Superior vena cava syndrome

References

Key articles

American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: upper extremity swelling. 2014. http://www.acr.org/ (last accessed 27 September 2017).Full text

Reference articles

1. Wilson LD, Detterbeck FC, Yahalom J. Clinical practice: superior vena cava syndrome with malignant causes. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 3;356(18):1862-9. Abstract

2. Kim HJ, Kim HS, Chung SH. CT diagnosis of superior vena cava syndrome: importance of collateral vessels. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;161:539-542.Full text  Abstract

3. Stanford W, Jolles H, Ell S, et al. Superior vena cava obstruction: a venographic classification. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;148:259-262.Full text  Abstract

4. Ahmann FR. A reassessment of the clinical implications of the superior vena caval syndrome. J Clin Oncol. 1984;2:961-969. Abstract

5. Chen JC, Bongard F, Klein SR. A contemporary perspective on superior vena cava syndrome. Am J Surg. 1990;160:207-211. Abstract

6. Rice TW, Rodriguez RM, Light RW. The superior vena cava syndrome: clinical characteristics and evolving etiology. Medicine (Baltimore). 2006;85:37-42. Abstract

7. Schechter MM. The superior vena cava syndrome. Am J Med Sci. 1954;227:46-56. Abstract

8. Armstrong BA, Perez CA, Simpson JR, et al. Role of irradiation in the management of superior vena cava syndrome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1987;13:531-539. Abstract

9. Yellin A, Rosen A, Reichert N, et al. Superior vena cava syndrome: the myth - the facts. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;141:1114-1118. Abstract

10. Parish JM, Marschke RF Jr, Dines DE, et al. Etiologic considerations in superior vena cava syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 1981;56:407-413. Abstract

11. Urban T, Lebeau B, Chastang C, et al. Superior vena cava syndrome in small-cell lung cancer. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:384-387. Abstract

12. Presswala RG, Hiranandani NL. Pleural effusion and superior vena cava canal syndrome in Hodgkin's disease. J Indian Med Assoc. 1965;45:502-503. Abstract

13. Schowengerdt CG, Suyemoto R, Main FB. Granulomatous and fibrous mediastinitis. A review and analysis of 180 cases. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1969;57:365-379. Abstract

14. Trigaux JP, Van Beers B. Thoracic collateral venous channels: normal and pathologic CT findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1990;14:769-773. Abstract

15. Gonzalez-Fajardo JA, Garcia-Yuste M, Florez S, et al. Hemodynamic and cerebral repercussions arising from surgical interruption of the superior vena cava: experimental model. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;107:1044-1049. Abstract

16. Schraufnagel DE, Hill R, Leech JA, et al. Superior vena caval obstruction: is it a medical emergency? Am J Med. 1981;70:1169-1174. Abstract

17. American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: upper extremity swelling. 2014. http://www.acr.org/ (last accessed 27 September 2017).Full text

18. Urruticoechea A, Mesia R, Dominguez J, et al. Treatment of malignant superior vena cava syndrome by endovascular stent insertion: experience on 52 patients with lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2004;43:209-214. Abstract

19. Schifferdecker B, Shaw JA, Piemonte TC, et al. Nonmalignant superior vena cava syndrome: pathophysiology and management. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2005;65:416-423. Abstract

20. Rowell NP, Gleeson FV. Steroids, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and stents for superior vena caval obstruction in carcinoma of the bronchus: a systematic review. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2002;14:338-351. Abstract

21. Detterbeck FC, Parsons AM. Thymic tumors. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77:1860-1869. Abstract

22. Gray BH, Olin JW, Graor RA, et al. Safety and efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for superior vena cava syndrome. Chest. 1991;99:54-59.Full text  Abstract

23. Smith CW, Messenger JC, Schaner SP, et al. Cardiac pacemaker electrodes: improved methods of extraction. Radiology. 1994;193:739-742. Abstract

24. Courtheoux P, Alkofer B, Al Refai M, et al. Stent placement in superior vena cava syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:158-161. Abstract

25. Kee ST, Kinoshita L, Razavi MK, et al. Superior vena cava syndrome: treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis and endovascular stent placement. Radiology. 1998;206:187-193. Abstract

26. Kearon C, Akl EA, Ornelas J, et al. Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest. 2016;149:315-352.Full text  Abstract

27. Martins SJ, Pereira JR. Clinical factors and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 1999;22:453-457. Abstract

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