Evaluation of falls in the elderly

References

Key articles

Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. Falls and their prevention in elderly people: what does the evidence show? Med Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;90(5):807-24. Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fact sheet: risk factors for falls. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Hartikainen S, Lonnroos E, Louhivuori K. Medication as a risk factor for falls: critical systematic review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007 Oct;62(10):1172-81. Abstract

Izza MAD, Lunt E, Gordon AL, et al. Polypharmacy, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants, but not antipsychotics, are associated with increased falls risk in UK care home residents: a prospective multi-centre study. Eur Geriatr Med. 2020 Dec;11(6):1043-50.Full text  Abstract

Woolcott JC, Richardson KJ, Wiens MO, et al. Meta-analysis of the impact of 9 medication classes on falls in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Nov 23;169(21):1952-60. [Erratum in Arch Intern Med. 2010 Mar 8;170(5):477.]Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Just KS, Dormann H, Schurig M, et al. The phenotype of adverse drug effects: do emergency visits due to adverse drug reactions look different in older people? Results from the ADRED study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Nov;86(11):2144-54.Full text  Abstract

2. Deandrea S. Risk factors for falls in community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):658-68. Abstract

3. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR. Falls and their prevention in elderly people: what does the evidence show? Med Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;90(5):807-24. Abstract

4. McInnes L, Gibbons E, Chandler-Oatts J. Clinical practice guideline for the assessment and prevention of falls in older people. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2005;2(1):33-6. Abstract

5. Ganz DA, Bao Y, Shekelle PG, et al. Will my patient fall? JAMA. 2007 Jan 3;297(1):77-86. Abstract

6. Chu LW, Chi I, Chiu AY. Incidence and predictors of falls in the Chinese elderly. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2005 Jan;34(1):60-72.Full text  Abstract

7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fact sheet: risk factors for falls. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

8. Bergland A, Jarnlo GB, Laake K. Predictors of falls in the elderly by location. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003 Feb;15(1):43-50. Abstract

9. Pfeiffer E. A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1975 Oct;23(10):433-41. Abstract

10. Coleman AL, Stone K, Ewing SK, et al. Higher risk of multiple falls among elderly women who lose visual acuity. Ophthalmology. 2004 May;111(5):857-62. Abstract

11. Hartikainen S, Lonnroos E, Louhivuori K. Medication as a risk factor for falls: critical systematic review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007 Oct;62(10):1172-81. Abstract

12. Taipale H, Hamina A, Karttunen N, et al. Incident opioid use and risk of hip fracture among persons with Alzheimer disease: a nationwide matched cohort study. Pain. 2019 Feb;160(2):417-23.Full text  Abstract

13. Izza MAD, Lunt E, Gordon AL, et al. Polypharmacy, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants, but not antipsychotics, are associated with increased falls risk in UK care home residents: a prospective multi-centre study. Eur Geriatr Med. 2020 Dec;11(6):1043-50.Full text  Abstract

14. Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist. 1969 Autumn;9(3):179-86. Abstract

15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Home and recreational safety: older adult falls. Feb 2017 [internet publication].Full text

16. US Preventive Services Task Force; Grossman DC, Curry SJ, Owens DK, et al. Interventions to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2018 Apr 24;319(16):1696-704.Full text  Abstract

17. Guirguis-Blake JM, Michael YL, Perdue LA, et al. Interventions to prevent falls in older adults: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2018 Apr 24;319(16):1705-16.Full text  Abstract

18. Bolland MJ, Grey A, Gamble GD, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and falls: a trial sequential meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Jul;2(7):573-80. Abstract

19. Bolland MJ, Grey A, Avenell A. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal health: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Nov;6(11):847-58. Abstract

20. Cameron ID, Dyer SM, Panagoda CE, et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people in care facilities and hospitals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Sep 7;9(9):CD005465.Full text  Abstract

21. Hopewell S, Adedire O, Copsey BJ, et al. Multifactorial and multiple component interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jul 23;(7):CD012221.Full text  Abstract

22. Sherrington C, Fairhall NJ, Wallbank GK, et al. Exercise for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 31;1(1):CD012424.Full text  Abstract

23. Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, et al. Effectiveness of a therapeutic Tai Ji Quan intervention vs a multimodal exercise intervention to prevent falls among older adults at high risk of falling: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Oct 1;178(10):1301-10.Full text  Abstract

24. Tricco AC, Thomas SM, Veroniki AA, et al. Comparisons of interventions for preventing falls in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017 Nov 7;318(17):1687-99. Abstract

25. Burns E, Kakara R. Deaths from falls among persons aged ≥65 years - United States, 2007-2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 May 11;67(18):509-14.Full text  Abstract

26. Muir SW, Berg K, Chesworth B, et al. Quantifying the magnitude of risk for balance impairment on falls in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;63(4):389-406. Abstract

27. Jahn K, Zwergal A, Schniepp R. Gait disturbances in old age: classification, diagnosis, and treatment from a neurological perspective. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2010 Apr;107(17):306-16.Full text  Abstract

28. Scheffer AC, Schuurmans MJ, van Dijk N, et al. Fear of falling: measurement strategy, prevalence, risk factors and consequences among older persons. Age Ageing. 2008 Jan;37(1):19-24.Full text  Abstract

29. Alarcón T, González-Montalvo JI, Otero Puime A. Assessing patients with fear of falling. Does the method use change the results? A systematic review [in Spanish]. Aten Primaria. 2009 May;41(5):262-8. Abstract

30. Haerlein J, Dassen T, Halfens RJ, et al. Fall risk factors in older people with dementia or cognitive impairment: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs. 2009 May;65(5):922-33. Abstract

31. Salvà A, Roqué M, Rojano X, et al. Falls and risk factors for falls in community-dwelling adults with dementia (NutriAlz Trial). Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Jan-Mar;26(1):74-80. Abstract

32. Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2018 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J. 2018 Jun 1;39(21):1883-948.Full text  Abstract

33. Shen WK, Sheldon RS, Benditt DG, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the evaluation and management of patients with syncope. Heart Rhythm. 2017;14:e155-217.Full text  Abstract

34. McCarthy F. What is the evidence for cardiovascular disorders as a risk factor for non-syncopal falls? Scope for future research. Eur Geriatr Med. 2010;1:244-51.

35. Sterke CS, Verhagen AP, van Beeck EF, et al. The influence of drug use on fall incidents among nursing home residents: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008 Oct;20(5):890-910. Abstract

36. Tinetti ME, Han L, Lee DS, et al. Antihypertensive medications and serious fall injuries in a nationally representative sample of older adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Apr;174(4):588-95. Abstract

37. Hegeman J, van den Bemt BJ, van Duysens J, et al. NSAIDs and the risk of accidental falls in the elderly: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2009;32(6):489-98. Abstract

38. Daoust R, Paquet J, Moore L, et al. Recent opioid use and fall-related injury among older patients with trauma. CMAJ. 2018 Apr 23;190(16):E500-6.Full text  Abstract

39. Woolcott JC, Richardson KJ, Wiens MO, et al. Meta-analysis of the impact of 9 medication classes on falls in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Nov 23;169(21):1952-60. [Erratum in Arch Intern Med. 2010 Mar 8;170(5):477.]Full text  Abstract

40. Anderson TS, Jing B, Auerbach A, et al. Clinical outcomes after intensifying antihypertensive medication regimens among older adults at hospital discharge. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Aug 19;179(11):1528-36.Full text  Abstract

41. Sim JJ, Zhou H, Bhandari S, et al. Low systolic blood pressure from treatment and association with serious falls/syncope. Am J Prev Med. 2018 Oct;55(4):488-96. Abstract

42. Sanders KM, Stuart AL, Williamson EJ, et al. Annual high-dose oral vitamin D and falls and fractures in older women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010 May 12;303(18):1815-22. [Erratum in: JAMA. 2010 Jun 16;303(23):2357.] Abstract

43. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Orav EJ, et al. Monthly high-dose vitamin D treatment for the prevention of functional decline: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):175-83.Full text  Abstract

44. Brignole M. Diagnosis and treatment of syncope. Heart. 2007 Jan;93(1):130-6. Abstract

45. Ohm C, Mina A, Howells G, et al. Effects of antiplatelet agents on outcomes for elderly patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2005 Mar;58(3):518-22. Abstract

46. Feldstein A, Elmer PJ, Orwoll E, et al. Bone mineral density measurement and treatment for osteoporosis in older individuals with fractures: a gap in evidence-based practice guideline implementation. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Oct 13;163(18):2165-72.Full text  Abstract

47. Parnes LS, Agrawal SK, Atlas J. Diagnosis and management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). CMAJ. 2003:169:681-93.Full text  Abstract

48. Thurman DJ, Stevens JA, Rao JK. Practice parameter: assessing patients in a neurology practice for risk of falls (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2008 Feb 5;70(6):473-9.Full text  Abstract

49. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975 Nov;12(3):189-98. Abstract

50. Joshi S, Morley J. Cognitive impairment. Med Clin North Am. 2006 Sep;90(5):769-87. Abstract

51. Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Apr;53(4):695-9. Abstract

52. Inouye SK, van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, et al. Clarifying confusion: the Confusion Assessment Method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Dec 15;113(12):941-8. Abstract

53. Vreeswijk R, Timmers JF, de Jonghe JFM, et al. Assessment scales for delirium. Aging Health. 2009;5:409-25.

54. Wei LA, Fearing MA, Sternberg EJ, et al. The Confusion Assessment Method: a systematic review of current usage. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 May;56(5):823-30.Full text  Abstract

55. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Transient ischemic attack information page. March 2019 [internet publication].Full text

56. Gibbons CH, Freeman R. Delayed orthostatic hypotension: a frequent cause of orthostatic intolerance. Neurology. 2006 Jul 11;67(1):28-32. Abstract

57. Moreland JD, Richardson JA, Goldsmith CH, et al. Muscle weakness and falls in older adults a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004 Jul;52(7):1121-9. Abstract

58. Berlie HD, Garwood CL. Diabetes medications related to an increased risk of falls and fall-related morbidity in the elderly. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Apr;44(4):712-7. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer