Gender dysphoria in adults

References

Key articles

Coleman E, Bockting W, Botzer M, et al. Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people, v7. Int J Transgend. 2012;13(4):165-232.Full text

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2022.Full text

World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases and health related problems (ICD). 11th revision. Jan 2022 [Internet publication].Full text

Richards C, Barrett J. Trans and Non-binary Gender Healthcare for Psychiatrists, Psychologists, and Other Health Professionals. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2020.

Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren L, et al. Endocrine treatment of gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Nov 1;102(11):3869-903. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Coleman E, Bockting W, Botzer M, et al. Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people, v7. Int J Transgend. 2012;13(4):165-232.Full text

2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2022.Full text

3. World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases and health related problems (ICD). 11th revision. Jan 2022 [Internet publication].Full text

4. Drummond KD, Bradley SJ, Peterson-Badali M, et al. A follow-up study of girls with gender identity disorder. Dev Psychol. 2008 Jan;44(1):34-45. Abstract

5. Wallien MS, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008 Dec;47(12):1413-23. Abstract

6. Singh D, Bradley SJ, Zucker KJ. A Follow-up study of boys with gender identity disorder. Front Psychiatry. 2021;12:632784.Full text  Abstract

7. Swaab DF, Chung WC, Kruijver FP, et al. Sex differences in the human hypothalamus in the different stages of human life. Neurobiol Aging. 2003 May-Jun;24(suppl 1):S1-16. Abstract

8. American Psychiatric Association. Assessment and treatment of gender dysphoria and gender variant patients. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

9. Diamond M, Watson LA. Androgen insensitivity syndrome and Kleinfelter's syndrome: sex and gender considerations. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2004 Jul;13(3):623-40. Abstract

10. Cohen-Kettenis PT, van Goozen SH, Doorn C, et al. Cognitive ability and cerebral lateralization in transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1998 Aug;23(6):631-41. Abstract

11. Green R, Keverne EB. The disparate maternal aunt-uncle ratio in male transexuals: an explanation involving genomic imprinting. J Theor Biol. 2000 Jan 7;202(1):55-63. Abstract

12. Van Der Miesen AI, Hurley H, De Vries AL. Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: a narrative review. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2016;28(1):70-80.Full text  Abstract

13. Glidden D, Bouman WP, Jones BA, et al. Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Sex Med Rev. 2016 Jan;4(1):3-14. Abstract

14. Pasterski V, Gilligan L, Curtis R. Traits of autism spectrum disorders in adults with gender dysphoria. Arch Sex Behav. 2014 Feb;43(2):387-93. Abstract

15. Richards C, Barrett J. Trans and Non-binary Gender Healthcare for Psychiatrists, Psychologists, and Other Health Professionals. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2020.

16. Le Vay S. The sexual brain. Boston, MA: MIT Press;1993.

17. Rametti G, Carrillo B, Gómez-Gil E et al. The microstructure of white matter in male to female transsexuals before cross-sex hormonal treatment. A DTI study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011 Jul;45(7):949-54. Abstract

18. Peterson RE, Imparato-McGinley J, Gautier T, et al. Male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid 5 alpha reductase deficiency. Am J Med. 1977 Feb;62(2):170-91. Abstract

19. Meyer-Bahlburg HF. Hormones and psychosexual differentiation: implications for the management of intersexuality, homosexuality and transsexuality. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 Nov;11(3):681-701. Abstract

20. Dittmann RW, Kappes MH, Kappes ME, et al. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia II: gender-related behavior and attitudes in female salt-wasting and simple virilizing patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1990;15(5-6):421-34. Abstract

21. Dittmann RW, Kappes MH, Kappes ME, et al. Gender related behavior and attitudes in female patients and sisters. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1990;15(5-6):401-20. Abstract

22. Hembree WC, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Gooren L, et al. Endocrine treatment of gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Nov 1;102(11):3869-903. Abstract

23. Rosendale N, Goldman S, Ortiz GM, et al. Acute Clinical Care for Transgender Patients: A Review. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Nov 1;178(11):1535-43. Abstract

24. Haupt C, Henke M, Kutschmar A, et al. Antiandrogen or estradiol treatment or both during hormone therapy in transitioning transgender women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Nov 28;11:CD013138. Abstract

25. Barrett J. Transsexualism and other disorders of gender identity: a practical guide to management. Abingdon, UK: Radcliffe Medical Publishing; 2007.

26. Traish AM, Gooren LJ. Safety of physiological testosterone therapy in women: lessons from female-to-male transsexuals (FMT) treated with pharmacological testosterone therapy. J Sex Med. 2010 Nov;7(11):3758-64. Abstract

27. American Psychological Association. Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people. Am Psychol. 2015 Dec;70(9):832-64.Full text  Abstract

28. de Blok CJ, Wiepjes CM, van Velzen DM, et al. Mortality trends over five decades in adult transgender people receiving hormone treatment: a report from the Amsterdam cohort of gender dysphoria. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2021 Oct;9(10):663-70. Abstract

29. Van Kesteren PJ, Asscheman H, Megens JA, et al. Mortality and morbidity in transsexual subjects treated with cross-sex hormones. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1997 Sep;47(3):337-42. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer