Acute cervical spine trauma

References

Key articles

Thompson WL, Stiell IG, Clement CM, et al; Canadian C-Spine Rule Study Group. Association of injury mechanism with the risk of cervical spine fractures. CJEM. 2009 Jan;11(1):14-22.Full text  Abstract

Sturzenegger M, DiStefano G, Radanov BP, et al. Presenting symptoms and signs after whiplash injury: the influence of accident mechanisms. Neurology. 1994 Apr;44(4):688-93. Abstract

Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen KL, et al. The Canadian C-spine rule for radiography in alert and stable trauma patients. JAMA. 2001 Oct 17;286(15):1841-8.Full text  Abstract

Hoffman JR, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, et al; National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 13;343(2):94-9.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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11. Thompson WL, Stiell IG, Clement CM, et al; Canadian C-Spine Rule Study Group. Association of injury mechanism with the risk of cervical spine fractures. CJEM. 2009 Jan;11(1):14-22.Full text  Abstract

12. Siegmund GP, Winkelstein BA, Ivancic PC, et al. The anatomy and biomechanics of acute and chronic whiplash injury. Traffic Inj Prev. 2009 Apr;10(2):101-12. Abstract

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15. Sturzenegger M, DiStefano G, Radanov BP, et al. Presenting symptoms and signs after whiplash injury: the influence of accident mechanisms. Neurology. 1994 Apr;44(4):688-93. Abstract

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19. American College of Surgeons. Advanced trauma life support. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

20. Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen KL, et al. The Canadian C-spine rule for radiography in alert and stable trauma patients. JAMA. 2001 Oct 17;286(15):1841-8.Full text  Abstract

21. Diliberti T, Lindsey RW. Evaluation of the cervical spine in the emergency setting: who does not need an X-ray? Orthopedics. 1992 Feb;15(2):179-83. Abstract

22. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Trauma. Quality statement 4: Assessment for cervical spine injury. March 2018 [internet publication].Full text

23. Hoffman JR, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, et al; National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 13;343(2):94-9.Full text  Abstract

24. Slaar A, Fockens MM, Wang J, et al. Triage tools for detecting cervical spine injury in pediatric trauma patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 7;12:CD011686.Full text  Abstract

25. Panczykowski DM, Tomycz ND, Okonkwo DO, et al. Comparative effectiveness of using computed tomography alone to exclude cervical spine injuries in obtunded or intubated patients: meta-analysis of 14,327 patients with blunt trauma. J Neurosurg. 2011 Sep;115(3):541-9. Abstract

26. Sim V, Bernstein MP, Frangos SG, et al. The (f)utility of flexion-extension C-spine films in the setting of trauma. Am J Surg. 2013 Dec;206(6):929-33; discussion 933-4.Full text  Abstract

27. Duane TM, Scarcella N, Cross J, et al. Do flexion extension plain films facilitate treatment after trauma? Am Surg. 2010 Dec;76(12):1351-4. Abstract

28. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria: suspected spine trauma. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

29. Zhuge W, Ben-Galim P, Hipp JA, et al. Efficacy of MRI for assessment of spinal trauma: correlation with intraoperative findings. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2015 May;28(4):147-51.Full text  Abstract

30. Fehlings MG, Martin AR, Tetreault LA, et al. A clinical practice guideline for the management of patients with acute spinal cord injury: recommendations on the role of baseline magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making and outcome prediction. Global Spine J. 2017 Sep;7(3 suppl):221S-230S.Full text  Abstract

31. Payabvash S, McKinney AM, McKinney ZJ, et al. Screening and detection of blunt vertebral artery injury in patients with upper cervical fractures: the role of cervical CT and CT angiography. Eur J Radiol. 2014 Mar;83(3):571-7.Full text  Abstract

32. Cothren CC, Moore EE, Biffl WL, et al. Cervical spine fracture patterns predictive of blunt vertebral artery injury. J Trauma. 2003 Nov;55(5):811-3.Full text  Abstract

33. Vertinsky AT, Schwartz NE, Fischbein NJ, et al. Comparison of multidetector CT angiography and MR imaging of cervical artery dissection. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008 Oct;29(9):1753-60.Full text  Abstract

34. Biffl WL, Ray CE Jr, Moore EE, et al. Noninvasive diagnosis of blunt cerebrovascular injuries: a preliminary report. J Trauma. 2002 Nov;53(5):850-6.Full text  Abstract

35. Wang AC, Charters MA, Thawani JP, et al. Evaluating the use and utility of noninvasive angiography in diagnosing traumatic blunt cerebrovascular injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Jun;72(6):1601-10.Full text  Abstract

36. Patel MB, Humble SS, Cullinane DC, et al. Cervical spine collar clearance in the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient: a systematic review and practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Feb;78(2):430-41.Full text  Abstract

37. Ditunno JF, Little JW, Tessler A, et al. Spinal shock revisited: a four-phase model. Spinal Cord. 2004 Jul;42(7):383-95. Abstract

38. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Spinal injury: assessment and initial management. February 2016 [internet publication].Full text

39. Hadley MN, Walters BC. Introduction to the guidelines for the management of acute cervical spine and spinal cord injuries. Neurosurgery. 2013 Mar;72 Suppl 2:5-16.Full text  Abstract

40. Como JJ, Diaz JJ, Dunham CM, et al. Practice management guidelines for identification of cervical spine injuries following trauma: update from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Practice Management Guidelines Committee. J Trauma. 2009 Sep;67(3):651-9.Full text  Abstract

41. Swartz EE, Boden BP, Courson RW, et al. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete. J Athl Train. 2009 May-Jun;44(3):306-3.Full text  Abstract

42. Ahn H, Singh J, Nathens A, et al. Pre-hospital care management of a potential spinal cord injured patient: a systematic review of the literature and evidence-based guidelines. J Neurotrauma. 2011 Aug;28(8):1341-61. Abstract

43. American Spinal Injury Association. International Standards for Neurological Classification of SCI (ISNCSCI) exam worksheet. 2015 [internet publication].Full text

44. Bracken MB. Steroids for acute spinal cord injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Apr 22;(1):CD001046. Abstract

45. Fehlings MG, Wilson JR, Tetreault LA, et al. A clinical practice guideline for the management of patients with acute spinal cord injury: recommendations on the use of methylprednisolone sodium succinate. Global Spine J. 2017 Sep;7(3 suppl):203S-211S.Full text  Abstract

46. Frampton AE, Eynon CA. High dose methylprednisolone in the immediate management of acute, blunt spinal cord injury: what is the current practice in emergency departments, spinal units, and neurosurgical units in the UK? Emerg Med J. 2006 Jul;23(7):550-3.Full text  Abstract

47. Fehlings MG, Tetreault LA, Wilson JR, et al. A clinical practice guideline for the management of patients with acute spinal cord injury and central cord syndrome: recommendations on the timing (≤24 hours versus >24 hours) of decompressive surgery. Global Spine J. 2017 Sep;7(3 suppl):195S-202S.Full text  Abstract

48. Caron T, Bransford R, Nguyen Q, et al. Spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spinal disorders. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 May 15;35(11):E458-64. Abstract

49. Schneider RC, Cherry G, Pantek H. The syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury; with special reference to the mechanisms involved in hyperextension injuries of cervical spine. J Neurosurg. 1954 Nov;11(6):546-77. Abstract

50. Lenehan B, Fisher CG, Vaccaro A. The urgency of surgical decompression in acute central cord injuries with spondylosis and without instability. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Oct 1;35(21 Suppl):S180-6. Abstract

51. Fehlings MG, Arun R, Vaccaro AR, et al. Predictors of treatment outcomes in geriatric patients with odontoid fractures: AOSpine North America multi-centre prospective GOF study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 May 15;38(11):881-6.Full text  Abstract

52. Lamb SE, Gates S, Williams MA, et al; Managing Injuries of the Neck Trial (MINT) Study Team. Emergency department treatments and physiotherapy for acute whiplash: a pragmatic, two-step, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2013 Feb 16;381(9866):546-56. Abstract

53. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Head injury: assessment and early management. September 2019 [internet publication].Full text

54. Nolet PS, Côté P, Cassidy JD, et al. The association between a lifetime history of a neck injury in a motor vehicle collision and future neck pain: a population-based cohort study. Eur Spine J. 2010 Jun;19(6):972-81.Full text  Abstract

55. Tomlinson PJ, Gargan MF, Bannister GC. The fluctuation in recovery following whiplash injury 7.5-year prospective review. Injury. 2005 Jun;36(6):758-61. Abstract

56. Daenen L, Nijs J, Raadsen B, et al. Cervical motor dysfunction and its predictive value for long-term recovery in patients with acute whiplash-associated disorders: a systematic review. J Rehabil Med. 2013 Feb;45(2):113-22.Full text  Abstract

57. Karnezis IA, Drosos GI, Kazakos KI. Factors affecting the timing of recovery from whiplash neck injuries: study of a cohort of 134 patients pursuing litigation. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2007 Oct;127(8):633-6. Abstract

58. Sterling M, Jull G, Vicenzino B, et al. Sensory hypersensitivity occurs soon after whiplash injury and is associated with poor recovery. Pain. 2003 Aug;104(3):509-17. Abstract

59. Kasch H, Qerama E, Kongsted A, et al. Deep muscle pain, tender points and recovery in acute whiplash patients: a 1-year follow-up study. Pain. 2008 Nov 15;140(1):65-73. Abstract

60. Michaleff ZA, Maher CG, Lin CW, et al. Comprehensive physiotherapy exercise programme or advice for chronic whiplash (PROMISE): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014 Jul 12;384(9938):133-41. Abstract

61. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: chronic neck pain. 2013 [internet publication].Full text

62. Manchikanti L, Abdi S, Atluri S, et al. An update of comprehensive evidence-based guidelines for interventional techniques in chronic spinal pain. Part II: guidance and recommendations. Pain Physician. 2013 Apr;16(2 Suppl):S49-283.Full text  Abstract

63. Engelter ST, Grond-Ginsbach C, Metso TM, et al; Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients Study Group. Cervical artery dissection: trauma and other potential mechanical trigger events. Neurology. 2013 May 21;80(21):1950-7. Abstract

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