Key articles

Park W, Vaezi MF. Etiology and pathogenesis of achalasia: the current understanding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jun;100(6):1404-14. Abstract

Eckardt VF. Clinical presentations and complications of achalasia. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2001 Apr;11(2):281-92. Abstract

Kahrilas PJ, Bredenoord AJ, Fox M, et al. Expert consensus document: Advances in the management of oesophageal motility disorders in the era of high-resolution manometry: a focus on achalasia syndromes. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Nov;14(11):677-88.Full text  Abstract

Kahrilas PJ, Katzka D, Richter JE. Clinical practice update: the use of per-oral endoscopic myotomy in achalasia: expert review and best practice advice from the AGA Institute. Gastroenterology. 2017 Nov;153(5):1205-11. Abstract

Reference articles

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