Leptospirosis

References

Key articles

Levett P. Leptospirosis. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2006:2495-500.

Vijayachari P, Sugunan AP, Shriram AN. Leptospirosis: an emerging global, public health problem. J Biosci. 2008 Nov;33(4):557-69. Abstract

World Health Organization. Human leptospirosis: guidance for diagnosis, surveillance and control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.Full text

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) 2013 case definition. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Levett P. Leptospirosis. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2006:2495-500.

2. Vijayachari P, Sugunan AP, Shriram AN. Leptospirosis: an emerging global, public health problem. J Biosci. 2008 Nov;33(4):557-69. Abstract

3. Bharti AR, Nally JE, Ricaldi JN, et al; Peru-United States Leptospirosis Consortium. Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Dec;3(12):757-71. Abstract

4. Faine S. Leptospira and leptospirosis. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994.

5. World Health Organization. Human leptospirosis: guidance for diagnosis, surveillance and control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003.Full text

6. Pavli A, Maltezou H. Travel-acquired leptospirosis. J Travel Med. 2008 Nov;15(6):447-53.Full text  Abstract

7. Desai S, Van Treeck U, Lierz M, et al. Resurgence of field fever in a temperate country: an epidemic of leptospirosis among seasonal strawberry harvesters in Germany in 2007. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 15;48(6):691-7.Full text  Abstract

8. Mattias MA, Ricaldi JN, Cespedes M, et al. Human leptospirosis caused by a new, antigenically unique Leptospira associated with a Rattus species reservoir in the Peruvian Amazon. PloS Negl Trop Dis. 2008 Apr 2;2(4):e213.Full text  Abstract

9. Kshirsagar PP, Sonavane AD, Doshi AC, et al. Atypical presentation of leptospirosis. J Assoc Physicians India. 2010 Feb;58:114-5.Full text  Abstract

10. Gainder S, Singla R, Dhaliwal L, et al. Leptospirosis as a cause of intrauterine fetal demise: short report of rare presentation. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010 Jun;281(6):1061-3. Abstract

11. Shaked Y, Shpilberg O, Samra D, et al. Leptospirosis in pregnancy and its effect on the fetus: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Aug;17(2):241-3. Abstract

12. Gaspari R, Annetta MG, Cavaliere F, et al. Unusual presentation of leptospirosis in the late stage of pregnancy. Minerva Anestesiol. 2007 Jul-Aug;73(7-8):429-32.Full text  Abstract

13. Kumar A, Majumdar B, Goru B, et al. A case of complete heart block in a patient with HIV and leptospirosis. Kardiol Pol. 2010 May;68(5):562-3. Abstract

14. Md-Lasim A, Mohd-Taib FS, Abdul-Halim M, et al. Leptospirosis and coinfection: should we be concerned? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Sep 6;18(17):9411.Full text  Abstract

15. Dhanashree B, Shenoy S. Seropositivity for dengue and Leptospira IgM among patients with acute febrile illness: an indicator of co-infection? Germs. 2021 Jun;11(2):155-62.Full text  Abstract

16. Wilairatana P, Mala W, Rattaprasert P, et al. Prevalence of malaria and leptospirosis co-infection among febrile patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 3;6(3):122.Full text  Abstract

17. Mehta V, Bhasi A, Panda PK, et al. A coinfection of severe leptospirosis and scrub typhus in Indian Himalayas. J Family Med Prim Care. 2019 Oct;8(10):3416-8.Full text  Abstract

18. Biggs HM, Galloway RL, Bui DM, et al. Leptospirosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection among febrile inpatients in northern Tanzania. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013 Aug;13(8):572-80.Full text  Abstract

19. Baliga KV, Uday Y, Sood V, et al. Acute febrile hepato-renal dysfunction in the tropics: co-infection of malaria and leptospirosis. J Infect Chemother. 2011 Oct;17(5):694-7. Abstract

20. Pérez Rodríguez NM, Galloway R, Blau DM, et al. Case series of fatal Leptospira spp./dengue virus co-infections - Puerto Rico, 2010-2012. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Oct;91(4):760-5.Full text  Abstract

21. Costa F, Hagan JE, Calcagno J, et al. Global morbidity and mortality of leptospirosis: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(9):e0003898.Full text  Abstract

22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthcare workers: technical information for leptospirosis. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

23. Torgerson PR, Hagan JE, Costa F, et al. Global burden of leptospirosis: estimated in terms of disability adjusted life years. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(10):e0004122.Full text  Abstract

24. Munoz-Zanzi C, Groene E, Morawski BM, et al. A systematic literature review of leptospirosis outbreaks worldwide, 1970-2012. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2020;44:e78.Full text  Abstract

25. Lau CL, Smythe LD, Craig SB, et al. Climate change, flooding, urbanisation and leptospirosis: fuelling the fire? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Oct;104(10):631-8. Abstract

26. Chadsuthi S, Chalvet-Monfray K, Wiratsudakul A, et al. The effects of flooding and weather conditions on leptospirosis transmission in Thailand. Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 15;11(1):1486.Full text  Abstract

27. Barragan V, Olivas S, Keim P, et al. Critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of environmental cycling and transmission of Leptospira spp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Oct 1;83(19):e01190-17.Full text  Abstract

28. Stern EJ, Galloway R, Shadomy SV, et al. Outbreak of leptospirosis among Adventure Race participants in Florida, 2005. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Mar 15;50(6):843-9.Full text  Abstract

29. Morgan J, Bornstein SL, Karpati AM, et al. Outbreak of leptospirosis among triathlon participants in community residents in Springfield, Illinois, 1998. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15;34(12):1593-9.Full text  Abstract

30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Outbreak of leptospirosis among white-water rafters - Costa Rica, 1996. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1997 Jun 27;46(25):577-9.Full text  Abstract

31. Sejvar J, Bancroft E, Winthrop K, et al; Eco-Challenge Investigation Team. Leptospirosis in "Eco-Challenge" athletes, Malaysian Borneo, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Jun;9(6):702-7.Full text  Abstract

32. Lau C, Smythe L, Weinstein P. Leptospirosis: an emerging disease in travellers Travel Med Infect Dis. 2010 Jan;8(1):33-9. Abstract

33. Ansdell VE. Leptospirosis. In: John EC, Mc Mullen R. The travel and tropical medicine manual. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2003:335-44.

34. Levett PN. Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Apr;14(2):296-326.Full text  Abstract

35. Yusti D, Arboleda M, Agudelo-Flórez P. Social and environmental risk factors associated with leptospirosis of inpatient and outpatient management, Turbo, Colombia [in Spanish]. Biomedica. 2013 Sep;33 Suppl 1:117-29. Abstract

36. Mwachui MA, Crump L, Hartskeerl R, et al. Environmental and behavioural determinants of leptospirosis transmission: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(9):e0003843.Full text  Abstract

37. Skufca J, Arima Y. Sex, gender and emerging infectious disease surveillance: a leptospirosis case study. Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2012 Jul;3(3):37-9.Full text  Abstract

38. Vincent AT, Schiettekatte O, Goarant C, et al. Revisiting the taxonomy and evolution of pathogenicity of the genus Leptospira through the prism of genomics. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 May;13(5):e0007270.Full text  Abstract

39. Phraisuwan P, Whitney EA, Tharmaphornpilas P, et al. Leptospirosis: skin wounds and control strategies, Thailand, 1999. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Dec;8(12):1455-9.Full text  Abstract

40. Andre-Fontaine G, Aviat F, Thorin C. Waterborne leptospirosis: survival and preservation of the virulence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in fresh water. Curr Microbiol. 2015 Jul;71(1):136-42. Abstract

41. Yang CW, Hung CC, Wu MS, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates early inflammation by leptospiral outer membrane proteins in proximal tubule cells. Kidney Int. 2006 Mar;69(5):815-22.Full text  Abstract

42. Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque CF, Burth P, Silva AR, et al. Leptospira and inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2012;2012:317950.Full text  Abstract

43. Esteves LM, Bulhões SM, Branco CC, et al. Human leptospirosis: seroreactivity and genetic susceptibility in the population of São Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e108534.Full text  Abstract

44. Limothai U, Lumlertgul N, Sirivongrangson P, et al. The role of leptospiremia and specific immune response in severe leptospirosis. Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 16;11(1):14630.Full text  Abstract

45. Grosset-Janin A, Nicolas X, Saraux A. Sport and infectious risk: a systematic review of the literature over 20 years. Med Mal Infect. 2012 Nov;42(11):533-44. Abstract

46. Cobelens FG, van Deutekom H, Draayer-Jansen IW, et al. Association of tuberculin sensitivity in Dutch adults with history of travel to areas of with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Aug 1;33(3):300-4.Full text  Abstract

47. Alikhani A, Salehifar E, Zameni F, et al. Comparison of azithromycin vs doxycycline prophylaxis in leptospirosis, a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2018 Nov 30;12(11):991-5.Full text  Abstract

48. Illangasekera VL, Kularatne SA, Kumarasiri PV, et al. Is oral penicillin an effective chemoprophylaxis against leptospirosis? A placebo controlled field study in the Kandy District, Sri Lanka. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008 Sep;39(5):882-4. Abstract

49. Wang Z, Jin L, Wegrzyn A. Leptospirosis vaccines. Microb Cell Fact. 2007 Dec 11;6:39.Full text  Abstract

50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health information for international travel (Yellow Book): leptospirosis. Jun 2019 [internet publication].Full text

51. Lam JY, Low GK, Chee HY. Diagnostic accuracy of genetic markers and nucleic acid techniques for the detection of Leptospira in clinical samples: a meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Feb;14(2):e0008074.Full text  Abstract

52. Koirala KD, Chappuis F, Verdonck K, et al. Persistent febrile illnesses in Nepal: a systematic review. Indian J Med Res. 2018 Oct;148(4):385-95.Full text  Abstract

53. De Brito T, Aiello VD, da Silva LF, et al. Human hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: pathological findings and pathophysiological correlations. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 12;8(8):e71743.Full text  Abstract

54. Selvarajah S, Ran S, Roberts NW, et al. Leptospirosis in pregnancy: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep;15(9):e0009747.Full text  Abstract

55. Puliyath G, Singh S. Leptospirosis in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;31(10):2491-6. Abstract

56. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leptospirosis: fact sheet for clinicians. Jan 2018 [internet publication].Full text

57. Faine S. Guidelines for the control of leptospirosis. (Offset publication No. 67.) Geneva: World Health Organization; 1982.Full text

58. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) 2013 case definition. Apr 2021 [internet publication].Full text

59. Levett PN, Branch SL, Whittington CU, et al. Two methods for rapid serological diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2001 Mar;8(2):349-51.Full text  Abstract

60. Signorini ML, Lottersberger J, Tarabla HD, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to diagnose human leptospirosis: a meta-analysis of the published literature. Epidemiol Infect. 2013 Jan;141(1):22-32.Full text  Abstract

61. Panwala T, Rajdev S, Mulla S. To evaluate the different rapid screening tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis. J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Feb;9(2):DC21-4.Full text  Abstract

62. Agampodi SB, Matthias MA, Moreno AC, et al. Utility of quantitative polymerase chain reaction in leptospirosis diagnosis: association of level of leptospiremia and clinical manifestations in Sri Lanka. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May;54(9):1249-55.Full text  Abstract

63. Maze MJ, Sharples KJ, Allan KJ, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of leptospirosis whole-cell lateral flow assays: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 Apr;25(4):437-44.Full text  Abstract

64. Senavirathna I, Rathish D, Agampodi S. Cytokine response in human leptospirosis with different clinical outcomes: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 7;20(1):268.Full text  Abstract

65. Kyriakidis I, Samara P, Papa A. Serum TNF-α, sTNFR1, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels in Weil's syndrome. Cytokine. 2011 May;54(2):117-20. Abstract

66. Chawalparit O, Charoensak A, Niwattayakul K, et al. Radiographic chest findings and clinical correlations in leptospirosis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007 May;90(5):918-24. Abstract

67. Dursun B, Bostan F, Artac M, et al. Severe pulmonary haemorrhage accompanying hepatorenal failure in fulminant leptospirosis. Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Jan;61(1):164-7. Abstract

68. Dolhnikoff M, Mauad T, Bethlem EP, et al. Pathology and pathophysiology of pulmonary manifestations in leptospirosis. Braz J Infect Dis. 2007 Feb;11(1):142-8.Full text  Abstract

69. Dolhnikoff M, Mauad T, Bethlem EP, et al. Leptospiral pneumonias. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2007 May;13(3):230-5. Abstract

70. Bruce MG, Sanders EJ, Leake JA, et al. Leptospirosis among patients presenting with dengue-like illness in Puerto Rico. Acta Trop. 2005 Oct;96(1):36-46. Abstract

71. Johnston V, Stockley JM, Dockrell D, et al; British Infection Society and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases. Fever in returned travellers presenting in the United Kingdom: recommendations for investigation and initial management. J Infect. 2009 Jul;59(1):1-18.Full text  Abstract

72. Taylor AJ, Paris DH, Newton PN. A systematic review of the mortality from untreated leptospirosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9(6):e0003866.Full text  Abstract

73. Griffith ME, Hospenthal DR, Murray CK. Antimicrobial therapy of leptospirosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Dec;19(6):533-7. Abstract

74. Tullu MK, Karande S. Leptospirosis in children: a review for family physicians. Indian J Med Sci. 2009 Aug;63(8):368-78. Abstract

75. Guerrier G, D'Ortenzio E. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in leptospirosis: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59266.Full text  Abstract

76. Guerrier G, Lefèvre P, Chouvin C, et al. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction among patients with leptospirosis: incidence and risk factors. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Apr;96(4):791-4.Full text  Abstract

77. Suputtamongkol Y, Niwattayakul K, Suttinont C, et al. An open, randomized, controlled trial of penicillin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime for patients with severe leptospirosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Nov 15;39(10):1417-24.Full text  Abstract

78. Panaphut T, Domrongkitchaiporn S, Vibhaqool A, et al. Ceftriaxone compared with sodium penicillin g for treatment of severe leptospirosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Jun 15;36(12):1507-13.Full text  Abstract

79. Sheony VV, Nagar VS, Chowdhury AA, et al. Pulmonary leptospirosis: an excellent response to bolus methylprednisolone. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Sep;82(971):602-6. Abstract

80. Rodrigo C, Lakshitha de Silva N, Goonaratne R, et al. High dose corticosteroids in severe leptospirosis: a systematic review. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Dec;108(12):743-50. Abstract

81. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Brief report: Leptospirosis after flooding of a university campus - Hawaii, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Feb 10;55(5):125-7.Full text  Abstract

82. Lindow JC, Wunder EA Jr, Popper SJ, et al. Cathelicidin insufficiency in patients with fatal leptospirosis. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Nov;12(11):e1005943.Full text  Abstract

83. Oliveira PN, Courrol DS, Chura-Chambi RM, et al. Inactivation of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 by pathogenic Leptospira. Microb Pathog. 2021 Jan;150:104704. Abstract

84. Fonseka CL, Lekamwasam S. Role of plasmapheresis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the treatment of leptospirosis complicated with pulmonary hemorrhages. J Trop Med. 2018 Dec 2;2018:4520185.Full text  Abstract

85. Doudier B, Garcia S, Quennee V, et al. Prognostic factors associated with severe leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006 Apr;12(4):299-300.Full text  Abstract

86. Panaphut T, Domrongkitchaiporn S, Thinkamrop B. Prognostic factors of death in leptospirosis: a prospective cohort study in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Int J Infect Dis. 2002 Mar;6(1):52-9.Full text  Abstract

87. Abela-Ridder B, Sikkema R, Hartskeerl RA. Estimating the burden of human leptospirosis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010 Nov;36 Suppl 1:S5-7. Abstract

88. Abgueguen P, Delbos V, Blanvillain J, et al. Clinical aspects and prognostic factors of leptospirosis in adults. Retrospective study in France. J Infect. 2008 Sep;57(3):171-8. Abstract

89. Carrillo-Larco RM, Altez-Fernandez C, Acevedo-Rodriguez JG, et al. Leptospirosis as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of observational studies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 May;13(5):e0007458.Full text  Abstract

90. Spichler A, Spichler E, Moock M, et al. Acute pancreatitis in fatal anicteric leptospirosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 May;76(5):886-7. Abstract

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