Anemia of chronic disease

References

Key articles

Roy CN. Anemia of inflammation. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010;2010:276-80.Full text  Abstract

Kautz L, Jung G, Nemeth E, et al. Erythroferrone contributes to recovery from anemia of inflammation. Blood. 2014 Oct 16;124(16):2569-74.Full text  Abstract

Kautz L, Jung G, Valore EV, et al. Identification of erythroferrone as an erythroid regulator of iron metabolism. Nat Genet. 2014 Jul;46(7):678-84.Full text  Abstract

Bohlius J, Bohlke K, Castelli R, et al. Management of cancer-associated anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: ASCO/ASH clinical practice guideline update. Blood Adv. 2019 Apr 23;3(8):1197-1210.Full text  Abstract

Aapro M, Beguin Y, Bokemeyer C, et al. Management of anaemia and iron deficiency in patients with cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Oncol. 2018 Oct 1;29(suppl 4):iv271.Full text  Abstract

Jelkmann W. Developments in the therapeutic use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents. Br J Haematol. 2008 May;141(3):287-97. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Roy CN. Anemia of inflammation. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010;2010:276-80.Full text  Abstract

2. Papadaki HA, Kritikos HD, Valatas V, et al. Anemia of chronic disease in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with increased apoptosis of bone marrow erythroid cells: improvement following anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody therapy. Blood. 2002 Jul 15;100(2):474-82.Full text  Abstract

3. Niepel D, Klag T, Malek NP, et al. Practical guidance for the management of iron deficiency in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2018;11:1756284818769074.Full text  Abstract

4. Dignass AU, Gasche C, Bettenworth D, et al. European consensus on the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency and anaemia in inflammatory bowel diseases. J Crohns Colitis. 2015 Mar;9(3):211-22.Full text  Abstract

5. Opasich C, Cazzola M, Scelsi L, et al. Blunted erythropoietin production and defective iron supply for erythropoiesis as major causes of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2005 Nov;26(21):2232-7.Full text  Abstract

6. Markoulaki D, Kostikas K, Papatheodorou G, et al. Hemoglobin, erythropoietin and systemic inflammation in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur J Intern Med. 2011 Feb;22(1):103-7.Full text  Abstract

7. Boutou AK, Pitsiou GG, Stanopoulos I, et al. Levels of inflammatory mediators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with anemia of chronic disease: a case-control study. QJM. 2012 Jul;105(7):657-63.Full text  Abstract

8. Guralnik JM, Eisenstaedt RS, Ferrucci L, et al. Prevalence of anemia in persons 65 years and older in the United States: Evidence for a high rate of unexplained anemia. Blood. 2004 Oct 15;104(8):2263-8.Full text  Abstract

9. Peeters HR, Jongen-Lavrencic M, Raja AN, et al. Course and characteristics of anaemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of recent onset. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996 Mar;55(3):162-8.Full text  Abstract

10. Van Iperen CE, van de Wiel A, Marx JJ. Acute event-related anaemia. Br J Haematol. 2001 Dec;115(4):739-43. Abstract

11. Walsh TS, Saleh EE, Lee RJ, et al. The prevalence and characteristics of anaemia at discharge home after intensive care. Intensive Care Med. 2006 Aug;32(8):1206-13. Abstract

12. Wong P, Intragumtornchai T. Hospital-acquired anemia. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Jan;89(1):63-7. Abstract

13. Weiss G, Goodnough LT. Anemia of chronic disease. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):1011-23. Abstract

14. Moldawer LL, Marano MA, Wei H, et al. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor-alpha alters red blood cell kinetics and induces anemia in vivo. FASEB J. 1989 Mar;3(5):1637-43. Abstract

15. Price EA, Schrier SL. Unexplained aspects of anemia of inflammation. Adv Hematol. 2010;2010:508739.Full text  Abstract

16. Spivak J. Iron and the anemia of chronic disease. Oncology (Williston Park). 2002 Sep;16(9 suppl 10):25-33. Abstract

17. Roy CN, Andrews NC. Anemia of inflammation: the hepcidin link. Curr Opin Hematol. 2005 Mar;12(2):107-11. Abstract

18. Lee P, Peng H, Gelbart T, et al. Regulation of hepcidin transcription by interleukin-1 and interleukin-6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 8;102(6):1906-10.Full text  Abstract

19. Torti FM, Torti SV. Regulation of ferritin genes and protein. Blood. 2002 May 15;99(10):3505-16.Full text  Abstract

20. Ludwiczek S, Aigner E, Theurl I, et al. Cytokine-mediated regulation of iron transport in human monocytic cells. Blood. 2003 May 15;101(10):4148-54.Full text  Abstract

21. Nemeth E, Rivera S, Gabayan V, et al. IL-6 mediates hypoferremia of inflammation by inducing the synthesis of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. J Clin Invest. 2004 May;113(9):1271-6.Full text  Abstract

22. Kautz L, Jung G, Nemeth E, et al. Erythroferrone contributes to recovery from anemia of inflammation. Blood. 2014 Oct 16;124(16):2569-74.Full text  Abstract

23. Kautz L, Jung G, Valore EV, et al. Identification of erythroferrone as an erythroid regulator of iron metabolism. Nat Genet. 2014 Jul;46(7):678-84.Full text  Abstract

24. Taniguchi S, Dai CH, Price JO, et al. Interferon gamma downregulates stem cell factor and erythropoietin receptors but not insulin-like growth factor-I receptors in human erythroid colony-forming cells. Blood. 1997 Sep 15;90(6):2244-52.Full text  Abstract

25. Ganz T. Anemia of inflammation. N Engl J Med. 2019 Sep 19;381(12):1148-57. Abstract

26. Weiss G, Ganz T, Goodnough LT. Anemia of inflammation. Blood. 2019 Jan 3;133(1):40-50.Full text  Abstract

27. Smith DL. Anemia in the elderly. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Oct 1;62(7):1565-72.Full text  Abstract

28. Ludwig H, Fritz E, Kotzmann H, et al. Erythropoietin treatment of anemia associated with multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jun 14;322(24):1693-9.Full text  Abstract

29. Steensma DP, Tefferi A. Anemia in the elderly: how should we define it, when does it matter, and what can be done? Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Aug;82(8):958-66. Abstract

30. Tefferi A. Anemia in adults: a contemporary approach to diagnosis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Oct;78(10):1274-80. Abstract

31. Elli L, Norsa L, Zullo A, et al. Diagnosis of chronic anaemia in gastrointestinal disorders: a guideline by the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO) and the Italian Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP). Dig Liver Dis. 2019 Apr;51(4):471-83. Abstract

32. Beutler E, Hoffbrand A, Cook JD. Iron deficiency and overload. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2003;40-61.Full text  Abstract

33. Skikne BS, Punnonen K, Caldron PH, et al. Improved differential diagnosis of anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia: a prospective multicenter evaluation of soluble transferrin receptor and the sTfR/log ferritin index. Am J Hematol. 2011 Nov;86(11):923-7.Full text  Abstract

34. Punnonen K, Irjala K, Rajamaki A. Serum transferrin receptor and its ratio to serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Blood. 1997 Feb 1;89(3):1052-7.Full text  Abstract

35. Madu AJ, Ughasoro MD. Anaemia of chronic disease: an in-depth review. Med Princ Pract. 2017;26(1):1-9.Full text  Abstract

36. Nardone DA, Roth KM, Mazur DJ, et al. Usefulness of physical examination in detecting the presence or absence of anemia. Arch Intern Med. 1990 Jan;150(1):201-4. Abstract

37. Gjorup T, Bugge PM, Hendriksen C, et al. A critical evaluation of the clinical diagnosis of anemia. Am J Epidemiol. 1986 Oct;124(4):657-65. Abstract

38. Hung OL, Kwon NS, Cole AE, et al. Evaluation of the physician's ability to recognize the presence or absence of anemia, fever, and jaundice. Acad Emerg Med. 2000 Feb;7(2):146-56.Full text  Abstract

39. Sheth TN, Choudhry NK, Bowes M, et al. The relation of conjunctival pallor to the presence of anemia. J Gen Intern Med. 1997 Feb;12(2):102-6.Full text  Abstract

40. Spivak JL. Recombinant human erythropoietin and the anemia of cancer. Blood. 1994 Aug 15;84(4):997-1004. Abstract

41. Pincus T, Olsen NJ, Russell IJ, et al. Multicenter study of recombinant human erythropoietin in correction of anemia in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med. 1990 Aug;89(2):161-8. Abstract

42. Henry DH, Beall GN, Benson CA, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of anemia associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and zidovudine therapy. Overview of four clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Nov 1;117(9):739-48. Abstract

43. Ludwig H, Fritz E, Leitgeb C, et al. Prediction of response to erythropoietin treatment in chronic anemia of cancer. Blood. 1994 Aug 15;84(4):1056-63. Abstract

44. Osterborg A, Brandberg Y, Molostova V, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant human erythropoietin, epoetin Beta, in hematologic malignancies. J Clin Oncol. 2002 May 15;20(10):2486-94. Abstract

45. Dignass A, Farrag K, Stein J. Limitations of serum ferritin in diagnosing iron deficiency in inflammatory conditions. Int J Chronic Dis. 2018;2018:9394060.Full text  Abstract

46. KDIGO Anemia Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for anemia in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012;2(4):279-335.Full text

47. Moreland LW, Baumgartner SW, Schiff MH, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor receptor (p75)-Fc fusion protein. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 17;337(3):141-7.Full text  Abstract

48. Corrado A, Di Bello V, d'Onofrio F, et al. Anti-TNF-α effects on anemia in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2017 Sep;30(3):302-7.Full text  Abstract

49. O'Lone EL, Hodson EM, Nistor I, et al. Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;2(2):CD007857.Full text  Abstract

50. Weinberg ED. Iron loading and disease surveillance. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 May-Jun;5(3):346-52.Full text  Abstract

51. Bohlius J, Bohlke K, Castelli R, et al. Management of cancer-associated anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: ASCO/ASH clinical practice guideline update. Blood Adv. 2019 Apr 23;3(8):1197-1210.Full text  Abstract

52. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Erythropoiesis‑stimulating agents (epoetin and darbepoetin) for treating anaemia in people with cancer having chemotherapy. November 2014 [internet publication].Full text

53. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Overview of systematic review and economic evaluation of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anemia of cancer or of chemotherapy. April 2009 [internet publication].Full text

54. Bokemeyer C, Aapro MS, Courdi A, et al. EORTC guidelines for the use of erythropoietic proteins in anaemic patients with cancer: 2006 update. Eur J Cancer. 2007 Jan;43(2):258-70. Abstract

55. Crathorne L, Huxley N, Haasova M, et al. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (epoetin and darbepoetin) for treating cancer treatment-induced anaemia (including review of technology appraisal no. 142): a systematic review and economic model. Health Technol Assess. 2016 Feb;20(13):1-588. Abstract

56. Zarychanski R, Houston DS. Anemia of chronic disease: a harmful disorder or an adaptive, beneficial response? CMAJ. 2008 Aug 12;179(4):333-7.Full text  Abstract

57. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: hematopoietic growth factors [internet publication].Full text

58. Qaseem A, Humphrey LL, Fitterman N, et al. Treatment of anemia in patients with heart disease: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Dec 3;159(11):770-9.Full text  Abstract

59. Singh AK, Szczech L, Tang KL, et al. Correction of anemia with epoetin alfa in chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 16;355(20):2085-98.Full text  Abstract

60. Blau CA. Erythropoietin in cancer: presumption of innocence? Stem Cells. 2007 Aug;25(8):2094-7.Full text  Abstract

61. Glaspy J, Crawford J, Vansteenkiste J, et al. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in oncology: a study-level meta-analysis of survival and other safety outcomes. Br J Cancer. 2010 Jan 19;102(2):301-15.Full text  Abstract

62. Ludwig H, Crawford J, Osterborg A, et al. Pooled analysis of individual patient-level data from all randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of darbepoetin alfa in the treatment of patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jun 10;27(17):2838-47.Full text  Abstract

63. Mhaskar R, Wao H, Miladinovic B, et al. The role of iron in the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia in cancer patients receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Feb 4;(2):CD009624.Full text  Abstract

64. Hayat A. Safety issues with intravenous iron products in the management of anemia in chronic kidney disease. Clin Med Res. 2008 Dec;6(3-4):93-102.Full text  Abstract

65. Rozen-Zvi B, Gafter-Gvili A, Paul M, et al. Intravenous versus oral iron supplementation for the treatment of anemia in CKD: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 Nov;52(5):897-906. Abstract

66. Littlewood TJ, Alikhan R. The use of intravenous iron in patients with cancer-related anaemia. Br J Haematol. 2008 Jun;141(6):751-6. Abstract

67. Auerbach M, Ballard H. Clinical use of intravenous iron: administration, efficacy, and safety. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2010;2010:338-47.Full text  Abstract

68. Auerbach M, Adamson JW. How we diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia. Am J Hematol. 2016 Jan;91(1):31-8.Full text  Abstract

69. Aapro M, Beguin Y, Bokemeyer C, et al. Management of anaemia and iron deficiency in patients with cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Oncol. 2018 Oct 1;29(suppl 4):iv271.Full text  Abstract

70. Canadian Erythropoietin Study Group. Association between recombinant human erythropoietin and quality of life and exercise capacity of patients receiving haemodialysis. BMJ. 1990 Mar 3;300(6724):573-8.Full text  Abstract

71. Cody JD, Hodson EM. Recombinant human erythropoietin versus placebo or no treatment for the anaemia of chronic kidney disease in people not requiring dialysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jan 20;(1):CD003266.Full text  Abstract

72. National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 May;47(5 suppl 3):S11-145.Full text  Abstract

73. Leyland-Jones B, Bondarenko I, Nemsadze G, et al. A randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase III study of epoetin alfa versus best standard of care in anemic patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving standard chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 10;34(11):1197-207. Abstract

74. Ludwig H, Aapro M, Bokemeyer C, et al. Treatment patterns and outcomes in the management of anaemia in cancer patients in Europe: findings from the Anaemia Cancer Treatment (ACT) study. Eur J Cancer. 2009 Jun;45(9):1603-15.Full text  Abstract

75. Jelkmann W. Developments in the therapeutic use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents. Br J Haematol. 2008 May;141(3):287-97. Abstract

76. Phrommintikul A, Haas SJ, Elsik M, et al. Mortality and target haemoglobin concentrations in anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease treated with erythropoietin: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007 Feb 3;369(9559):381-8. Abstract

77. Wish JB, Coyne DW. Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease: overcoming the pharmacological and pharmacoeconomic limitations of existing therapies. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Nov;82(11):1371-80. Abstract

78. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Fabian TC, et al. Efficacy and safety of epoetin alfa in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 6;357(10):965-76.Full text  Abstract

79. Hebert PC, Fergusson DA. Can erythropoietin eradicate red cell transfusions in the critically ill? Crit Care Med. 2006 Sep;34(9):2490-1. Abstract

80. Katsarou A, Pantopoulos K. Hepcidin therapeutics. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2018 Nov 21;11(4):127.Full text  Abstract

81. Schmid H, Schiffl H, Lederer SR. New strategies for managing anemia of chronic kidney disease. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2012 Dec;10(4):339-51. Abstract

82. Kamioner D. Erythropoietin biosimilars currently available in hematology-oncology. Target Oncol. 2012 Mar;7(suppl 1):S25-8. Abstract

83. Locatelli F, Del Vecchio L. An expert opinion on the current treatment of anemia in patients with kidney disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Mar;13(4):495-503. Abstract

84. Debeljak N, Sytkowski AJ. Erythropoietin and erythropoiesis stimulating agents. Drug Test Anal. 2012 Nov;4(11):805-12. Abstract

85. Gertz B, Kes P, Essaian A, et al. Epoetin theta: efficacy and safety of subcutaneous administration in anemic pre-dialysis patients in the maintenance phase in comparison to epoetin beta. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012 Jul;28(7):1101-10.Full text  Abstract

86. Saglimbene VM, Palmer SC, Ruospo M, et al. Continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator (CERA) for the anaemia of chronic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 7;(8):CD009904.Full text  Abstract

87. Hahn D, Esezobor CI, Elserafy N, et al. Short-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for anaemia in predialysis patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 9;(1):CD011690.Full text  Abstract

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89. Perlstein TS, Pande R, Berliner N, et al. Prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in subgroups of elderly persons with anemia: association with anemia of inflammation. Blood. 2011 Mar 10;117(10):2800-6. Abstract

90. Kumar VA, Kujubu DA, Sim JJ, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and recombinant human erythropoietin utilization in vitamin D-deficient hemodialysis patients. J Nephrol. 2011 Jan-Feb;24(1):98-105. Abstract

91. Song SN, Tomosugi N, Kawabata H, et al. Down-regulation of hepcidin resulting from long-term treatment with an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab) improves anemia of inflammation in multicentric Castleman disease. Blood. 2010 Nov 4;116(18):3627-34. Abstract

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