2018 Apr 28;391(10131):1693-705. Resumen

184. Siemieniuk RAC, Chu DK, Kim LH, et al. Oxygen therapy for acutely ill medical patients: a clinical practice guideline. BMJ. 2018 Oct 24;363:k4169.Texto completo  Resumen

185. Rønning OM, Guldvog B. Should stroke victims routinely receive supplemental oxygen? A quasi-randomized controlled trial. Stroke. 1999 Oct;30(10):2033-7.Texto completo  Resumen

186. Soar J, Böttiger BW, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:115-51.Texto completo  Resumen

187. Colquhoun MC, Handley AJ, Evans TR, eds. ABC of resuscitation. 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2004.

188. Chrimes N, Higgs A, Hagberg CA, et al. Preventing unrecognised oesophageal intubation: a consensus guideline from the Project for Universal Management of Airways and international airway societies. Anaesthesia. 2022 Aug 17 [Epub ahead of print].Texto completo  Resumen

189. Ahmed N, Näsman P, Wahlgren NG. Effect of intravenous nimodipine on blood pressure and outcome after acute stroke. Stroke. 2000 Jun;31(6):1250-5.Texto completo  Resumen

190. Anderson CS, Huang Y, Lindley RI, et al; ENCHANTED Investigators and Coordinators. Intensive blood pressure reduction with intravenous thrombolysis therapy for acute ischaemic stroke (ENCHANTED): an international, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2019 Mar 2;393(10174):877-88. Resumen

191. Sandset EC, Anderson CS, Bath PM, et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines on blood pressure management in acute ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage. Eur Stroke J. 2021 Jun;6(2):XLVIII-LXXXIX.Texto completo  Resumen

192. Johnston KC, Bruno A, Pauls Q, et al; Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials Network and the SHINE Trial Investigators. Intensive vs standard treatment of hyperglycemia and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke: the SHINE randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Jul 23;322(4):326-35.Texto completo  Resumen

193. Fuentes B, Ntaios G, Putaala J, et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines on glycaemia management in acute stroke. Eur Stroke J. 2018 Mar;3(1):5-21.Texto completo  Resumen

194. Saxena M, Young P, Pilcher D, et al. Early temperature and mortality in critically ill patients with acute neurological diseases: trauma and stroke differ from infection. Intensive Care Med. 2015 May;41(5):823-32.Texto completo  Resumen

195. Krieger DW, Yenari MA. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute ischemic stroke: what do laboratory studies teach us? Stroke. 2004 Jun;35(6):1482-9.Texto completo  Resumen

196. Den Hertog HM, van der Worp HB, Tseng MC, et al. Cooling therapy for acute stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD001247.Texto completo  Resumen

197. Ntaios G, Dziedzic T, Michel P, et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines for the management of temperature in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Int J Stroke. 2015 Aug;10(6):941-9.Texto completo  Resumen

198. Langhorne P, Ramachandra S, Stroke Unit Trialists' Collaboration. Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke: network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Apr 23;(4):CD000197.Texto completo  Resumen

199. Adeoye O, Nyström KV, Yavagal DR, et al. Recommendations for the establishment of stroke systems of care: a 2019 update. Stroke. 2019 Jul;50(7):e187-210.Texto completo  Resumen

200. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Stroke rehabilitation in adults. Jun 2013 [internet publication].Texto completo

201. Martino R, Foley N, Bhogal S, et al. Dysphagia after stroke: incidence, diagnosis, and pulmonary complications. Stroke. 2005 Dec;36(12):2756-63.Texto completo  Resumen

202. Mann G, Hankey GJ, Cameron D. Swallowing function after stroke: prognosis and prognostic factors at 6 months. Stroke. 1999 Apr;30(4):744-8.Texto completo  Resumen

203. Wijdicks EF, Scott JP. Pulmonary embolism associated with acute stroke. Mayo Clin Proc. 1997 Apr;72(4):297-300. Resumen

204. Dennis M, Caso V, Kappelle LJ, et al; European Stroke Organisation. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines for prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in immobile patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Eur Stroke J. 2016 Mar;1(1):6-19.Texto completo  Resumen

205. Dennis M, Sandercock P, Reid J, et al; CLOTS (Clots in Legs Or sTockings after Stroke) Trials Collaboration. Effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression in reduction of risk of deep vein thrombosis in patients who have had a stroke (CLOTS 3): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013 Aug 10;382(9891):516-24.Texto completo  Resumen

206. AVERT Trial Collaboration group. Efficacy and safety of very early mobilisation within 24 h of stroke onset (AVERT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Jul 4;386(9988):46-55.Texto completo  Resumen

207. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 Jun;47(6):e98-169.Texto completo  Resumen

208. Pedersen PM, Vinter K, Olsen TS. Aphasia after stroke: type, severity and prognosis. The Copenhagen aphasia study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2004;17(1):35-43.Texto completo  Resumen

209. Brady MC, Kelly H, Godwin J, et al. Speech and language therapy for aphasia following stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jun 1;(6):CD000425.Texto completo  Resumen

210. Barclay RE, Stevenson TJ, Poluha W, et al. Mental practice for treating upper extremity deficits in individuals with hemiparesis after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 25;5:CD005950.Texto completo  Resumen

211. Laver KE, Lange B, George S, et al. Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 20;(11):CD008349.Texto completo  Resumen

212. Tomida K, Sonoda S, Hirano S, et al. Randomized controlled trial of gait training using Gait Exercise Assist Robot (GEAR) in stroke patients with hemiplegia. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2019 Sep;28(9):2421-8. Resumen

213. Rothwell PM, Algra A, Chen Z, et al. Effects of aspirin on risk and severity of early recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke: time-course analysis of randomised trials. Lancet. 2016 Jul 23;388(10042):365-75.Texto completo  Resumen

214. Thomalla G, Simonsen CZ, Boutitie F, et al; WAKE-UP Investigators. MRI-guided thrombolysis for stroke with unknown time of onset. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 16;379(7):611-22.Texto completo  Resumen

215. Thomalla G, Boutitie F, Ma H, et al. Intravenous alteplase for stroke with unknown time of onset guided by advanced imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet. 2020 Nov 14;396(10262):1574-84. Resumen

216. Cheng JW, Zhang XJ, Cheng LS, et al. Low-dose tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018 Feb;27(2):381-90. Resumen

217. Wang X, You S, Sato S, et al. Current status of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator dosage for acute ischaemic stroke: an updated systematic review. Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2018 Mar;3(1):28-33.Texto completo  Resumen

218. Wang Y, Liu M, Pu C. 2014 Chinese guidelines for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. Int J Stroke. 2017 Apr;12(3):302-20. Resumen

219. Xu J, Wang A, Meng X, et al. Edaravone dexborneol versus edaravone alone for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, comparative trial. Stroke. 2021 Mar;52(3):772-80.Texto completo  Resumen

220. Alexander-Curtis M, Pauls R, Chao J, et al. Human tissue kallikrein in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2019;12:1756286418821918.Texto completo  Resumen

221. Bundy DT, Souders L, Baranyai K, et al. Contralesional brain-computer interface control of a powered exoskeleton for motor recovery in chronic stroke survivors. Stroke. 2017 Jul;48(7):1908-15.Texto completo  Resumen

222. Kamal AK, Naqvi I, Husain MR, et al. Cilostazol versus aspirin for secondary prevention of vascular events after stroke of arterial origin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD008076.Texto completo  Resumen

223. Huang HP, Lin WH, Chen SG, et al. Comparative efficacy and safety of nine anti-platelet therapies for patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a mixed treatment comparisons. Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Mar;54(2):1456-66. Resumen

224. Toyoda K, Uchiyama S, Yamaguchi T, et al; CSPS.com Trial Investigators. Dual antiplatelet therapy using cilostazol for secondary prevention in patients with high-risk ischaemic stroke in Japan: a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2019 Jun;18(6):539-48. Resumen

225. GBD 2019 Stroke Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet Neurol. 2021 Oct;20(10):795-820.Texto completo  Resumen

226. Cooray C, Mazya M, Bottai M, et al. External validation of the ASTRAL and DRAGON scores for prediction of functional outcome in stroke. Stroke. 2016 Jun;47(6):1493-9.Texto completo  Resumen

227. Ferrarello F, Baccini M, Rinaldi LA, et al. Efficacy of physiotherapy interventions late after stroke: a meta-analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011 Feb;82(2):136-43. Resumen

228. Starkstein SE, Mizrahi R, Power BD. Antidepressant therapy in post-stroke depression. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 Jun;9(8):1291-8. Resumen

229. Wang JZ, Vyas MV, Saposnik G, et al. Incidence and management of seizures after ischemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurology. 2017 Sep 19;89(12):1220-8. Resumen

230. Jensen MB, St Louis EK. Management of acute cerebellar stroke. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):537-44.Texto completo  Resumen

231. Vahedi K, Hofmeijer J, Juettler E, et al. Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet Neurol. 2007 Mar;6(3):215-22. Resumen

232. Alawneh JA, Hutchinson PA, Warburton E. Stroke management: decompressive hemicraniectomy. Systematic review 0201. BMJ Clin Evid. 2015;2015:0201.Texto completo

233. Hinkle JL, Becker KJ, Kim JS, et al. Poststroke fatigue: emerging evidence and approaches to management: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Stroke. 2017 Jul;48(7):e159-e170.Texto completo  Resumen

234. Becker K, Kohen R, Lee R, et al. Poststroke fatigue: hints to a biological mechanism. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015 Mar;24(3):618-21. Resumen

235. Wu S, Kutlubaev MA, Chun HY, et al. Interventions for post-stroke fatigue. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 2;(7):CD007030.Texto completo  Resumen

236. Choi-Kwon S, Kim JS. Poststroke fatigue: an emerging, critical issue in stroke medicine. Int J Stroke. 2011 Aug;6(4):328-36. Resumen

237. Hickey A, Merriman NA, Bruen C, et al. Psychological interventions for managing cognitive impairment after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Aug 22;2019(8):CD013406.Texto completo

238. Mellon L, Brewer L, Hall P, et al. Cognitive impairment six months after ischaemic stroke: a profile from the ASPIRE-S study. BMC Neurol. 2015 Mar 12;15:31.Texto completo  Resumen

239. Sexton E, McLoughlin A, Williams DJ, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of cognitive impairment no dementia in the first year post-stroke. Eur Stroke J. 2019 Jun;4(2):160-71.Texto completo  Resumen

240. Jokinen H, Melkas S, Ylikoski R, et al. Post-stroke cognitive impairment is common even after successful clinical recovery. Eur J Neurol. 2015 Sep;22(9):1288-94. Resumen

241. Arba F, Quinn T, Hankey GJ, et al. Determinants of post-stroke cognitive impairment: analysis from VISTA. Acta Neurol Scand. 2017 Jun;135(6):603-7. Resumen

242. Quinn TJ, Richard E, Teuschl Y, et al. European Stroke Organisation and European Academy of Neurology joint guidelines on post-stroke cognitive impairment. Eur J Neurol. 2021 Dec;28(12):3883-3920.Texto completo  Resumen

243. Gage BF, Yan Y, Milligan PE, et al. Clinical classification schemes for predicting hemorrhage: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation (NRAF). Am Heart J. 2006 Mar;151(3):713-9. Resumen

244. Zonneveld TP, Richard E, Vergouwen MD, et al. Blood pressure-lowering treatment for preventing recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jul 19;(7):CD007858.Texto completo  Resumen

245. Kleindorfer DO, Towfighi A, Chaturvedi S, et al. 2021 guideline for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2021 Jul;52(7):e364-e467.Texto completo  Resumen

246. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2018 Jun;71(6):1269-324.Texto completo  Resumen

247. Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl for hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jan 3;380(1):11-22.Texto completo  Resumen

248. Zheng S, Yao B. Impact of risk factors for recurrence after the first ischemic stroke in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Neurosci. 2019 Feb;60:24-30. Resumen

El uso de este contenido está sujeto a nuestra cláusula de exención de responsabilidad